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of 



of Toronto 



^rofessor John Satterly 
Department of ^hysics 
University of Toronto 



IUIDE TO DARTMOOR 



SOUTHERN AND WESTERN SECTION 
comprising : 

PRINCETOWN, TWO BRIDGES, 

Hexworthy & Post Bridge Districts, 

ASHBURTON, BRENT, IVYBRIDGE 

and Cornwood Districts, 

AND 

PLYMPTON, SH AUGH, YELVERTON 

and Dousland Districts. 



By 
W. CROSSING. 



A. WHEATON & Co., Ltd., 

Booksellers and Stationers, 
223 High Street, EXETER, and EXMOUTH, 



FOREWORD. 



Having purchased the remaining stock of Mr. Crossing's " GUIDE 
TO DARTMOOR," we have pleasure in offering the same to the lovers of 
Dartmoor in a more convenient form than previously issued, and it is 
hoped in the amended form it will prove much more practicable to the 
Rambler and the Tourist. 

This volume comprises Parts 1, 4 and 5, which covers the Southern 
and Western sections of the Moor. The Northern and Eastern portions, 
containing Parts 2 and 3, can be obtained in a uniform, volume which 
describes Tavistock, Lydford, Okehampton, Sticklepath, Chagford, 
Moreton, Lustleigh, Bovey Tracey, Cranmere Pool and Antiquities of 
the Moor, which are not to be found in other Guides. 

Visitors to the West will find our moorland country a source of 
interest and delight, and during their perambulations will no doubt be 
glad to become acquainted with other works relating to Glorious 
Devon. We therefore invite enquiries, which shall receive prompt and 
careful attention. 

A. WHEATON & Co., LTD. 
223 HIGH STREET, EXETER. 



GUIDE TO DARTMOOR: 

A Topographical Description 
of the Forest and Commons 



WILLIAM CROSSING, 

AUTHOR OF 

''he Ancient Stone Crosses of Dartmoor and Its Borderland, Amid Devonia's Alps 

Tales of the Dartmoor Pixies, Gems in a Granite Setting, A Hundred 

Years on Dartmoor, Folk Rhymes of Devon, 

From a Dartmoor Cot, &c. 




WITH MAPS AND SKETCHES. 

A NEW EDITION IN FIVE PARTS. 



PART I. 

Princetown, Two Bridges, Hexworthy, 
And 

Post Bridge Districts. 



"If you want sternness and loneliness you may pass into Dartmoor. There 
are wastes and wilds, crags of granite, views into far-off districts, and the sound 
of waters hurrying awav over their rocky beds, enough to satisfy the largest 
hungering and thirsting after poetical delight.' 1 

WILLIAM HOWITT: Knr.il Life <>( Kn^lmi.i 



JEieter: 

A. WHEATON & Co., Ltd., Booksellers and Stationers, 
223 High Street. 



OUT OF THE LAND OF GORSE AND HEATHER 

TO 

THE RIGHT WORSHIPFUL 

THB MAYOR AND MAYORESS OF PLYMOUTH, 
A. EDMUND SPENDER, B.A., 

AND 

HELEN FRANCES SPENDER, 
GREETING. 




871797. 



PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION. 



THE favourable reception accorded to the former editions of this Guide 
has rendered a further issue necessary. In this some considerable 
alterations in the arrangement have been made. While a description 
of Dartmoor in one volume had much to recommend it, the plan was 
also not without its disadvantages. The ground covered being 
extensive it was impossible to produce such a book as the author 
considered the subject demanded without its becoming rather bulky, 
and this was inconvenient from the tourist's point of view. It is now 
divided into five parts, but there has been no abridgement of matter. 
The few alterations in the text are chiefly of the nature of additions 
which were needed in order to bring the book up to date. 

The author is much gratified at knowing that the Guide has been 
found helpful by the tourist in the past, and ventures to believe that 
in its present form it will prove of still greater value in the future. 

BI.ACK DOWN, DARTMOOR, 
April, 1914. 



DARTMOOR GUIDE. 



EXETER 



POPLE'S 



NEW LONDON HOTEL 

(Visited by their Majesties The King and Queen, King Edward VII. 
and Queen Victoria.) 

Officially appointed by the "Royal Automobile Club," 
and the "Automobile Association." 



A charming i8th Century Hotel, with every modern comfort 
and luxury. Beautiful covered Courtyard as Lounge. Near the 
Cathedral and Railway Stations. Electric Light. Night Porter. 

SPLENDID MOTOR GARAGE 

Adjoining the Hotel, with Lock-up Private Boxes and 
Inspection Pits. 



Telegrams: " Fople, Exeter.' 



Telephone : 146, Exeter. 
R. POPLE, Proprietor. 



Houses 



Let 

Sold 

Built 

Repaired 

Painted 

Decorated. 



For anything to do 
with Houses or 
Building 
Land in 



Communicate 
with 



The 



& 



XV Howard, 

Contractor 



and House Agent 

ROCKVALE, YELVERTON. 'Phone ia 



PREFACE. 



DURING recent years the claims of Dartmoor as a holiday and health 
resort have become widely recognized. Those to whom an old world 
region is an attraction will find in it a field of surpassing interest. No 
district in England of similiar extent is so rich in pre- historic remains, 
and in none does Nature wear a wilder aspect. 

To this elevated tract of land no guide book, in the true sense of 
the term, has hitherto appeared. It has, of course, been noticed in 
county guides, and there are also topographical works and handbooks 
descriptive of it, but in the former the accounts are necessarily super- 
ficial, while in the latter the visitor is not given any directions for 
finding his way over those parts of the waste remote from roads. To 
enable him to learn what Dartmoor really is he needs something beyond 
notices of the more celebrated, because more readily accessible, places 
and objects of interest. He should be led from the beaten track, and 
wander among the hills where signs of man's occupancy are not, where 
silence broods over the sea of fen, and the pasture grounds of the 
cattle that range at will are as they were when the Norman herdsman 
drove his beasts there ; or he should stray into solitary combes 
encumbered with the ruined huts and fallen rock-pillars of the people 
who once made this wild land their home. As my acquaintance with 
Dartmoor is a life-long one, and as it has been with me a subject of 
study and of systematic investigation during many years, it is with 
some degree of confidence that I take upon myself the task of con- 
ducting the visitor over it, and leading him into its remoter parts. 

This book is the first to give a complete topographical description 
of Dartmoor, and the reader may depend upon its being correct. Its 
aim is to furnish the visitor with an account of all that is to be found 
on the moor worthy of note, and to acquaint him with the best means 
of reaching the various objects from any point. The districts into 
which the moor has been divided are described in the excursions, and 



viii. PREFACE. 

at the end of these are given routes to each of the other districts. By 
this arrangement the moor is crossed in every conceivable direction, 
so that it is not possible to find any part of it that is not noticed some- 
where in the book. For the sake of convenience the terms used in 
connection with the forest and commons are given, with their mean- 
ings, in glossarial form, some archaeological terms being also included. 

I desire to express my thanks to Mr. PHILIP GUY STEVENS, of 
Princetown, for the series of pen-and-ink sketches he has been at such 
pains to furnish, and which were executed on the spot. It is hoped 
they will be found useful as a means of helping the visitor to identify 
the principal tors and hills. 

If I gain the confidence of the rambler who uses this book my 
satisfaction will be complete. There is some reason for me to hope 
that I shall do so, as I venture to believe that he will discover ere we 
have gone far on our wanderings together that I am really and truly a 
Dartmoor man. 



CONTENTS. 
PART I. 

PACK 

'Situation and Extent of Dartmoor i 

Hints to the Dartmoor Rambler 3 

Road and Rail Distances to Princetown 10 

Road Distances to Hexworthy 82 

,, ,, Post Bridge 94 

Important Points round Princetown 10 

,, ,, Hexworthy 82 

,, Post Bridge Q4 

By Road and Rail to the Capital of the Moor 1 1 

North Hisworthy Tor 16 

Excursion i . From Princetown and Two Bridges 21 

2 30 

3 38 

4 43 

3 47 

6 57 

Crockern Tor 63 

Shorter Excursions from Princetown and Two Bridges, i to 14 . . 66 

Princetown to Dartmeet, Route 5 72 

,, Hexworthy, Route 5 73 

Post Bridge, Route 4 72 

(Return Routes, 42, 35 Part III). 

Hexworthy Hamlet 82 

Excursion 41. From Hexworthy 83 

Gorge of the Dart 84 

Excursion 42. From Hexworthy 88 

43 ., 9i 

Village of Post Bridge 94 

Excursion 44. From Post Bridge 96 

45 ,. 102 

,, 46 ,, ,, 105 



r. CONTENTS. PART I. 

PAGE 
Route i . Princetown and Two Bridges to Tavistock . . . . 68 

2 Lydford 68 

3 ,, ,, Okehampton 70 

,, 4 ,, Chagford 72 

,, 5 ,, ,, Bovey Tracey 72 

,, 6 ,. ,, Ashburton and Buckfastleigh .. 74 

,, 7 ,, ,, Brent and Ivybridge 75 

,,8 ,, Shaugh and Plympton . . . . 77 

Routes to Cranmere from Princetown and Two Bridges . . . . 79 

,, ,, Hexworthy and Post Bridge . . 93, 107 



MAPS. 

Sketch Map of the Moor . . . . . . . . facing page i 

Surroundings of Cranmere . . . . . . . . ,, 80 

ONE INCH MAPS. 

I, 2. Princetown District .. .. .. facing pages 22, 48 



The numbers of the Routes and Excursions as given in the first 
edition of the Guide are retained throughout. T. signifies Track ; 
Ex. or S. Ex., Excursion or Shorter Excursion ; R., Route ; and C. R., 
Cranmere Route. The entire length of each Excursion is given ; 
Route distances are given one way only. 



zii. DARTMOOR GUIDE. 



SIDMOUTH (Devon). 



The 

Fortfield Hotel. 

Greatly Enlarged. New Wings. 
Electric Light Throughout. Lifts to all Floors. 



C~)N E of the most comfortable Hotels on 
^ the South Coast. Unequalled posi- 
tion. Situated in its own charming 
Grounds. Full South and facing sea; 
having two full-sized Croquet Lawns. 
Handsomely furnished by Maple & Co. 
Complete with every luxury and con- 
venience. Near to Brine Baths and 
convenient to Golf Links. Sanitary 
arrangements perfect. Large and com- 
modious bedrooms. Handsome private 
Suites of Apartments, either on ground 
floor, first or second floors with Bath- 
rooms and Lavatories. Corridors carefully 
heated. Spacious Public Rooms. 
Billiards. High-class Cuisine. Selected 
Wines. Moderate and inclusive terms. 



Telephone -r -tt i- r> 

NO. 39. 1 anfr on application to r ropnetor. 



GUIDE TO DARTMOOR. 

IN FIVE PARTS. 



Part I. PRINCETOWN, Two BRIDGES, HEXWORTHY, AND POST BRIDGE 
DISTRICTS. 

Deals with the whole of the central part of the Moor, and 
contains notices of Crazy Well Pool, Siward's Cross, Childe's Tomb, 
the Merivale Antiquities, Mis Tor, Wistman's Wood, Dartmeet, etc. 

Excursions i to 6 ; 41 to 46. Shorter Exs. i to 14. Routes 
i to 8. Cranmere Routes i, 2, 15, 16, 17. 

Part II. TAVISTOCK, LYDFORD, OKEHAMPTON, AND STICKLEPATH 
DISTRICTS. 

Describes Northern Dartmoor, extending from Sampford 
Spiney on the West to Throwleigh on the East : Notices Brent 
Tor, Lydford Gorge, Hill Bridge, Tavy Cleave, Fur Tor, the 
Island of Rocks, Yes Tor, the Belstone Range, Cosdon, etc. 

Excursions 7 to 18. S. Exs. 15 to 47. Routes 9 to 30. 
C.R. 3 to ii. 

Part III. CHAGFORD, MORETON, IAJSTLEIGH, AND BOVEY TRACEY 
DISTRICTS. 

A Description of Eastern Dartmoor : This part contains a 
notice of Cranmere Pool, and among other places and objects 
included in the Excursions are the Scorhill and Kes Tor Antiquities, 
Teign Head, Fernworthy, Grim's Pound, Drewsteignton Dolmen, 
Fingle Bridge, Lustleigh Cleave, Hey Tor, etc. 

Excursions 19 to 25. S. Exs. 48 to 87. Routes 31 to 46. 
C. R. 12, 13, 14. 



ziv. DARTMOOR GUIDE. 

Part IV. ASHBURTON, BRENT, IVYBRIDGE, AND CORNWOOD 
DISTRICTS. 

The whole of Southern Dartmoor, so rich in antiquities and 
charming border scenery, is described in this part. Among other 
places noticed are Rippon Tor, Widecombe-in-the-Moor, the 
Buckland Woods, Holne Chase, Brent Moor, Shipley, the Valley 
of the Ernie, Stowford Cleave, Hawns and Dendles, etc. 

Excursions 26 to 34. S. Exs. 88 to 121. Routes 47 to 66. 
Prom the southern part of the moor the starting points of the 
Cranmere Routes are Princetown, Two Bridges, and Post Bridge, 
C.R. i, 2, 16, 17. These are given in Part I. 

Part V. PI.YMPTON, SHAUGH, YEI.VERTON, AND DOUSLAND 
DISTRICTS. 

Describes Western Dartmoor from Cornwood to the Walkham : 
Shaugh Bridge, the Dewer Stone, the Plym Valley, Meavy, Sheeps 
Tor, and the Burrator Lake. This part also contains a brief 
description of the old pack-horse tracks on the Moor, to which 
reference is frequently made in the book, as well as a Dictionary 
of Terms used in connection with the Forest and Commons. 

Excursions 35 to 40. Routes 67 to 76. For Cranmere Routes 
see Princetown, Two Bridges, and Post Bridge, C.R. i, 2, 1 6, 17, in 
Part I. 



Each Part contains directions for reacliing Cranmere Pool from 
the Districts described in it. 



Where reference is made to other of the Author's 
books the titles are thus abbreviated. 

1 A Hundred Years on Dartmoor" .. .. ,. 100 Years. 

'Gems in a Granite Setting " . . . . . . Gems. 

' The Ancient Stone Crosses of Dartmoor and Its 

Borderland" .. .. .. .. .. Crosses^ 

' Amid Devonia's Alps " .. .. .. .. Dev. Alps., 

' Tales of the Dartmoor Pixies" Pixies 



SKETCH MAP 




BOUND'ACIES OF DARTMOOR"** 



GUIDE TO DARTMOOR. 



Situation and Extent of Dartmoor. 

DARTMOOR is situated in South Devonshire, and towards the 
Western part of the county. At its nearest approach to the 
Tamar at Plaster Down, it is about five or six miles from that 
river, but it is not so many years since that commons stretched from 
it almost to the Morwell Rocks, and even now the breaks of cultivated 
land between the two are not extensive. Wigford Down is part of 
Dartmoor, and this is separated from Roborough Down only by the 
farms in the narrow valley of the Mew, while adjoining the last-named 
common is Buckland Down, which extends to the Tavy where it flows 
under Blackmoorham Wood. From that point to the Tamar at New- 
quay the distance, measured in a straight line, is not much over a mile, 
or to the Morwell Rocks about two miles, and far into the nineteenth 
century much of this intervening tract, now cultivated and planted, 
was open common'. The eastern verge of Dartmoor is about sixteen 
miles from Bxeter, but there are outlying commons, once no doubt 
forming part of it, that approach much nearer to that city. The 
district in which these are situated, and the moor itself, constitute the 
granite area of Devon. The part of the moor nearest to Plymouth is 
Crownhill Down, in the parish of Plympton St. Mary, the gate of 
which, near Bottle Hill Mine, is only seven miles from it. 

On the northern verge of Dartmoor is situated the town of Oke- 
hampton, the suburbs and the railway station being quite close to the 
commons. On the south is the large village of Ivybridge, which is 
rather over half-a-mile from the edge of the down below the Western 
Beacon. The distance between these two places, as shown on the 
recent Ordnance Map, is rather over twenty-three miles, the extreme 
length of the moor being a little less than this. Its breadth varies. 
At its widest part it is seventeen miles across ; this is from the edge of 
Black Down, near Brent Tor, to the border of Ilsington Common 
under Hey Tor, but its average breadth is about ten or twelve miles. 
It covers an area of about two hundred square miles, but this does not 
include the borderland, which is usually regarded as Dartmoor 
country, and in which are a number of outlying commons. Its highest 
hill attains an elevation of 2,039 feet, but its mean altitude is about 
1,400 feet. [100 Years, Intro. ; Crosses, Chap. I.] 

The principal market towns and holiday centres surrounding the 
moor are Okehampton, Belstone, Sticklepath, on the north ; Chagford, 
Moretonhampstead, L,ustleigh, and Bovey Tracey, on the east ; Ash- 
burton, Buckfastleigh, Brent, Ivybridge, and Plympton, on the south ; 
and Yelverton, Horrabridge, Tavistock, Mary Tavy, Brent Tor, 
I,ydford, and Bridestowe, on the west. 



2 NATURAL DIVISIONS OF DARTMOOR. 

Although the whole of the moorland region was in all probability 
once known as Dartmoor, or perhaps as the Dartmoors, the name has 
for several centuries been supposed to belong only to the ancient 
forest, which forms the central part of the great waste, and which is 
at some considerable distance from 'the towns and villages of the 
borderland. But for many years what seems to have been the earlier 
order of things has been reverted to, and the forest and the broad belt 
of commons surrounding this old-time royal hunting-ground, have 
together borne the name of Dartmoor, though many of the dwellers 
in the district do not recognize this general term. [100 Years, Chap. 
VII. I 

Each of these border commons belongs to a different parish, the 
name of which it usually bears. They are of the same general character 
as the forest, except that some parts of the latter are much more 
desolate, the depth of the peat greater, and the surface more uneven. 
The boundary between the forest and these purlieus is marked, with 
a few exceptions, by natural objects, and there is nothing to show 
the stranger when he passes from one to the other. The bounds of 
the commons are viewed at certain times, and copies of perambulations 
and surveys exist showing the bounds of the forest, which lies wholly 
within the parish of L,ydford. 

Dartmoor thus consists of an ancient forest and its purlieus, but 
jt is also naturally divided into five districts. 

I. The great central depression extending from near Prince- 
town to the West Webburn, below Hameldon, and 
comprising the lands of the early forest settlers lying 
near the East Dart, the West Dart, and the Walla 
Brook. 

This is noticed in the Excursions from Princetown, 
Post Bridge, and Hexworthy. 

II. That part of the moor to the north of this depression, 
and extending to Okehampton, but not including the 
Tavy Valley below the Cleave. 

Noticed in the Excursions from Princetown, Tavis- 
tock, I/ydford, Okehampton, Belstone, and Chagford, 
and in the routes to Cranmere. 

III. That part of the moor to the south of the . depression, 
and extending to Ivybridge. 

Noticed in the Excursions from Princetown, Hex- 
worthy, Brent, Ivybridge, Plympton, and Yelverton, 
IV. The Tavy Valley below the Cleave. 

Described in the Excursions from Tavistock and 
I/ydford. 

V. Hameldon, the Widecombe Valley, and the commons to 
the east of it. 

This district, which extends from Manaton and L,ust- 
leigh to Ashburton, is described in the Excursions 
from Moreton, Bovey Tracey, and Ashburton. 

All these districts are also crossed by the different 
routes. 



BOGS THE FEN. PEAT 



Hints to the Dartmoor Rambler. 

THE explorer of the moor who is a stranger to the locality, will 
naturally desire to know something of the nature of the ground 
he will have to traverse in his rambles, and it may, therefore, be 
well to offer a few remarks on this and one or two other kindred 
subjects. He will probably have read of the dangers of Dartmoor, and 
may have formed the idea that it is a land of mists and bog. It certainly 
cannot be denied that the moor is often enveloped in a mist in the 
winter, but such will not be found to be frequently the case during the 
season usually chosen by the visitor to make acquaintance with it. 
And it must also be confessed that bogs are by no means rare. But to 
be overtaken by the former, though sometimes proving rather 
awkward, is never dangerous, while the latter are only so to the rider 
to hounds who may be a stranger to the district. The cautious pedes- 
trian will come to no harm, unless he should be benighted, and in the 
darkness walk into a swamp, or plunge into what is known as a 
" feather bed." But even at such a time these may generally be 
avoided, while by day there is, of course, no difficulty whatever in 
doing so. 

My own experience is that the worst obstacles on Dartmoor are 
not such as Nature has placed there, but those that owe their existence 
to man. It is usually much easier to pass over the worst parts of the 
fen than to make headway across a tract covered with old turf-ties. 
Such a hillside, for instance, as that down which Outer Redlake runs 
to fall into the Tavy, where peat has been cut for generations, presents 
greater difficulties to the pedestrian than the boggy ground near by, 
which the peat-cutters have left untouched. The bogs are not a source 
of danger to the rambler who will exercise judgment and proceed with 
care. ' 

The fen, or " vain," as the moormen calls it, and which covers so 
much of the more remote parts of the forest, consists entirely of peat, 
on which bog-grasses grow, in certain spots to a great height. There 
is no top-soil, and consequently no herbage suitable for cattle. Often 
this ground will be found seamed in every direction, the rains having 
worn channels in the peaty surface, and these gradually widening 
and deepening, the whole tract is broken up into innumerable hum- 
mocks. The fissures are frequently so wide that it is impossible to 
leap across them, and progress can then only be made by descending 
into them and wading to the next hummock. In a dry season one may 
indeed pass through the fissures, for although the peat is soft he will 
not sink very far into it. I have many a time walked for a considerable 
distance through these channels, my head being occasionally two or 
three feet below the surface of the ground. When they are found of 
.such a depth the gravel is often exposed, the whole of the peat having 



4 HINTS TO THE RAMBLER. 

been washed away. Northward of Cut Hill there is an extensive tract 
of ground of this character. 

Sometimes a considerable area will be met with where the hum- 
mocks are very few, and dotted about the bare peat like small islands 
in a sea of mud. In these cases they are invariably low. 

When the season is wet the peat is very soft and yielding, and it 
would then be exceedingly unwise to attempt to cross the worst parts 
of the fen, for though the adventurous explorer would hardly be in 
danger of sinking so far into it as the man who, according to the story, 
was discovered by his hat, which, while on his head, yet appeared to- 
rest upon the surface, he would certainly be what is locally termed 
" stugged." 

Very little ground of this nature is to be found on the commons 
surrounding the forest, for there the peat is usually not deep, and is 
covered with turf. It is only when the central and higher parts of 
the moor are reached that the true fen, or bog, is seen. Of this two 
tracts exist ; one, which is very extensive, in the north quarter of the 
forest, and the other in the south quarter. In the latter there are,, 
however, no deep channels in the peat similar to those just described. 
The surface of the other parts of the forest resembles that of its purlieus. 

A mire is of a totally different character from the fen ; it is really 
a swamp, and is usually found at the heads of streams. Should the 
rambler inadvertently walk into one, he must at once retrace his steps, 
and on no account seek to go forward. Tussocks of rushes often grow 
on the edges of the mires, and these will afford a secure, foothold. 
Where such are plentiful a mire may even be crossed by means of them, 
though it is not advisable for those unaccustomed to the moor to- 
attempt it. To these mires the name of Dartmoor Stables has been 
given, but it is not often heard now. This was in playful allusion to 
the belief that ponies often found a " resting place " in them, one, 
however, we can well believe, they would not have been loth to quit 
could they have done so. I have certainly known instances of these 
animals, and of cattle and sheep, being lost in the mires, but speaking 
generally such accidents are by no means of frequent occurrence. In 
the northern part of the moor, among other places, there are mires at 
Dart Head, at Broad Marsh, on the Walla Brook, and at Raybarrow 
Pool ; and in the southern at Aune Head, and in the vallev below Fox: 
Tor. 

The weary wanderer on Dartmoor is probably not sorry when he 
is able to seek his couch, but however tired he may be he would hardly 
care to avail himself of the kind of " feather-bed ;> he will sometimes 
meet with there, notwithstanding its inviting look. What is known as 
such is a deep hole, usually not more than ten or twelve feet in diameter, 
rilled with ooze, hidden beneath a covering of moss of a beautiful bright 
green colour. Should this matted surface, or raim (that is, ream) as the 
moorman calls it, be broken by anyone unwittingly crossing it, there 
would be nothing to prevent him from plunging into the slush. No 
one would set foot on such spots intentionally, for in spite of their 
attractive appearance their real nature betrays itself on a very slight 
examination, and it is therefore only by night that the " feather-bed " 
is likely to have an occupant. I have walked across them in the 
darkness, but never came to any harm. Animals, with an apparent 
perception of the fitness of things, shun the " feather-bed." 



MISTS ON THE MOOR. 5 

Quaker is another not inappropriate name for these. It is derived 
from their tremulous motion when trodden upon. 

Mists sometimes suddenly envelop the moor in an impenetrable 
shroud. I have known my surroundings to be entirely obscured, and 
objects twenty or thirty yards distant rendered invisible, where ten 
minutes before there was not a sign of what was coming, and the mist 
has continued for several days. If a stranger be overtaken by one, 
he should, when not certain ot his bearings, endeavour to find a stream, 
and having done so, follow it till he reaches the borders of the moor, 
or some road. Attempts to strike a straight course over the moor 
will assuredly fail ; he will only wander in a circle. It is obvious that 
the stream may lead him away from the point he is desirous of reaching, 
but it will, nevertheless, act as a guide to the enclosed country, which 
to those unacquainted with the locality is in such circumstances " a 
consummation devoutedly to be wished." When the mist comes on 
the rambler should take particular care to keep descending ; immediately 
he finds an ascent before him he must turn, and unless he should be 
unfortunate enough to be pixy-led, it cannot be long before running 
water will be reached. Should it be suspected that the little elves of 
the moor are playing pranks, let him take off his outer garment, turn 
it inside out, and put it on again. The pixies will then have no further 
power over him. This is a potent charm that has never yet been known 
to fail. [Pixies, Chap. I.] 

But this plan of following a stream, though effective enough in 
enabling the rambler to reach the borders of the moor, leaves much 
to be desired. It is far better to be able to go in the direction he 
wishes, and this he may, of course, do if he has taken the precaution 
to provide himself with a pocket compass. I would strongly advise all 
who are unacquainted with the moor to carry one when they penetrate 
into those parts of it that are far removed from the beaten tracks. 
In describing the various routes in the pages that follow I have pre- 
sumed that the rambler is so provided. With this, and the maps 
and directions here furnished, he may mark out his course, and the 
mist will prove but little hindrance to his progress. At the same time, 
if his knowledge of Dartmoor is slight, it will not be unwise for him to 
make his way to a stream, provided there is one near him running 
towards his destination. But in all such cases his judgment must be 
his guide. 

It is also possible to steer by the wind. I have done this on many 
occasions, and do not remember that I have ever gone wrong, though 
such a plan is not altogether satisfactory, for there is always the con- 
tingency of the wind changing. But many years of Dartmoor ram- 
bling have made me so familiar with every part of the district, that I 
never think about steering for any particular point ; even in the most 
dense mist the nature of the ground passed over is usually sufficient 
to assure me of my situation. Nevertheless, I have invariably carried 
a compass. Then when the moor has hidden itself, and my way has 
lain, as it were, through cloudland, I have been able, by consulting 
it occasionally, to satisfy myself that I was not straying from the 
course. It must not be forgotten that objects appear so distorted in a 
Dartmoor mist that the most familiar scenes when come upon suddenly 
are hardly recognizable. [Dev. Alps., Chap. VIII.] 



6 HINTS TO THE RAMBLER. 

To cross the moor on a dark night is a much more difficult matter 
than to make one's way over it through the mist. The latter, it is 
true, is sometimes confusing, and one is apt to be led astray by the 
strange appearance worn by those objects, which from their nearness, 
happen to be visible, but it is at all events possible to see the ground 
around one. In the darkness, however, every inequality and these 
are not usually slight on Dartmoor becomes a stumbling block. 
When you have mist and darkness combined, and it is raining in 
addition, you may justly consider that you are being treated to about 
the worst that Dartmoor has to offer. But this is an experience that 
the ordinary rambler on the moor is not likely to meet with, since he 
will probably prefer to visit it in the summer and confine his wanderings 
to the day-time. 

There is one matter to which attention has been called by the late 
Rev. E. Spencer, of Tavistock, that it may be well to mention, though 
as it is so seldom known to occur, it can scarcely be regarded as a 
danger. Should by any chance the peat become ignited by the heather 
being set on fire, it might possibly continue to smoulder for some time, 
that is, if the weather be very dry. As it gives out carbonic acid it 
would, of course, be dangerous for anyone to pass near such a spot, 
unless he kept to the windward side of it. This, however, could never 
arise from any action of a Dartmoor man, for swaling, as the practice of 
burning the heather and furze is termed, is confined to the spring, at 
which season the peat is never sufficiently dry to ignite. Only after 
a period of exceptionally dry and hot summer weather could such a 
thing be possible. 

During recent years Scotch cattle have been introduced on Dart- 
moor, and their wild, and sometimes rather fierce appearance, has 
caused some to dread encountering them. I do not think there is 
any real ground for alarm. The general opinion among the moor folk 
seems to be that these animals are no more dangerous than our own 
Devon cattle ; that if they are not worried they will take no notice of 
the passer-by. The rambler becomes the centre of attraction to all 
cattle that he approaches on the moor, which is not to be wondered at 
when it is remembered that they see so few people. They will generally 
stop grazing, and watch him till he has gone by, and then quietly go 
on feeding as before. If he has a dog with him he should keep it under 
control, and not allow it to disturb the animals. Speaking generally,, 
it is just as well to avoid passing too near to cattle on the moor, 
particularly during hot weather, when they are teased by the flies. 

Among my Dartmoor experiences I can number most of the things 
that may happen to a man there, and I can recollect one or two 
adventures with Scotch cattle. About the year 1882, when cross- 
ing a part of Ugborough Moor in company with my wife, a whole 
herd came down upon us. The first intimation we had of it was the 
thundering of hoofs upon the turf, and then we were suddenly aware 
that a large number of black Scotch bullocks were rushing down the 
slope in pursuit of my dog, which was coming straight towards us. 
Fortunately, we were at no great distance from the wall of Glascombe 
Newtake, and seizing my wife's hand, I ran towards it with all speed. 
When we got to it I almost threw her on the top of the wall, which I 
knew was banked with turf on the inner side, and then pitching my 
dog after her, clambered over myself, just as the cattle came up. But 



SCOTCH CATTLE. 7 

they were not so infuriated as I had imagined ; in fact, no longer seeing 
the dog, they looked at us with an indifferent air. This I was able to 
return, though had they been so near to us two minutes previously my 
face would probably have worn another expression. 

About 1901 I was going over the moor from Okehampton 
to Chagford, and when descending from Little Hound Tor towards 
Ruelake Pit, I saw some way hi advance a herd of Scotch cattle crossing 
my path. They were going at a rapid pace, being evidently much 
tormented by flies. I halted for a few minutes to allow them to go 
on their way, and leave mine clear for me. When the main herd had 
passed I resumed my walk, not caring to wait until the stragglers, 
of which there were several, had gone by. I had just crossed their 
track when one of the latter, detaching himself from two or three 
companions, came in a very threatening manner towards me. I did 
not wait for him, but continued on my way at a quicker pace than 
before. I deemed it possible that he might attribute to my influence 
some of the pain the flies were inflicting upon him, and had no wish 
to meet him. But casting a look backwards I saw that he also had 
increased his pace, and was whisking his tail in a very excited manner. 
Not far off was a mire from which a little feeder of the Walla Brook 
drains, and this I lost no time in gaining, for I saw it would prove a 
haven of safety. Planting my feet upon the tussocks of rushes I made 
my way out upon it, knowing that the animal could not follow me. 
And he knew it, too, for he did not attempt to do so. But he was 
nevertheless quite aware that a means existed of crossing the mire, 
for he set off, without even so much as bestowing a look upon me, 
for a ford lower down. At first I thought that he intended to come 
up on the other side ; but he did not, choosing instead to mount the 
hill towards Wild Tor. My last view of him showed me only the part 
corresponding to that which Washington Irving' s Stranger concealed 
beneath a broad disc of corduroy. 

Readers of Eden Phillpotts' story The River will remember that 
it was a Scotch beast that attacked Nicholas Edgecombe in the lonely 
region round Devil's Tor, but though there is nothing improbable in 
the incident, they need be under little apprehension of meeting with 
a similar experience to the warrener. The animal in question was a 
bull, and had he been of Devonshire breed instead of Scotch, would 
have rushed upon Edgecombe all the same, as I can testify, having 
once had to run at topmost speed across Brown Heath, near the Erme, 
to escape from one of them. But the rambler's chief safeguard against 
such an occurrence lies in the fact that bulls are not now allowed to 
be placed on the moor. 

To these few inconveniences I will not call them dangers I will 
add that of losing one's way in a solitary part of the moor. It is 
fortunately one that can easily be avoided. If the reader will allow 
me to become his guide I promise him that he shall not stray from 
his path. If he follows my instructions he will learn enough about 
the district to enable him to reach all the important objects in it with 
ease and safety. 

All that the visitor needs to take with him on his rambles over the 
moor is a stout stick, a sandwich case, and as before named a pocket 
compass. If when he reaches his destination at night his boots are wet, 
let him fill them with oats. These, which are usually procurable at 



8 HINTS TO THE RAMBLER. 

the farm-houses, answer the purpose of boot-trees. The grain absorbs 
the moisture and swells, and when shaken out in the morning the boots 
will be found to have preserved their shape. L,et him, however, be 
sure that he shakes out every grain. Should he neglect to do so it 
will probably not be long before he finds himself able to form a very 
correct idea of the feelings of the man who omitted to take the pre- 
caution to boil his peas. But having exercised proper care he may 
set out over the moor again ; and if he is fond of a long tramp, he may 
go from one end of it to the other. I have left Okehampton in 
the morning, passed over Yes Tor and Willes, also Cranmere, and 
lunched at East Dart Head ; made my way to Fox Tor, thence by 
Black Lane and Green Hill to Western Whitaburrow, and so down to 
Shipley, reaching Brent in the evening. 

When we consider how much Dartmoor has to offer, what scenes 
of wild grandeur meet the eye of those who penetrate into it, and what 
interest attaches to its memorials of other days, the few inconveniences 
inseparable from a long ramble in a hilly region that gives birth to 
many rivers are as nothing. They have been magnified into dangers 
by those whose knowledge of the moor is slight ; when one becomes 
familiar with it they take their proper place, and are unheeded. 

I would particularly request the visitor's attention to one point. 
Never omit to fasten a gate after passing through it. Much trouble 
is often caused to the farmers when these are left open. Cattle may 
stray from the field or newtake, or other cattle turned loose on the 
forest may enter, and much inconvenience ensue. The Dartmoor 
farmer will always willingly allow strangers to pass through his ground, 
and it is surely a small thing to ask in return that they should not 
forget to shut his gates. 

The latest Ordnance Survey maps, and maps that have been 
made from them, are the only ones that are reliable. Those published 
previous to about 1884 are of very little use, being full of inaccuracies. 

At the time Dartmoor was being surveyed a list of the place- 
names from the old map was sent to me for revision ; I also added 
fresh ones, and supplied other information. There are a large number 
of objects on the moor the names of which, often purely local, are not 
generally known, and these are, of course, not given on the Ordnance 
map ; but all the more important ones are there shown. 

In calculating distances on Dartmoor I have found it a safe plan 
to add one fourth to those shown on the map. What the moorman 
calls the " ups and downs, and ins and outs " may not make a journey 
across the moor quite so much as a fourth longer than the crow's would 
be, supposing that bird to be in the habit of indulging in straight and 
extended flights ; but the rambler will nevertheless not be far wrong 
if he regards a tramp of eight miles as measured on the map as being 
nearer one of ten. 

The excursions in this Guide have been so planned as to embrace 
everything worthy of notice on the moor within about three or four 
miles of the centre of each district into which it has been divided ; 
objects outside that radius are described in the routes. These are 
given from each district to all the others, with the exception of 
Yelverton, Hexworthy, and Post Bridge. In these cases they were 
not required, those from Princetown or Shaugh, serving for the first- 
named, while the latter two are crossed by routes between other places. 



THE MOORLAND ROUTES. 9 

The visitor can begin his moorland rambles at any point. He should 
first read the paragraphs giving the important landmarks around the 
district from which he starts, as by so doing he will learn what there 
is in his locality that he should see. It is also advisable before setting 
out across the moor to read the route and its reverse, as the objects 
met with on it will be found to be noticed in the latter should that 
have been first described. This is also necessary as in many cases an 
alternate route is given. All places and objects of importance 
mentioned in the routes, but not described, will be found more fully 
noticed in one or other of the excursions, these being always indicated. 
The compass bearings are sufficiently accurate for the purpose for which 
they are intended ; they have, of course, not been reduced to points. 

At the head of each district a table of road distances is given. 
If the name of a required place should not be found in a particular 
table, it must be looked for in the district in which the place is situated, 
and the distance can then be calculated. Thus, if it should be desired 
to find the distance between Lydford and Sticklepath, the Okehampton 
district, which is between the two, should be consulted. This will 
give the distance to both places. 

By studying the routes, with the aid of the map, the visitor will 
find that he can connect one with another, and plan rambles for himself. 
Thus, the route from Princetown to Lydford is given direct. But 
should he desire, for instance, to visit Great Kneeset (which is 
altogether out of his way) en route, he may readily do so by following 
the Princetown and Okehampton route as far as that hill, and return 
to Lydford by the route to that place from Chagford, or from Cranmere. 
He can, in fact, by means of this Guide, reach any part of the moor 
from whatever point upon it he may happen to be. 



io ROAD AND RAIL DISTANCES TO PRINCETOWN. 

PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES 
DISTRICT. 

DISTANCES. BY ROAD. ASHBURTON, via Dartmeet, P.T. 
14! m., T.B. 13; via Hexworthy, P.T. 16, T.B. 14*. BOVEY 
TRACEY, via Dartmeet, Widecombe, and Hemsworthy Gate, P.T. 19, 
T.B. \ft. BUCKFASTLEIGH, via Hexworthy, P.T. 15$, T.B. 14. 
CHAGFORD, P.T. 12, T.B. loj. CORN WOOD, via Dousland and 
Cadaford Bridge, P.T. I2f, T.B. 14 J. DARTMEET, P.T. 6|, T.B. 5. 
DOUSLAND, P.T. 4^, T.B. 6. EXETER, via Moreton, P.T. 25-*-, 
T.B. 24. HEXWORTHY, P.T. 6f , T.B. 5 J. HOLNE, via Hexworthy 
P.T. n|, T.B. io. IVYBRIDGE, via Dousland, Cadaford Bridge 
and Cornwood, P.T. isf, T.B. i;. LYDFORD, via Moor Shop, 
Harford Bridge, and Skit, P.T. 13$, T.B. 14. MERIVALE, P.T. 3$, 
T.B. 3f. MORETON, P.T. 13*, T.B. 12. OKEHAMPTON, via 
Moor Shop and Harford Bridge, P.T. 2i|, T.B. 22. PLYMOUTH, 
via Roborough, P.T. 14^, T.B. i6. P'LYMPTON, via Dousland, 
Cadaford Bridge, and Niel Gate, P.T. 14, T.B. 15^. POST BRIDGE, 
P.T.s, T.B. 3|. POUND'S GATE, via Dartmeet, P.T. pf, T.B .8. 
RUNDLE STONE, P.T. 1$, T.B. 2. SHAUGH, via Dousland and 
Cadaford Bridge, P.T. 9^, T.B. n. SHEEPSTOR, via Lowery Cross 
and Burrator Dam, P.T. sJ, T.B. ^\. SOUTH BRENT, via Hex- 
worthy and Buckfastleigh, P.T. 20^, T.B. 19 ; via Dousland, Cadaford 
Bridge, Cornwood and Ivybridge, P.T. 21, T.B. 22^. TAVISTOCK. 
P.T. 7|, T.B. 8. WARREN HOUSE INN, P.T. ;, T.B. sf. 
WIDECOMBE, via Dartmeet and Ponsworthy, P.T. ii|, T.B. io ; 
via Post Bridge and Grendon Cot, P.T. 13, T.B. n\. YELVERTON 
STATION, P.T. 6, T.B. ;|. 

BY RAII, (FROM PRINCETOWN). EXETER, via Plymouth (G.W.) 
74 m. ; via Tavistock (G.W. to Tavistock, thence by L.S.W.) 58. 
PLYMOUTH (G.W.) 2i|. TAVISTOCK (G.W.) 16. YELVER- 
TON (G.W.) io|. 



Important Points and Landmarks, 

Important Points. Bear Down Man Bellaford Tor Dartmeet 
Merivale Bridge Mis Tor North Hisworthy Tor Nosworthy Bridge 
Plym Steps Rundle Stone Siward's, or Nun's Cross. Other Places 
of Interest. Childe's Tomb Cowsic Valley, under Bear Down Crazy 
Well Pool Crockern Tor Dean Combe Dunnabridge Pound 
Fitz's Well Prince HallTor Royal Valley of the Walkham 
Wistman's Wood. Prehistoric Antiquities. Conies' Down: hut 
circles and stone row Crock of Gold, and other kistvaens in Tor Royal 
Newtake Down Tor : row, menhir, and circle, on Kingston Hill 
East Tor Bottom : hut circles Hart Tor : hut circles and stone row, 
and remains on Raddick Hill Roundy Farm : hut circles Lower 



DARTMOOR SETTLEMENTS. n 

Watern Newtake : kists and cairns Merivale : rows, huts, and menhir 
on Long Ash Hill Thrushel Combe (on the Plym) : rows, cairns, and 
menhirs. Mining Remains. Hart Tor : blowing houses and stream 
works Dean Combe Head : tinners' excavations Newleycombe 
Lake : extensive stream workings Plym : workings near Eyles- 
barrow Riddipit : mould stones Walkham : blowing houses above 
Merivale Bridge. 



By Road and Rail to the Capital 
of the Moor. 

Within the confines of Dartmoor there are several small settle- 
ments, two of which, Post Bridge and Hexworthy, have grown up 
around some of the ancient tenements. Foggin Tor owes its origin, 
and Merivale its expansion, to the granite quarrying industry, while 
White Works was called into being by mining enterprise, which has 
also helped to promote the growth of the two first-named. There are 
a few others consisting of groups of farmhouses, and there is also the 
old village of Widecombe. Cultivation has so spread itself throughout 
the valley in which this settlement is placed, that pastures and wood- 
lands now link it with the in-country, and it appears less deserving of 
its adjunct than in the days when it was known as Widecombe-in-the- 
Moor. Still, although it is possible to approach it without actually 
entering on the commons, it belongs as much to Dartmoor as ever it 
did. The parish is conterminous with the forest for a distance of 
nearly four miles, and there has always been a connection between 
them. A larger settlement than any of those named is that of Lee 
Moor, in the parish of Shaugh, the seat of an extensive china clay 
industry, and a larger and more important still is Princetown, which 
is justly regarded as the capital of the moor. Time was when Lydford 
held that distinction. There the mother church was situated, and 
there was the castle in which the forest courts were held, and in later 
days the Duchy courts. But when Princetown sprang into being 
these were removed to it, and a church being built, journeys to Lydford 
or to Widecombe became less frequent. Interest centered round 
the new town, which speedily became the largest settlement on the 
moor. 

In the section dealing with the tracks we have stated that the 
roads on the moor were formed on the lines of ancient ways (T. 44) 
One ran from Tavistock to Moreton and Chagford, and from this there 
were branches to Ashburton and Widecombe, and it was also joined 
by one from Plymouth. The latter is now the present Plymouth and 
Princetowu road. It enters on Roborough Down at the sixth milestone 
from the first-named town, and leaves it just beyond the ninth. All the 
way across this fine open common there is a good view of the Western 
frontier of Dartmoor, the grouping of the tors above the Walkham 
Valley, and Sheeps Tor, above the valley of the Mew, being particularly 
noticeable. Yelverton is delightfully placed between the eighth and 
ninth milestone, the residences being situated on the verge of the down. 
One mile beyond it is Dousland, where the road is crossed by another 
running from Plympton and Ivybridge to Tavistock. About a mile 



12 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

from Dousland the road passes under the Princetown Railway, and 
shortly after enters Dartmoor. It climbs the shoulder of Peak Hill, 
a grand prospect opening towards the west as the higher ground is 
reached. For the next 3-^ miles it runs over Walkhampton Common, 
passing near to Leedon Tor, which rises on the I,., and Black Tor, which 
is seen on the R., with Hart Tor just across the shallow valley below it. 
Crossing Devil's Bridge the road climbs the steep ascent from the hollow, 
and soon after reaches the limits of the common in this direction and 
enters the forest. A granite post on the right of the way serves as a 
bondmark of the latter. Princetown is only a little way beyond, being 
situated just within the forest bounds. 

The Tavistock road leaves the town by way of Vigo Bridge, or 
by the Abbey Bridge and Dolvin road, and passing the entrance to 
Mount Tavy, runs on to Moor Shop, where it is crossed by a road from 
Horrabridge to Harford Bridge and Peter Tavy. Here the avscent of 
Pork Hill commences, the commons being entered before the top of it 
is reached, and at about 2f- miles from Tavistock. The road now runs 
across the common belonging to the parish of Whitchurch, with Cocks 
Tor and the Staple Tors to the L., and Vixen Tor R. The Walkham 
is crossed at Merivale Bridge, 4^ miles, and Walkhampton Common 
is entered. Here a long ascent to the Rundle Stone commences, the 
dominant object in the view being Great Mis Tor, which rises grandly 
above the river valley to the L. At Rundle Stone, 6 miles, the road 
enters the forest, and turning R. runs past the prison to Princetown. 
The church is 7 miles from Tavistock. 

The Moretonhampstead road crosses the Bovey river a little over 
two miles from the town, and then ascends Worm Hill, after passing 
over which it reaches Beetor Cross, 3 miles. Here it is crossed by the 
Ashburton and Chagford road. Exactly a mile further on is Moor 
Gate, where the commons are entered. Its former presence is indicated 
by the name only, for no gate is now to be seen there. A little further 
on a branch of the Bovey is crossed, and at the top of the hill beyond 
it the road is joined by one coming from Chagford, and which enters 
the moor about three quarters of a mile from the junction. For the 
next mile or more the road runs over a fairly level piece of common, 
and enters the forest shortly belore the Warren House Inn is reached. 
Further on it crosses Stats Brook, passes over Meripit Hill, and descends 
to Post Bridge, where the East Dart is crossed, 8| miles from Moreton. 
From the river the road runs up between Archerton R., and Lakehead 
Hill L., and after crossing the Cherry Brook, passes in succession the 
Powder Mills Cottages, Cherry Brook Farm, and Crockern Tor, and 
descends to Two Bridges. Here the Princetown road branches I/., 
the one to the R. leading to Tavistock. 

The road from Ashburton to Two Bridges runs by way of North 
Street to Holne Bridge, which is two miles from the town. It then 
ascends Holne Chase Hill, having the chase and the Buckland Woods 
to the right. At the top of the hill a road branches left, being joined 
a little further on by one from Buckfastleigh. This runs through the 
village of Holne to the moor gate, about a mile distant, and crosses 
Holne Moor to the forest, which it enters at Saddle Bridge, on the 
Wo Brook. The view is particularly fine, the tors above the gorge of 
the Dart here showing to great advantage. Not far from the gate is 
the Paignton storage reservoir, the formation of which has turned the 



THE PRINCETOWN RAILWAY. 13 

Wennaford Valley into a lake. Further on the hollow known as 
Hangman's Pit is passed, and afterwards Combestone Tor, to the R., 
a very steep hill following. At its foot flows the Wo Brook, and about 
a mile further on is Hexworthy, where, at the Forest Inn, the road 
turns down the hill to the R., being here known as Jolly Lane. Cross- 
ing the West Dart at Hexworthy Bridge it runs by the little chapel of 
St. Raphael's at Huccaby, and ascending the hill joins the road from 
Ashburton to Two Bridges more usually followed. 

The last-named road having climbed Holne Chase Hill, two miles 
from Ashburton, descends to the Dart, which it crosses at New Bridge, 
and enters the commons. Here there is a steep ascent to the hamlet 
of Pound's Gate, where the enclosed country is reached, to be left again 
however, about a mile further on, when the road skirts Sherberton 
Common. Turning L/. at Ouldsbroom Cross it passes between Yar 
Tor Down and Dartmeet Hill, and descends to Dartmeet Bridge, on 
crossing which it enters the forest. Climbing the hill with the estate 
of Brimpts on the R., it reaches the gate where the road previously 
mentioned comes up from Huccaby, and then runs above the valley 
of the West Dart to Dunnabridge. A mile further on it crosses Cherry 
Brook, and in another mile and a half reaches Two Bridges, being 
joined by the Moreton road on the brow of the hill above that place. 

The objects passed on these roads, and on others in different parts 
of the moor, are noticed more fully in the Excursions. 

The Princetown Railway branches from Yelverton, on the Ply- 
mouth and Launceston line. It was opened in 1882, and from a point 
about midway between Yelverton and Dousland Stations follows very 
nearly the route taken by a tramroad constructed in the earlier part 
of the nineteenth century. 

On leaving Dousland the railway is carried over Yennadon Down, 
which it nearly encircles in order to reach a point on the hill leading 
to Walkhampton Common by an easy gradient. Soon after the train 
enters on the down a good view of the valley of the Mew is presented, 
one object in it that will not fail to catch the eye being the tower 
of the little church of Heavy. On the further side of the valley is 
Calisham Down, with Wigford Down, the common above the Dewer 
Stone, beyond it. To the L,. of the first-named is Lynch Down, backed 
by Shaugh Moor, and then the bold sweep of Ringmoor Down comes 
into view. To the I,, is the giant mass of Sheeps Tor, with the village 
nestling at its foot, and at the further end of the opening between the 
down and the tor, is seen Gutter Tor, with a green path running up 
the common towards it. Below is the narrow Burrator Gorge, with 
the dam thrown across it for the purpose of storing the waters of the 
Mew, which, filling the valley between Peak Hill and Sheeps Tor, 
present the appearance of a true lake. This fine sheet of water, the 
storage reservoir for the town of Plymouth, is noticed in our Excur- 
sions from Yelverton. At its head is seen Down Tor, and the more 
distant Cramber Tor, while, rising above it to the L., are Lether Tor* 
and Sharp Tor, the first-mentioned being particularly striking. After 

* The th has the heavy sound, the name being pronounced like 
the word leather. Indeed, in its earlier form it appears as Ledder, the 
true sound of which would be the same as leather, dd being actually 
the heavy th. 



14 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

passing a small plantation the upper valley of the Mew, and the Newley- 
combe Valley to the R. of it, are seen, with another fine tor near Down 
Tor. This is Combe Tor, and behind it rises the lofty height of Eyles- 
barrow. On Lowery Siding being passed the view is lost, but another 
speedily discloses itself. After crossing the Plymouth and Prince- 
town road a wide stretch of hill and dale, farm lands and woods, with 
distant heights, is seen to the L. of the railway as the train advances. 
A conspicuous object in the near view is Walkhampton Church, situated 
on a hill near the village. This is seen from many points on the rail- 
way as the train proceeds, and from both sides of it, consequent upon 
the windings of the line. Just here, although the train has to attain 
an elevation of about 1,400 feet, there is a down gradient. This was 
planned with a view to the more easily bringing up the train when 
running from Princetown to Dousland, or stopping a carriage, or truck, 
should such happen to become detached from a train proceeding to 
the first-named place. At this point the line draws nearer to Walk- 
hampton Church, then all at once turns away from it, and the train 
passes out on to the open moor. 

The beautiful valley of the Walkham now partially reveals itself, 
the glimpses obtained from certain points to which the winding of the 
line bring the visitor speaking eloquently of its hidden beauties. Far 
down below is a wealth of trees, and where these cease to climb from 
the wooded depths, the granite-strewn commons are seen. On the 
down above its further side is Pu Tor, here a very prominent object, 
and far away beyond it the church- crowned summit of Brent Tor. 
Further up, and overhanging a small lateral valley not far from 
Merivale, is the curiously-shaped mass of Vixen Tor, with Cocks' Tor 
and the Staple Tors behind it, and to the R. the lofty Mis Tor, the 
monarch of this part of the moor, while much nearer to us is King Tor. 
Passing Routrendle the line sweeps out around Inga Tor, below which 
the ground is rather marshy, and then making a great bend to the right 
runs up to Yes Tor Green. Here, at the turn, the old tramroad, which 
made a rather longer sweep, will be noticed, with the little bridge that 
carried it over the brook. This is just below the pile known as Fur 
Tor. On the slope above, to the N.E., and exactly a quarter of a 
mile distant, the visitor may see the railway on which he is travelling. 
But that portion of it is more than 200 feet above him, and it is 
necessary for the train to make a journey of two and a half miles to 
attain that elevation. The line runs out under the granite quarries 
of the Messrs. Pethick Bros., and from here Inga Tor is again seen, 
also Walkhampton Church, and there is a fine view of the Cornish hills. 
Near King Tor, around which the railway runs, doubling back upon 
itself, the tram road is seen in several places where the line has left 
it a few yards on one side. Here the valley near Merivale and Mis 
Tor Moor is in full view, and the menhir on Long Ash Hill, near the 
double stone rows, can be plainly discerned. 

The Red Cottages a misnomer since their colour has been changed 
to black the cottages at Rundle Stone, with Hollow Tor on the hill to 
the right, are also in sight. Passing the Royal Oak siding and the 
Foggin Tor Quarries, the line is carried by White Rock along the slope 
seen from below, and now the visitor looks down upon it as it winds 
round Yes Tor Green. Inga Tor is also seen once more, and to the 
it. of it the upper part of the tower of Walkhampton Church. 



PRINCETOWN. THE WAR PRISON. 15 

And now quite another part of the moor is opened up, although 
many tors seen during the first stage of the journey again become 
visible. But they are looked at from a different side, and in many 
instances their outlines are not the same. Sheeps Tor and Down 
Tor, Lether, Sharp, and Cramber are all in sight, as well as Gutter 
Tor. Further away is Trowles worthy Tor, on Lee Moor. In the 
direction of Walkhampton Leedon Tor is seen, and not very far from 
the railway is Black Tor, with Hart Tor just beyond it. Soon the 
Plymouth road is noticed where it crosses the hollow at Devil's Bridge, 
and a short distance further on the station, close to which is one of 
the stones marking the forest boundary, is reached. 

Princetown was called into existence by the building of a war 
prison below North Hisworthy, the foundation stone being laid on the 
2oth March, 1806, by Sir Thomas Tyrwhitt, who had suggested its 
location here. Sir Thomas built Tor Royal, and had great hopes of 
reclaiming Dartmoor. After 1816 the prison was untenanted for some 
time, but was subsequently used as a naphtha factory, for the pro- 
duction of which large quantities of peat were cut on Holming Beam 
In the meanwhile the little town fell into decay, and it was only when 
the prison was turned into a depot for convicts that its fortunes began 
to revive. This was in 1850. Since that date it has gradually im- 
proved, and now fully justifies its title of the capital of the moor. The 
church was built and fitted up by the French and American prisoners. 
At a meeting of the U.S. Daughters of 1812, held in New York in 
January, 1909, it was voted that the Society place a Memorial Window 
in the Church at Princetown. This was done, the window being un- 
veiled on June 3rd, 1910, by Mrs. Gerry Slade, the President. In the 
Church is also a Memorial Tablet to the soldiers who perished in the 
snow as related further on. 

In 1912 a granite cross was erected in the western part of the 
churchyard which is set aside for the burial of convicts. 

In The Story of Dartmoor Prison, by Mr. Basil Thomson, formerly 
Governor of the depot, much interesting information will be found. 
The stirring times of the French and American prisoners are vividly 
pictured, and the account is brought down to the present day. 

Princetown was created an ecclesiastical parish in 1913. 

The hamlet of Two Bridges is pleasantly situated in the valley of 
the West Dart, a mile and a half from Princetown. The trees under 
Bear Down near by were planted by Mr. Edward Bray, a solicitor, of 
Tavistock, who began operations here about 1780. Bear Down is 
probably bear dun, the promontory hill. The semi-circular belt at the 
foot of the hill is known as the Cowsic Horse Shoe. The inn, the 
forerunner of the present hotel, was built by Judge Buller, of Prince 
Hall.] 



16 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 



Excursions from Princetown and 
Two Bridges. 

[The Excursions are mostly within a radius of three miles of 
Princetown. The commons westward of the Walkham are noticed in 
the Tavistock District, and the neighbourhood of Sheeps Tor and 
Walkhampton in the Yelverton District.] 

Tracks in the vicinity, Nos. i to 15, 18, ^6, 75, 80 (see the 
Section in Part V). 



North Hisworthy Tor. 

Before setting out on our Excursions from Princetown and 
Two Bridges we shall ascend the hill rising above the first-named 
place to the tor locally known as North Hessary, as an excellent 
view of the district over which our rambles are to extend is to be 
obtained from that breezy height. We therefore leave the main 
street by the turning opposite to the school, and passing through a 
gate, make our way up the hill, keeping close to the wall of the en- 
closures on the right. This will lead us directly to the tor, just before 
reaching which we find ourselves walking over the ground traversed by 
the perambulators who viewed the bounds of the forest in 1240. The 
boundary line is drawn from South Hisworthy to North Hisworthy, 
and here is marked by some granite posts of comparatively recent 
erection, which may be seen from the point we have now attained. 
The tor is by no means striking in appearance, but as a forest bond- 
mark mentioned in the return to the perambulation made in the 
thirteenth century, it is not altogether devoid of interest. The visitor 
will, however, find his chief reward in the wonderful view commanded 
from its summit. No less than about sixty tors are to be seen, besides 
a number of important hills. As Simon Renard read from the battle- 
ments of the White Tower the history of England, so one may look 
down from the crest of Hisworthy and read the history of modern 
Dartmoor. Northward and southward are the untamed hills, rising 
grim and bare ; vast solitudes where nothing of man's work is seen. 
Between these wild tracts is the more sheltered part, where the settler 
has formed his enclosures, and planted his few trees and made his 
roads. Immediately below, the prison and the town that grew up 
around it, and on the other side the iron way that has penetrated to 
the verge of the forest. Man has done something here, but when the 
beholder again looks upon the dusky sweeps that roll away into the 
blue distance, he realises how little it is. 



VIEW FROM NORTH HISWORTHY. 17 

In order to enumerate the tors seen from this hill, and at the 
same time to indicate their situations, it will be most convenient to 
commence with those on the common north of the road leading to 
Tavistock. If, therefore, we look in a W.N.W. direction we shall see 
this road winding up the side of the Walkham Valley. Immediately 
to the R. of it is Little Staple Tor, a small group of rocks, and R. of 
that again Mid Staple Tor, with Cocks' Tor rising behind it, the latter 
being situated at the southern extremity of a long hill with a rounded 
outline.* In a line with these tors, on the slope of Hisworthy and 
not far from us, is Hollow Tor. The fine tor to the R. of Mid Staple 
Tor is Great Staple Tor, and R. of this is Roose Tor. Between these 
two is seen the distant Brent Tor, with the little church on its summit. 
Beyond the dip R. of Roose Tor is Black Down, a fine common mostly 
in the parish of Mary Tavy, and R. of that is White Tor, or Whittor, 
as it is always called. The line of junction between the granite and 
the altered rocks runs through the shallow valley beyond the ridge 
on which rise the Staple Tors and Roose Tor. Cocks' Tor and White 
Tor are therefore not within the granite area ; they are composed of 
trap rock, and the difference in form between them and the granite 
hills is very striking, particularly when they are seen from Black 
Down. Right of Roose Tor, and on the nearer side of the Walkham 
Valley, is Great Mis Tor, one of the finest of the rock-piles on Dartmoor. 
Just below is Little Mis Tor, a square mass of granite, and quite near 
to us. at the foot of Hisworthy, is Rundle Stone Tor. 

To the R. of Mis Tor, and in a direction a little W. of N. we look 
away to the ridge above the Rattle Brook, from which Hare Tor, 
Sharp Tor, and Great Links Tor rise in succession. The first-named is 
of a pyramidal form, and will be easily recognised, as also will Links 
Tor, the rocks of which rise to a considerable height above the turf. 
The rounded hill below it, and three miles nearer to us, is Standon, 
or Stannon, as it is usually called ; on its summit is a cairn presenting 
from this distance the appearance of a small mound. A little to the 
R. of Links Tor, the Dunnagoat Tors are seen, and R. of these is 
Amicombe Hill. From Links Tor the ground dips towards the north, 
where there is a great opening in the hills. This marks the deep gorge 
of the West Ockment, and above it to the R. is High Willes, the most 
elevated of the Dartmoor eminences. This height is exactly nine miles 
from the point on which we stand as measured on the map. 

In a line with Amicombe Hill, but much nearer to us, being in fact 
only four miles distant, is Walkham Head, and if we look beyond 
this, and to the R. of it, we shall see the rocks of Fur Tor, with Cut 
Hill rising still further R. Peeping over its shoulder, far away in a 
direction N.N.E., is Newtake, the hill near Cranmere and East Dart 
Head. Less than two miles south of the summit of Cut Hill, and hi a 
line with it and our standpoint, is Cowsic Head. On one side of this, 
the L., we may see Conies Down Tor, and on the other side Devil's Tor. 
Quite close to the latter is Bear Down Man, but this can only be made 
out with the aid of a glass. 

Rising against the sky to the R. of Devil's Tor is Row Tor, and 
under it, but more than a mile nearer to us, is Lydford Tor, at the 



*This is known as Cocks' Tor Hill. 



i8 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

northern end of Bear Down. To the R., but further away, is Crow 
Tor, and then the Bear Down Tors, with White or Whitten Tor, seen 
between. It should be noticed that in Row Tor and Crow Tor the 
" ow " has the same sound as in crowd. One form of spelling the 
latter is Crough. To the R. of the Bear Down Tors, and on the ridge 
above the West Dart, we see Longaford and L,ittaford Tors, the former 
rising like a pyramid from the down. 

Beyond these tors, and some four miles further away, is White 
Ridge, with Waters Down to the right of it. Near the latter the 
Moreton road is seen climbing the shoulder of Meripit Hill. Below us, 
and only two and a half miles distant, is Crockern Tor, close to which 
the Moreton road is also seen, as well as the Ashburton road between 
Two Bridges and Prince Hall. Further distant, E. by N., is Bellaford 
Tor, and bounding the view in this direction is the huge ridge of 
Hameldon. 

Three quarters of a mile from Bellaford Tor is L,ough Tor Lafter 
Tor, as it is generally called and this is in full view to the R. of the 
former. Far away beyond these is seen Chinkwell Tor and Hey Tor, 
with the steep road leading up from the village of Widecombe. To 
the R. of Hey Tor is Saddle Tor, and R. of that Rippon Tor. 

Much nearer than Rippon Tor, but seen a little to the R. of it, is 
Corn Down, with Yar Tor, the fine height that rises above Dartmeet ; 
and in the distance above the hanging woods that line the valley of the 
Dart, the granite boss of Buckland Beacon, and amid the trees below, 
the crag called Auswell Rock.* The road winding up the hill from 
Dartmeet is plainly visible, and above it Sharp Tor, and the crest of 
its neighbour, Mil Tor. 

And now we look upon a part of the moor westward of the Dart. 
Four and a half miles away in a direction E. by S. the road running 
from Sherburton Bridge to Gobbet Plain is seen, and in a line with it 
and nearly three miles further distant, Bench Tor, on Holne Moor. 
Right of this we see the Holne road, where it climbs the steep hill 
above the eastern bank of the Wo Brook. The hill to the right of this 
is Down Ridge, above Hexworthy, and the next the swelling eminence 
of Cater's Beam, rising from the fen beyond Fox Tor, the piles of which 
are placed about midway up the hill-side. The direction of the tor is 
about S.E. 

Peeping over the hill that bounds the view to the R. of Fox Tor 
are some distant heights. The first of these is Eastern Whitaburrow, 
and the next Western Whitaburrow, the high land between them being 
the summit of Bush Meads, at the foot of which the Avon runs. A 
little further to the R. is the prominent hill known as Three Barrows, 
eight and a half miles distant. 

Less than two miles from our standpoint is South Hisworthy Tor. 
Its direction is S.E., and it is in a line with Eastern Whitaburrow. 

Looking in a direction S.S.E. we notice a combe on the hillside 
beyond the first ridge. This is Langcombe Bottom, through which 
runs a tributary of the Plym ; it falls into that stream at Plym Steps. 
The high land on this side of the combe is Eylesbarrow, and the distant 
point to the right of it is Shell Top, a fine height overlooking the in- 
country in the neighbourhood of Cornwood. On the side of the hill 

* This is sometimes known as Hazel Tor. 



VIEW FROM NORTH HISWORTHY. 19 

under Shell Top, and a mile nearer to us, is Hen Tor. This rises above 
the Plym, and gives name to one of the warrens in the valley through 
which that stream runs. Rather over two miles nearer, and in a line 
with it, is Combeshead Tor, so named from its situation at the head of 
the Dean Combe valley. 

To the right of Combeshead Tor is Down Tor, and a mile and a 
half beyond, with same bearings, is Gutter Tor, a pile at the eastern end 
of Ringmoor Down, and overlooking Ditsworthy Warren. The same 
distance beyond Gutter Tor, and in a line with it, are Great and I/ittle 
Trowlesworthy Tors, which are situated on the common lands belong- 
ing to the parish of Shaugh. The name of these tors is pronounced 
as though it were spelt without the first " w," and with the " o " long. 
The high land to the R. of these tors is that part of Shaugh Moor known 
as Saddlesborough. 

But the most striking tor in this direction is Sheeps Tor, whose 
giant mass is only three and a half miles distant. It rises boldly 
S. by W. Below it, to the R., is the Heavy Valley, above the western 
side of which we see Lether Tor, and close to it one of the numerous 
Sharp Tors on the moor. 

Now we must let our eyes wander a little to the L., and on the 
common below us we shall observe three tors. The first, which lies 
S. by E., is Cr amber Tor ; the next, and nearer to us, is Hart Tor, 
always called Harter Tor, which, however, is probably only a duplica^ 
tion of the final syllable ; and the other is Black Tor, which is quite 
near to the Plymouth road. The latter is at the same point of the 
compass as Sheeps Tor. 

Once more we look towards Sharp Tor, and on the common to the 
R. of this shall notice another pile. This is Leedon Tor, and below it 
to the R. is Inga Tor, close to which is the Princetown Railway. 
Nearer to us, to the R., is Swell Tor, and further in that direction, and 
less than a mile and a half from where we stand, the fine pile of King 
Tor. 

Below King Tor is the beautiful valley of the Walkham, and 
beyond this, and nearly in a line with the pile named, we see Pu Tor, 
conspicuously placed on the common near Sampford Spiney. Right 
-of this is Feather Tor, and then the curiously-shaped mass of Vixen 
Tor, and near it the Tavistock road, where we began our survey. 

Although many of the Dartmoor hills attain an elevation of 1,700 
or i, 800 feet, and some an even greater height, there is not one from 
which an uninterrupted view of half-a-dozen miles in every direction 
can be obtained. There is always another hill rising within that 
distance to obstruct the range of vision. Even High Willes and Cut 
Hill are not exceptions. 

The view from North Hisworthy or Ysfother, as the perambu- 
lators of 1 240 have it* cannot fail to impress, on account of its extent. 
But while it reveals so much of the moor it does not convey that idea of 
it which is obtained from High Willes, or Great Links. Tor, and a few 
other prominent hills. The wilder parts of the moor are hidden from 
the beholder on Hisworthy, or when glimpses of such are afforded it is 

* By the jury who surveyed the bounds of the forest in 1609 the 
tor is mentioned as Hisworthie. In 1786 another jury refer to it by 
the same name, but with the modern terminal " y." 



20 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

of spots too far off for the nature of them to be properly estimated. 
He cannot look down as from the heights mentioned, or as he may 
from Three Barrows and from Ryders" Hill, upon a scene of wildness 
and desolation ; the eye has to range over the enclosed parts of the 
moor before it can rest upon the heathery slopes that cultivation has 
not disturbed. He sees, indeed, scarcely anything of the remote parts 
of the south quarter of the forest, and not much of the recesses of the 
north. 

Westward of Hisworthy, beyond the commons, is a wonderful 
riew of the south-western part of Devon, with the Channel off Ply- 
mouth, and of East Cornwall. Pasture lands and woods, towns and 
villages, make up the picture over which the eye wanders till it lights 
upon the Cornish hills that rise up against the western sky. 

On the slope of Hisworthy, and not far from the tor, is a rain- 
guage, placed on the line bounding the water-collecting area of the 
Burrator Lake. This suggests the question of rainfall, one into which 
it will perhaps be wise not to enter. A town cannot very well occupy 
so elevated a site as Princetown, which is placed about i ,400 feet above 
sea level, without receiving its full share of moisture, but it may 
perhaps be some consolation to the visitor if we assure him that by far 
the greater proportion of the rain is reserved for the inhabitants : 
during the holiday season blue skies are usually above it. 

And now, having looked upon so many of the Dartmoor tors, we 
will bid adieu to Hisworthy, with its overhanging rock, and set out on 
our way to make closer acquaintance with them, or at least with such 
of them as present features more than ordinarily interesting, as well 
as to examine others not seen from its crest. But, though we bid the 
tor good-bye, we shall not readily forget it, for much that we see will 
recall our visit to it. Often, too, our eyes will rest upon it when we 
are in distant parts of the moor, so that it will be neither out of sight 
nor out of mind. 

(It was thought that to burden this description with references 
would be inconvenient to the reader ; the Indexes will show where a 
notice of each tor named is to be found). 

[Prom Two Bridges the visitor will take the left hand road to 
Princetown, passing the Ockery on his way, but he will find it a good 
plan to return by the Tavistock road. To do this he will descend the 
northern slope of Hisworthy, keeping near to the wall, to Rundle Stone 
(Ex. i), whence the highway from Tavistock runs due E. to Two 
Bridges (2 m.) Just before reaching the road Rundle Stone Tor is 
passed ; the tor seen to the left, and not far off, in descending the side 
of Hisworthy, is Hollow Tor.] 



EXCURSION I. WALKHAMPTON COMMON. 



Ex. i. The Soldiers' Pond Devil's Bridge Stone Rows near 
Sharp Tor Routrendle Yes Tor Bottom Ward Bridge Okel Tor 
Merivale Bridge Mining Houses on the Walkham Merivale Antiqui- 
ties Rundle Stone. About 12 miles from Princetown. Add 3-^ m. 
if from Two Bridges. 

Among the interesting objects in the vicinity of Princetown not 
a few are to be found on Walkhampton Common, and to a brief 
examination of some of the more striking of these we shall first devote 
our attention. For the present our ramble will extend only over that 
part of the common lying between the Plymouth road, the Tavistock 
road, and the Walkham river. Other divisions of it will be noticed 
in future excursions. We leave Princetown by the first-named high- 
way, and shortly after passing the corner of the enclosures R., where 
the old path known as the Frenchmen's Road branches (T. 5), shall 
reach one of the row of stones marking the forest boundary where it 
runs from South Hisworthy to North Hisworthy Tor. Here we leave 
the ancient royal hunting-ground and enter upon Walkhampton 
Common. About 200 yards further on, and L. of the road, is an 
object associated with one of Dartmoor's sad memories. It is a small 
hollow filled with water, and surrounded by a bank rising above the 
level of the common, which goes by the name of the Soldier's Pond, 
and marks the spot where a corporal of the 7th Royal Fusiliers perished 
hi the snow, in February, 1853. The bodies of two privates who were 
accompanying him were found at a spot known as Double Waters, 
where a little stream runs under the road. The event is recorded on 
a tablet in Princetown Churchyard. The grave in which these 
"three valiant soldiers" lie was restored in 1908. 

The road now descends into a hollow where it crosses the springs 
of the Mew at Devil's Bridge. The name suggests a legend, but in 
reality became attached to the spot in a very prosaic manner. The 
bridge, which is merely a culvert, was built by a labourer who rejoiced, 
or otherwise, in the sobriquet of Devil. That is all ; " story, I have 
none to tell." His Santanic Majesty has left his name in other places 
on Dartmoor, but not at this particular spot. 

On the slope above Devil's Bridge, that is to the N.W. and W. of 
it, are a number of hut circles. One group is close to the railway. In 
connection with the other there is a pound, overlooking Yes Tor 
Bottom. In this combe fragments of a vessel of highly glazed ware 
were discovered a few years ago under some slag, and also the bottom 
of a cooking-pot, as well as sherds and charcoal. 

Proceeding on our way we soon reach Double Waters, which is 
about half-a-mile from the hollow. Here we notice Black Tor, a short 
distance across the common to the L. Near it are some prehistoric 
antiquities, and also an extensive stream work with two mining houses, 
which are noticed in our next excursion. West of Double Waters, 
and about a quarter of a mile from it, are several hut circles ; in fact, 
these ancient ruined dwellings are exceedingly numerous in that part 
of the common now under notice. 



22 



PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 



Black 
Tor. 



Lether 
Tor. 



Sharp 
Tor. 




FROM DOUBLE WATERS, I.OOKIXG S.VV. 



As we pass on, we shall be struck with the bold appearance of two 
tors immediately in front of us. The one L. is the principal pile of 
Lether Tor ; the other is Sharp Tor, which has a rather greater eleva- 
tion. R., and much nearer to us, is L,eedon Tor, consisting of several 
fine groups of rocks in which the granite is fantastically piled. Looking 
back in a northerly direction we see the pound just mentioned. It is 
situated on the slope below the railway, where the latter begins to hide 
itself behind the hill on the nearer side of which are the granite quarries. 
Below us, L., are the enclosures of Stanlake Farm, the house itself 
also being visible. On the hill beyond it is Cr amber Tor (Ex. 2), and 
across the valley to the R. of the farm, is Down Tor (Ex. 2, 38), with 
the fine mass of Sheeps Tor (Ex. 38) still further R. One of the 
enclosures of Stanlake is built on a stone row. This is noticed in 
Ex. 39. 

At a point about 2\ miles from Princetown our road begins to 
ascend the flank of Peak Hill. Here it is crossed by a track (T. 4) 
coming up in front of us from the direction of Walkhampton, and 
running down the hill L. to Stanlake. Half mile further on we reach 
the twelfth milestone from Plymouth. This is known as Goad's Stone, 
and on the upper half of the face are some markings, but they are not 
readily distinguishable. Passing up the hill we soon reach a pond on 
the L. of the road, on the brink of which is a double stone row. It is 
in a very ruined condition, but may be traced for some distance. It 
appears to terminate at a boulder, but is really continued, as a careful 
examination will show, to the remains of a kistvaen at its northern 
end. Near it is also a single row. Prom the pond, which, by the way, 
has never been known to be dry, we may ascend Sharp Tor and the 
summit of Peak Hill, the view from which points is exceedingly fine, 
and is noticed in our Excursions from Yelverton. (Ex. 39). 

In his progress towards Sharp Tor from Double Waters the rambler 
will probably have noticed a reave running from the pile down the hill 
towards the road. From our station near the pond we shall, on look- 
ing north-eastward, perceive another of these objects on the left. It 
runs across the track we saw at the foot of the ascent, and like the 



24 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

former, climbs the hill capped by Leedon Tor. These reaves have 
been said to extend for a very conisderable distance ; one of them, 
indeed, as far as Chagford. If the visitor considers that a hiatus of a 
few miles here and there does not render this doubtful, and is quite 
ready to believe, if he picks up a line anywhere to the north or south 
of the point at which all traces were lost, that he is still following the 
same reave, he may, if he cares for a long tramp, satisfy himself that it 
really does go to Chagford. It may, therefore, be as well to inform 
him that it is the Sharp Tor reave that was once said to lead to that 
moorland town, although it is highly probable that if he chooses the 
other reave the result of his endeavours will be precisely the same. 

Hut circles occur between the track before-named and the summit 
of Leedon Hill. To the fine rocks crowning that eminence we shall 
now make our way, and strike thence towards Inga Tor, which bears 
N.W., and is close to the Princetown Railway. When about 300 yards 
from the last-named tor, and in a direct line between the two, we shall 
come upon a kistvaen surrounded by a circle of stones about 20 feet 
in diameter. Both are unfortunately in a dilapidated condition. 
The cover of the kist is four feet in length, and nearly three feet in 
width. Turning southward towards the railway we shall direct our 
steps to a crossing-place to which two white gates give access, and 
which forms an approach to Routrendle, a moor farm in full view 
from the road at Goad's Stone. On reaching the further side of the 
railway we shall follow a road that will lead us to the farmhouse. 
This we leave on the I/., and shall shortly regain the open common, 
not far from Inga Tor, which we see rising immediately above the line. 
On passing this pile, the rocks of which are poised in a similar manner 
to those of Leedon Tor, the line makes a bend towards the east, and 
crossing the lower end of Yes Tor Bottom,* turns again to the west, 
and runs out to King Tor. 

[This spot may be reached from Princetown direct by following 
the road to Devil's Bridge, and then striking up over the common 
westward, with the railway on the R., or by crossing the bridge near 
the station from the Frenchmen's road (T. 5) and then turning L. 
If the latter route is followed the visitor will pass under the line at the 
first cattle creep he comes to, where is a little stream. From this 
point he will see the railway far down below, as it sweeps round towards 
Inga Tor. He must then make for it, keeping well to the R. Should 
the way by Devil's Bridge be chosen, the railway will be similarly seen 
below. 

From Yes Tor Bottom the rambler may make his way around 
King Tor, noticing Little King Tor on the L., to the Royal Oak level, 
by taking the railway for his guide. He will keep it on his R., crossing 
it on reaching the tor if he wishes to ascend the pile. If he desires 
first to see the quarries he will ascend the hill above the line, whence 
he may look down upon them. Granite quarrying on this part of 
Dartmoor commenced on the opening of the Plymouth and Dartmoor 

* Apparently a corruption of East Tor. Yes Tor Green, below 
the bottom, is shown on a map of Sir Thomas Tyrwhitt's projected 
railway as Easter Green. The date of this is 1818. Here is Crip Tor 
Farm, and adjoining it are the ruins of another Dartmoor homestead. 



EXCURSION I. WARD BRIDGE. OREL TOR. 25 

Railway in 1823. [100 Years, Chap. III.] From the Royal Oak 
level the visitor may return to Princetown either by way of the Red 
Cottages and Rundle Stone, or by following the line to the station. 
If the former route be chosen he will make his way to the cottages, 
which are seen near by, and passing them will gain the high road from 
Tavistock, just above the Mission Room. Directions for reaching 
Princetown from this point are given at the end of the present 
excursion.] 

Making our way over the common from Routrendle, with the wall 
of the enclosures on our I,., we shortly reach a moor gate opening 
upon a lane. This we descend, and shall soon find that it is crossed by 
another, which comes up from Walkhampton and runs on to Merivale. 
Here we turn R., the latter now becoming our road, unless it be desired 
-to visit Ward Bridge before proceeding up the valley, in which case 
we continue to descend the hill. The bridge, which is not far distant, 
is situated in one of the most charming parts of the valley of the 
Walkham, and is noticed in our excursions from Tavistock (Ex. 7). 

At a distance of less than 4- m. from the point where the lanes 
intersect each other we shall reach Whithill Farm, where the road 
crosses the Yes Tor Brook by a clapper of two openings. It is of 
comparatively modern date, and presents nothing remarkable. Be- 
yond this we pass Davy Town Farm (see Town in the list of terms), 
when our road becomes exceedingly rough. But we shall regard the 
inconvenience of traversing it as a very light matter when we arrive 
at Okel Tor Gate,* for we shall then have reached one of the most 
beautiful of the rock piles of Dartmoor. [Gems, Chap. XXI.] The 
gate, which is at the top of a slight ascent, is hung to the rocks of the 
tor, and, having passed through it, we find ourselves in their midst. 
The piles do not rise high above the ground, and there is nothing of 
the grandeur that belongs to such granite crowns as Mis Tor, or Staple 
Tor, or Hound Tor ; but the masses are so delightfully shrouded in 
dwarf oaks and mountain ash, tufts of heather, and patches of the 
bright green whortleberry plants, that they present an appearance 
that cannot fail to enchant the beholder. In place of sternness we 
have beauty ; the rugged is lost in the softening effect of the foliage 
that so happily mingles with the weather-stained rocks. A number 
of tors are in view, and away to the south, beyond the farm lands, rise 
the heights that look down upon Plymouth Sound. Beneath us is 
the charming Walkham Valley, but the length of our present excursion 
will prevent us from visiting it now. To do so it will be better to 
proceed by the road from Princetown to Merivale (R. i), and on reach- 
ing that place to follow the directions given in Excursion 7. 

Leaving Okel Tor, with its drapery of living green, we continue 
on our way, and soon the sound of falling water strikes upon the ear. 
Coming down from the moor in the neighbourhood of Rundle Stone, 
the Long Ash Brook here crosses our track on its way to join the Walk- 
iam. The road is carried over it by a clapper, which, though not of 
great size, is yet an excellent example of these rude bridges. The 
banks of the stream being so thickly covered with bushes little of the 
structure can be seen in crossing, but a good view of it is to be obtained 

* Often called Hucken Tor. 



26 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

from a point a few yards below it on the southern side. The clapper 
has two openings, and the centre pier and buttresses are formed of 
massive stones. Just beyond we reach Long Ash Farm, and shortly 
afterwards find ourselves on the Princetown and Tavistock road, near 
Merivale Bridge. Our walk from the cross lanes has been a rough one, 
but it has brought us through some of the finest Dartmoor border 
scenery. [If the visitor does not desire to go to Merivale he may 
strike up across the enclosures from Long Ash Farm to the common, 
on which the stone rows shortly to be noticed are situated. The 
distance is very short.] 

Merivale Bridge spans the Walkharn, which stream here forms- 
the boundary between Walkhampton Common and the common lands 
belonging to the parish of Whitchurch. The hamlet of Merivale is- 
situated in the latter parish, and consists of a roadside house of enter- 
tainment called the Dartmoor Inn, a few cottages, a modern Wesleyan 
Chapel, and a row of dwellings erected during recent years for the men 
working in the adjoining Tor Granite Quarries of Messrs. Duke and 
Company. The stone is conveyed by road to the railway at Tavistock, 
which town is 4^- miles from the bridge. 

On the common between the road leading from the bridge towards 
Princetown and Great Mis Tor, which rises high above the left bank 
of the Walkham, are some deep cuttings of the tinners, and close to 
the stream the remains of two small buildings in which they smelted 
their ore are to be seen. The rambler will find these on the left bank, 
the first being about a furlong above the bridge. A door jamb marks 
the entrance, and near to this is a mould stone. The mould is a large 
one, being about 18 inches in length, and as usual has bevelled sides. 
In one end of it is a notch, no doubt intended for the more easy with- 
drawal of the block of metal. In the stone there is also a tiny mould, 
four inches long. Similar small cavities are to be seen in other mould 
stones on the moor, and it is thought they were intended for sample 
ingots. Above the house traces of a leat are observable, by which 
water was probably conducted to a wheel. Under the house is a small 
culvert leading from that part of the building in which the wheel 
appears to have stood. Another stone will be noticed in this blowing- 
house which has been hollowed out in the manner of a shallow trough. 
This it is not unlikely formed the bottom of the furnace, in the midst of 
the remains of which it lies. The second building will be found about 
half-a-mile further up stream. Here also is a stone with a large and 
small mould, as well as the remains of a leat. 

Near the head waters of the Walkham are other mining remains ; 
these are briefly noticed in the excursions from Lydford. (Ex. 10). 

In making his way back to the road the rambler may forsake the 
guidance of the river, and keeping a little up the hillside pass Over Tor, 
where Mrs. Bray alighted upon a rock basin filled with water, and 
having washed her hands in it her husband bestowed upon it the name 
of " Mrs. Bray's Wash-hand Basin." 

On Long Ash Hill, above Merivale Bridge, are the well-known 
stone rows.* To reach these from the bridge the rambler will pass up 

* This group of remains was formerly known in the neighbourhood 
as the Potato Market, and also as the Plague Market, and a tradition 
stated that provisions were brought here by the country people and 



EXCURSION I. ANTIQUITIES AT MERIVALE. 27 

the Princetown road for a short distance, and will then strike up across 
the common to the R., when the tall menhir near the Long Ash 
enclosures will come in sight and serve as a guide to the other objects 
of which he is in search. There are two rows, both being double, 
and some faint indications of a third nearer to the menhir. The 
direction of the two former is nearly due east and west, and they are 
roughly parallel to each other. The length of these rows of stones 
has been variously given, showing discrepancies of about 200 feet in 
the northern row and about 300 feet in the southern. This reminds 
us of what used to be said of the Giant's Grave, near Kenford. It 
was formerly marked by two stones, and the country people declared 
that no matter how often the distance between them was measured 
the result was never the same. But some who have used the tape 
at Merivale have proved a little more fortunate, for the measurements 
of the rows given by Sir Gardner Wilkinson have been verified by 
more than one.j The length of the southern row is 850 feet, and 
that of the northern 590. About the middle of the former is a stone 
circle, and at the eastern end of the latter a large stone. This is placed 
between the lines, and closes the end of the row, as it were. Near the 
north-western end of the southern row is a small cairn, much 
dilapidated, and about 600 feet south-east of this, and also near the 
same row, is a ruined kistvaen. This was formerly regarded as a 
dolmen, or cromlech, and is marked as such on a plate illustrating a 
paper by the Rev. Samuel Rowe, in the first volume of the Transaction 
of the Plymouth Institution (1830) ; and it is also so marked on a plate 
accompanying the paper in which these remains are mentioned by 
Sir Gardner Wilkinson. Unfortunately the cover stone is broken, 
and one of the side stones also. This damage was done about the year 
1860 ; gate posts being cut from the former, and part of the latter 
being removed. Over thirty years later an examination was made of the 
kist, and a flint scraper and flake and polishing stone were found. 
About 300 feet southward of the small dilapidated cairn previously 
mentioned, and not far from the menhir, are the remains of a stone 
circle. The menhir, which stands on the line of the old Tavistock 
and Ashburton track (T. i, 7, 56), and which was in this part of its 
course identical with a branch of the Abbots' Way (T. i), is a good 
example. Its height is ten and a half feet. 

Near by is a corner formed by the walls of the Long Ash enclosures, 
and here there is a gateway, whence a path leads towards the farm 
house. Built into this wall is the half of a large circular stone, about 
ten feet in diameter. 

North-eastward of the rows, and not very far from the road, is a 
small enclosure formed of upright blocks set on their edges in the 
ground. Hut circles occur within and without it, and in some of these 
charcoal has been found. A large number of these ruined dwellings 
are also to be seen northward of the road, on the slope above the 

deposited as supplies for Tavistock, at a time when the plague ravaged 
that town. See Tamar and Tavy. Letter IX. 

f The Merivale remains are drawn to scale and figured in Sir 
Gardiner Wilkinson's paper, entitled, The Rock Basins of Dartmoor, 
and some British Remains in England, Journal of the British Archa?o- 
logical Assoc., 1860. 



PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

Walkham. (Ex. 6). Near the enclosure is a round stone resting on 
some supporters. Visitors are cautioned not to allow their antiquarian 
zeal to carry them so far as to suppose this to be a dolmen. It is true 
that a well-known archaeologist once made this mistake, but with the 
history of the stone before us there can be no danger of our doing so. 
He afterwards discovered that what he had regarded as an ancient 
monument had been fashioned by a man then living in the vicinity. 
The piece of granite had been intended for a millstone, but was found 
to be unfitted for the purpose. 

The stones in the Long Ash rows and circles are small, and the 
general effect cannot be said to be particularly striking. Finer 
examples of the stone row exist on Dartmoor, as we shall see, but at 
the same time it must be confessed that the megalithic monuments 
on the moor are not imposing. Of pounds and remains of ancient 
habitations fine examples exist there, but the same cannot be said of 
the sepulchral circles, while the stones in many of the rows rise only 
a foot or so above the turf. This is the more surprising seeing that in 
so many parts of the moor stones of large size and of suitable shape 
are scattered abundantly over the surface of the ground. One has 
only to look upon the clatter on the slope of Mis Tor to see what 
a striking effect might have been produced had choice been made 
of the kind of stones found there instead of such comparatively 
small ones as compose the rows. It is the vast number of its stone 
remains that renders Dartmoor remarkable from an archaeological 
point of view, and not the size or importance of individual groups 
of antiquities. 

But though the visitor to Merivale may be somewhat disappointed 
when he views the long lines of stones, and remembers what he has 
read of Carnac, he will certainly not fail to be pleased with his sur- 
roundings. And after all, it is the scenery of Dartmoor and not its 
antiquities that constitutes its chief charm. In its wildness, its old 
associations, and its stories of other days, the visitor will probably find 
an attraction far greater than in the mouldering monuments of its early 
people, important as these may seem to the antiquary. As the late 
Mr. W. F. Collier has well observed, " in comparison to the work of 
nature all interest in them vanishes." 

From the plateau near the menhir we look across the Walkham 
valley, and in a direction about W.S.W. see the piles of Pu Tor ; to 
the right of these, and much nearer to us, is the granite mass of Vixen 
Tor, and still further to the right, and immediately below us, the 
hamlet of Merivale. On the ridge above it are placed Mid Staple Tor 
and Great Staple Tor, and further north, Roose Tor. To the N.N.E. 
Great Mis Tor, the giant of the moor, uplifts his rocky crest. Turning 
to the south we see King Tor, with the Princetown Railway winding 
round its base. 

The guide stones marking the old Tavistock and Ashburton track 
(T. i, 7, 56) and bearing the letters T and A [Ancient Crosses, Chap. 
XIV.] may be seen on this part of the common, leading from the 
menhir eastward. 

These guide stones run towards Yellowmead Farm, which will be 
noticed on the hillside, E. A short distance from the lower corner 
of the farm enclosures is a pound having hut circles within it. 

Leaving the rows we make our way to the road, and passing up 



EXCURSION I. BUNDLE STONE. 29 

the hill shall shortly reach the Mission Room. Just beyond this we 
cross the Long Ash Brook near its source, and here a road turns R. 
to the Foggin Tor granite quarries, passing the Red Cottages. About 
a quarter of a mile further on we reach the first of the dewllings at 
Rundle Stone. Opposite to a row of granite posts on the right of the 
way is the wall of an enclosure. It was close to this wall that a school- 
master belonging to the prison at Princetown lost his life in the snow 
many years ago. When on his way home from Tavistock snow com- 
menced to fall, and though urged to remain for the night in a cottage 
at which he called, near Moor Shop (R. i), he determined to continue 
his journey. I have been told by one who was present that he appeared 
very anxious to get to his home, saying that he feared his wife would 
be alarmed if he did not return that night. After his departure the 
storm increased in fury, and the next day his body was found at the 
spot indicated. It was said that he possessed some artistic skill, and 
that the very last picture he produced represented a man meeting his 
death in the snow. [100 Years, Chap. X.] 

It is not so very long since that the dwellings at Rundle Stone 
were mere miserable huts, as the ruins of some still attest. Passing 
on, with Mount View, a modern house, on the I/., we soon reach the 
site of the object that gave name to this spot. This was a granite 
pillar known as the Rundle Stone, which stood on the forest boundary 
line. It is not named as a bondmark in any of the surveys, but was, 
however, recognized as such in 1702. It was formerly to be seen on 
the S. of the way, immediately opposite to the modern boundary stone, 
which we shall observe on the L. This bears the names of the parishes 
that here meet each other Lydford and Walkhampton and on 
passing it we again enter the forest. The Rundle Stone was broken up 
several years ago, when a wall was being built near by. It is much to 
be regretted that an ancient landmark should have been wantonly 
destroyed ; unfortunately the spoliator has been busy on Dartmoor,, 
and has swept away many interesting objects. About the year 1881 
I took measurements of the Rundle Stone. It stood 7 feet above the 
stones in which it was set, and was four feet in girth. Near the top 
was the letter R, cut in relief. It is marked on a map dated 1720 as a 
" Great stone call'd Roundle." Rundle Stone Tor is a short distance 
up the hill to the south. 

A few yards further on, and exactly six miles from Tavistock, is 
Rundle Stone Corner, where a road branches R. to Princetown ; the 
Duchy Hotel is i-J- miles distant. This we shall follow, and shortly 
after passing the prison shall enter the town. If our destination be 
Two Bridges, 2 m., we keep straight on from Rundle Stone, crossing 
the Blackabrook on our way. 

[A direct route from Princetown to Yes Tor Bottom has been 
given. Direct route to Ward Bridge : First to Yes Tor Bottom thence 
down the common W. by S. to the moor gate near Withill Farm. 
Those who prefer to do so may make their way from Princetown to the 
Long Ash Rows by North Hisworthy Tor, instead of taking the road to 
Rundle Stone as described in S. Ex. 3. From the tor the way lies N.W. 
to Hollow Tor, which is near by and in sight, and then down by the Red 
Cottages. Thence down the hill W., crossing the Long Ash Brook, to 
the rows. The road to Merivale Bridge is described in Route i.] 



30 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

Ex. 2. Hart Tor Cr amber Tor Crazy Well Pool Roundy Farm 
Lcther Tor Bridge Riddy Pit Mining Houses on the Mew Raddick 
Hill Stone Rows near Black Tor. About 7 miles from and to Prince- 
town. EXTENSION to Hingston Hill Stone Rows add 2 miles. ALTERNATIVE 
RETURN ROUTE from Crazy Well by Older Bridge and South Hisworthy. 
DIRECT ROUTE to Siward's Cross, 2^ m. from Princetown. 

One of the curiosities of Walkhampton Common is Crazy Well 
Pool, which, unlike the more famous Cranmere Pool in the northern 
part of the moor, is really deserving of its title. Between the pool and 
Princetown, from which it is distant about 2-i- miles, are several objects 
of antiquarian interest, and the border scenery being of a fine character, 
the rambler should not neglect to visit it. 

We leave Princetown by the Plymouth road as in Ex. i , but when 
reaching a gate on the R. near the top of Devil's Bridge Hill, shall 
forsake it and strike across the common L., our course now being 
.almost due S. Ahead of us are seen two tors, the left hand one being 
Sheeps Tor and the other Lether Tor. We make for a point about 
midway between these two, and very soon Hart Tor, which is quite 
near to us, comes into view, in a direct line with Sheeps Tor, but much 
under it. Other rock piles seen to the R. of Lether Tor are Sharp Tor 
and Leedon Tor, with Inga Tor far down below the latter. Beyond 
Hart Tor, and on the further side of the Mew, is Black Tor. A straight 
line to Crazy Well Pool would leave Hart Tor a little to the right, but 
the rambler will perhaps hardly pass it by without a visit. As we 
progress other tors come into view. Pu Tor and Heckwood Tor 
(Ex. 7), on the downs beyond the Walkham Valley, will be observed 
on the R., as also will Swell Tor, the latter marking the site of the 
granite quarries, which are comparatively near to us, while behind us 
the summit of North Hisworthy is seen. On the slope down which we 
pass before commencing the ascent of the tor is a cluster of hut circles 

In itself Hart Tor presents nothing remarkable, though it is rather 
striking when seen from some points, particularly from Black Tor, 
but the view from it is good. In addition to the tors already named 
a dozen others, are in sight, including the range beyond Merivale, with 
Mis Tor, and Higher and Lower White Tor. Brent Tor, with its 
little church, rises N.W. by W., and far awav to the N. is the summit 
of the lonely Cut Hill. 

On the slope south-westward of the tor are a pair of stone rows. 
These are noticed further on. 

Our next point is Cramber Tor, which is about half-a-mile distant, 
in a direction S. by E. We therefore descend to the Hart Tor Brook, 
which we shall cross at a ford, and find ourselves on the Princetown 
and Kingsett track (T. 3). This will, however, afford us little guidance 
here, as it is by no means clearly defined ; but we shall hardly need 
any, for ere we have proceeded very far up the hill in front of us we 
come in sight of the tor. On reaching it we shall find that our view 
southward is greatly extended. 

Hen Tor and Gutter Tor, in the Plym Valley, are seen, with Shell 
Top, the height overlooking Cornwood, beyond. Across the valley 
below us is Down Tor, with Combeshead Tor to the L. of it. Between 
these two tors and Sheeps Tor, whose giant bulk here looms largely, 
is the beautiful Dean Combe (Ex. 38). To the L. of Sheeps Tor we 



EXCURSION 2. CRAZY WELL POOL. 

look far away to the Staddon Heights, on the eastern side of Plymouth 
Sound. A striking feature in the scene is the Burrator Lake (Ex. 39) 




BURRATOR I.AKE FROM CRAMBER TOR. 

with Lether Tor, the fine proportions of which are strikingly presented 
from this point, rising above its northern shore. We get a glimpse of 
Yennadon, and a view of the distant Kit Hill, on the Cornish side of 
the Tamar, an eminence conspicuous in all this part of the moor. It 
is marked by a lofty mine chimney on its crest. 

Leaving this spot, the view from which is rendered so impressive 
t>y the fine grouping of the nearer tors, we shall make our way to Crazy 
Well Bridge, where the cart track to Kingsett crosses the Devonport 
Leat. This is about three furlongs distant, and if we pursue a course 
due S. we shall not fail to strike it. The pool is situated just below, 
but is not visible until we reach the edge of the deep hollow in which 
the waters are gathered. That this hollow is artificial is evident at a 
glance. It is an excavation of the tinners, who were once very busy 
on this part of the common, as even a cursory examination will show. 
It is said to cover about an acre of ground. Its depth is about 1 5 feet, 
though it used to be related on the moor how the bellropes belonging 
to Walkhampton Church were once tied together and let down into 
it, and yet no bottom was found. It was also said to rise and fall with 
the tide ; but that was " yeers agone." That the water does, however, 
sometimes rise very rapidly, we shall probably not care to dispute if 
we have ever experienced a true Dartmoor downpour. 

In my Ancient Stone Crosses of Dartmoor there is a brief notice of 
Crazy Well Pool (Chap. X.), and in connection with it mention is made 
of a poem by the Rev. John Johns, entitled, Gaveston on Dartmoor. 
There was formerly a tradition in the forest that the favourite of 
Edward II. sought concealment there during one of his banishments 
from Court. Mr. Johns, with a poet's license, discovers Gavestoii at 
early morn beside the waters of Crazy Well, where he meets the Witch 
of Sheeps Tor, and his fate is revealed to him, though he does not read 
the prophecy aright. But no tradition regarding Gaveston is found 
in the neighbourhood of Crazy Well ; the choice of the spot for the 
scene of the poem was merely fanciful on the part of its author. 
Whether another story of a knight who came secretly to Dartmoor, 
and which is related further on (Ex. 20), has any reference to the 
favourite I cannot say, but it belongs to the eastern side of the forest 



32 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

and not to Walkhampton Common. Gaveston held the forest under 
grant from Edward II. At his death it reverted to the Crown. 

A short distance southward of the pool is the track leading from 
Lowery to White Works, which is formed on the line of an ancient 
one running across the forest to Dartmeet and Holne. This is the 
track which, as already mentioned (T. 2), the discovery of certain 
stone crosses revealed to me. A portion of one of the objects that 
evidently marked its course, consisting only of the head and arms, is 
to be seen near the N.E. corner of the pool. Its original site was 
probably a little nearer to the old path. [Crosses, Chap. X.] 

Not far from Crazy Well Pool are the ruins of Roundy farmhouse, 
and thither we shall now direct our steps. A gully will be seen ex- 
tending from the S. side of the pool, and this we must leave on the L 
as we descend the slope. We soon come in sight of some enclosures, 
R., within which, and a short distance above the track just referred to, 
the remains of the ancient homestead are situated. The building 
below us, and on the further side of the track, is Kingsett farm house, 
and a little over a quarter of a mile to the E., or I/., of this, though not 
in sight, are the ruins of another, which bears the same name as the 
pool. In the valley is the Newleycombe Lake, a stream that joins the 
Mew immediately below Nosworthy Bridge, and very near to the upper 
end of the Burrator Lake (Ex. 39). 

Roundy Farm is interesting as an example of an old Dartmoor 
dwelling, though there are several on the moor that boast a far greater 
antiquity. A stone over the doorway bears the letters R.C., and the 
date 1668, cut in relief, and about six inches in height. The initials 
have been thought to be those of Richard Cryrnes, whose family were 
long seated at Crapstone, in Buckland Monachorum parish, and to 
which the manor was granted at the Dissolution. Crapstone was 
built by them, and afterwards became the property of the Elfords by 
purchase. (Yelverton District). If the date on the stone is that of 
the erection of the house, and not of a restoration, it is not improbable 
that the latter was built on the site of a still older dwelling. There 
were farm enclosures on this common at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, and it is more than likely that Roundy was one of these. 
The jury which made a presentment respecting the forest, in 1609, 
refer to this part of the moor, and speak of " certayne howses " that 
had been erected there, and of land that had been enclosed. In going 
through the ruins the large fireplace will be noticed, also a recess in the 
wall, and in the garden what was evidently a cooling-place for butter. 

Northward of the farmhouse, and inside the enclosures, are a 
number of hut circles, some of them being good examples. There is 
one small circular enclosure of a kind not usually met with. This will 
be found a short distance above the ruin. 

Before setting out on his return to Princetown the visitor who is 
interested in mining remains will do well to visit Riddy Pit, where are 
some stones with hollows in them. To do this he will make his way 
down to the track below Roundy, and turning right will follow it to 
Lether Tor Bridge, a clapper of two openings, but evidently not of very 
ancient construction. Just above the bridge he will notice a track run- 
ning up on the left bank of the Mew. This will lead him to Riddy 
Pit, which is indeed quite near, and where are the ruins of two houses. 
A little beyond these he will find the stones with the cavities. They 



EXCURSION 2. REMAINS ON KINGSTON HILL. 33 

now form part of the paving of the rough track. Close by is an old 
wall, and near to this, and built into the hedge, is a stone in which 
there is a circular cavity on each side. Another curious stone having 
a rounded top, and with a small piece of iron leaded into it, will also be 
seen. This was probably the upper stone of a crushing mill. On his 
way back the rambler may strike L. at about a quarter of a mile from 
the bridge, into Raddick Lane, and so gain the common northward of 
Roundy Farm. 

Below Lether Tor Bridge the Mew flows between farm enclosures, 
and by the edge of the common, to Nosworthy Bridge. The latter we 
have named as an important point in the Princetown District, as it 
marks the confluence, as already stated, of the Mew and Newleycombe 
Lake. A track opposite to Raddick Lane leads down to it (R. 8), but 
the approach most frequently used branches from the Lowery road at 
Cross Gate. The bridge is noticed in the excursions from Yelverton. 
(Ex. 39), 

[Extension from Crazy Well Pool to Hingston Hill. On that part 
of the common bearing the name of Hingston Hill, and situated to 
the south of Newleycombe Lake, is an interesting group of pre-historic 
remains, and these the visitor may very well include in the present 
ramble. Having examined Roundy Farm he will make his way to 
the track before referred to (T. 2), and leaving Kingsett on the R. 
will pass down by the ruins of Crazy Well Farm, to which a path 
branches, and descend to Newleycombe Lake. There is a fording 
place where he will strike the stream, but usually it can be crossed at 
any point without much difficulty. If preferred the rambler may turn 
R. on reaching the track, and then L. to Kingsett. If he does this 
he will find just across the stream, and opposite to the farm house, a 
ruined building, very much overgrown. It is so decayed that it is 
not possible to determine its character, but it may have been connected 
with mining operations. A stone with a cavity will be observed 
in the doorway, and this seems to indicate that such was the case. 
The hollow has all the appearance of an unfinished tin mould. 
But whether the stream be crossed below Crazy Well or Kingsett, the 
visitor will have no difficulty in discovering the object that has brought 
him to this part of Walkhampton Common. He will mount the hill, 
keeping a course about S.E., with Down Tor on his R., and the remains, 
which are less than half a mile from the stream, will soon come in 
sight. These consist of a single row of stones running nearly east 
and west, with a menhir at each end. Very near to the western 
menhir, which is much the higher of the two, is a stone circle about 
36 feet in diameter, enclosing a barrow. About 300 yards from the 
eastern menhir is a cairn 50 feet or more in diameter, and not far 
distant is a pound. Some of the stones is the row are of large size, 
and the monument is more than usually striking. The menhirs, which 
had fallen, were set up in the summer of 1894. The length of the row 
is about 340 yards. South of the row is Combeshead Tor, and below 
this is the charming Dean Combe, both of which are noticed in the 
Yelverton Excursions. (Ex. 39). Returning to the stream we may 
cross it at Kingsett Steps, below the farm, and, mounting the hill, shall 
once more find ourselves on the common near Roundy.] 

Passing onward from Roundy with the enclosures L., our course 
at first being northerly and then N.W., we soon come in sight of 

Dl 



34 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

Stanlake Farm (Ex. i), on the opposite side of the valley. Shortly 
after we reach the Devonport leat, where it runs down the side of a steep 
hill, the water forming one long rapid, to an aqueduct known locally 
as Iron Bridge, which carries it over the river. We follow it to that 
point, where it is easily crossed, and shall then make our way up the 
L. bank of the Mew to its confluence with the Hart Tor Brook, in the 
midst of an extensive stream work. We cross the brook, and then the 
Mew itself, and shortly afterwards reach one of the beauty spots of 
Dartmoor. This is Black Tor Pall, where the stream comes swiftly 
round a heathery bank to glide over moss-covered stones ; where 
dripping ferns margin the waters, and the mountain ash waves her 
branches gracefully above them. 

In this charming little dell are two mining houses, one on each 
side of the stream, and both are worthy of examination. The one on 
the eastern bank has the doorway in a particularly perfect state. It 
is about 5 feet high, and rather over 3 feet wide. There is a groove in 
the jamb and the lintel for the door. On one side of it is a wheel pit, 
the wall of which is built of very large stones. The building measures 
22 feet by 16. The ruin on the western bank is not so large, measuring 
only 1 6 feet by 12. In this one the chimney to the height of several 
feet was until recently intact. In August, 1907, a colt belonging to 
Mrs. Gill, of Stanlake, fell into it, and was imprisoned in the wide 
hearth for three days, when it was rescued by Mr. Pearse, of Kingsett, 
who noticed its dam grazing near by. This, however, could only be 
accomplished by destroying the chimney. Two stones having circular 
cavities in them are to be seen here ; these were probably mortars in 
which the tin ore was pounded. To reach this spot direct from Prince- 
town the rambler will proceed as in Ex. i, and soon after passing 
Double Waters will leave the road and make his way to Black Tor, 
which he will see on the common left. The Mew is just below the tor, 
and by following it downward for a short distance he will be led to 
the dell. 

[On the further side of the stream work, in a S.E. direction, is a 
pound of an irregular shape on the slope of Raddick Hill. It contains 
several hut circles, and in one of these a fine vessel of rude hand-made 
pottery was found intact by Mr. Robert Burnard, when exploring the 
remains in 1895. It measured ioi inches in height, and was 10 inches 
in diameter at the top. Unfortunately, the bottom of the vessel went 
to pieces when it was taken out of the cooking hole in which it was 
discovered. In the other huts cooking stones, flint, and sherds were 
found. On Raddick Hill there are also several barrows. Should the 
rambler desire to visit Raddick Hill on his way from Roundy Farm, 
the best plan will be for him to cross the Devonport leat at Crazy Well 
Bridge, and then proceed north-westward with the leat on his L. To 
reach the hill direct from Princetown he can go either by way of Black 
Tor, or Hart Tor. From the former the pound bears about S.E., and 
from the latter about S.W., and is plainly visible from both points. 
It is on the hillside just above the Hart Tor Brook.] 

Passing upward from the little dell we speedily reach Black Tor 
Ford, where we shall cross the stream. On the slope between the ford 
and Hart Tor, but much nearer the former, are two stone rows, one 
double and the other single. They each start from a cairn, the one at 
the commencement of the double row being placed within a stone 



EXCURSION 2. The Newleycombe Valley. Older Bridge. 35 

circle. They are here about 36 feet apart, but they do not run parallel, 
and that distance is doubled at their termination. The length of the 
double row is about 460 feet, and of the single one 260 feet. A tinners' 
working crosses these remains. The visitor will have no difficulty 
in finding them whether they be approached from the ford or 
from Hart Tor, if he follows a straight course from one object to the 
other. 

Passing Hart Tor we regain the high road at the top of Devil's 
Bridge Hill, where we left it on setting out on our excursion ; or, if 
the rambler prefers it, he may make his way to the road by tracing 
the stream upward. 

[ALTERNATIVE ROUTE from Crazy Well Pool to Princetown. Older 
Bridge Siward's Cross South Hisworthy Tor. Add 2 m. 

If the remains in the valley of the Mew have already been visited, 
or if it is intended to visit them direct from Princetown, the rambler 
may prefer to return from Crazy Well Pool by another route than the 
one already sketched, as offering a change of scenery. Supposing this 
to be decided upon, we shall follow the track (T. 2) below the pool up 
the valley, our direction being easterly. When we have advanced 
about half a mile we shall pass a broken cross lying on the ground a 
short distance to the R. of the way. Only the head and arms, and the 
socket stone in which the shaft was fixed, now remain. [Crosses, 
Chap. X.] The view from this point, looking down the valley, is good. 
Among the tors Sheeps Tor and Down Tor are conspicuous, while 
Lether Tor, and its companion Sharp Tor, present a particularly fine 
appearance. 

As we proceed along the track we shall not fail to be struck with 
the great amount of work the " old men " performed here. On every 
hand are evidences of their labours in search of tin, and that they 
were rewarded with success can hardly be doubted. That the valley 
was rich in the metal is shown by the fact that where they delved the 
more modern mining adventurer has also conducted operations. Less 
than half-a-mile from the broken cross we reach a ravine, called in the 
neighbourhood Drivage Bottom, near the head of which our track 
crosses the Devonport leat at Older Bridge. We are, however, not 
now on the line of the ancient track. That kept a little lower down 
the hill, and passed direct from the cross just noticed to Siward's, or 
Nun's, Cross, the interesting object already mentioned as a forest 
bondmark. (T. 1,2). It may be reached from Older Bridge by follow- 
ing the Devonport leat upward, and will be found very near where this 
enters an adit, or tunnel, 1,400 yards in length. 

Before describing this cross it will perhaps be well to sketch the 
route to it from Princetown direct. Should the rambler not include 
it in the present excursion, he will pass up to the head of the ravine 
above Older Bridge, and pursuing a northerly course will soon come in 
sight of an enclosure. The wall of this he will keep on his R., and, 
passing South Hisworthy Tor (rather over i m. from the bridge), will 
reach the gate opening upon Ivybridge Lane. (T. 6). For the pathway 
inside the wall see post.] 

[From Princetown to Siward's Cross. Leaving the town by way of 
Ivybridge Lane (T. 6), we soon gain the common, and ere we have 
proceeded very far shall notice a stile in the wall on the L. Here a 



36 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

path leads to South Hisworthy Tor and Peat Cot (Ex. 3), and we may 
avail ourselves of it if we will. It is carried along a bank raised to the 
level of the top of the wall, and will bring us direct to the tor named. 
As we proceed we notice the bond stones that mark the limits of the 
forest between this pile of rocks and North Hisworthy Tor, and which 
we were able to see when on our way to the latter. On the top of 
South Hisworthy, which is usually known in the vicinity as Look 
Out Tor, is an iron spike. From the tor the path to Peat Cot (Ex. 3) 

Ter 
Hill. 




PEAT COT FROM SOUTH HISWORTHY TOR. 

runs down across the newtake L., but we continue on our way by the 
wall, and on reaching the corner of the enclosure, climb over it and 
regain the common. Those who do not care for the work of scaling 
had perhaps better make their way along the common outside the wall. 
At the corner referred to this wall must be left, and a course the same 
as that previously followed from the tor, that is to say about S.S.E., 
must be kept. Very soon we shall strike a reave which here marks 
the forest boundary, and by following this we shall be led directly to 
the cross, which is under 2\ miles from the Duchy Hotel. The track 
passed about 4- mile S. of the newtake corner leads to Peat Cot, and a 
branch passed further on to the White Works (Ex. 3). It comes up 
from Older Bridge, to which point we followed it in the previous ex- 
cursion.] 

More than one of the Dartmoor crosses is referred to in documents 
relating to the forest and commons, but none receives so early a 
mention as Siward's Cross. It is named as a forest bondmark by the 
perambulators of 1240, who draw the line from " Elysburghe " (now 
Eylesbarrow) " et sic linealiter usque at crucem Sywardi," but that it 
was in existence long before that time there is good reason for believing. 
Standing on the line of a branch of the Abbots' Way (T. i), it may 
possibly have been set up by the monks of Tavistock as a mark to 
that path, and their house was founded before the close of the tenth 
century ; but it is quite likely that it is of rather later erection, and that 
its name is indicative of the period. There could never have been 
much traffic over this branch of the Abbots' Way, and during the earlier 
years of Tavistock Abbey it is questionable whether there was any. 
We may with more probability look upon the cross as having been 
erected in the time of the Confessor, when Siward, Earl of Northumber- 



EXCURSION 2. SIWARD'S CROSS. 37 

land, held the manors of Tavei and Wifleurde. The former was prob- 
ably the manor of Mary Tavy, in the parish of that name, and the 
latter has been thought to be Warne, a former manor in the same 
parish, but I am now inclined to regard it as being the manor of 
Willsworthy, in the parish of Peter Tavy. Worthy, a farm place, 
appears in the Devonshire Domesday as orda, orde, and urde, and while 
Wifleurde might become Willsworthy, it is difficult to see how the 
name could have changed its form to Warne. The manor of Wills- 
worthy includes a considerable portion of the moor (see L,ydford 
District), and abuts on the forest, which latter was also probably held 
by the earl. There are several instances of the royal hunting ground 
having been granted temporarily to a subject. It will be noticed that 
the earl's name is graven on that side of the cross which looks towards 
the forest. The letters are not particularly clear, but there is no 
uncertainty about them except that the second may be either an 
"i" or a "y." 

The inscription on the western side of the cross is one that puzzled 
antiquaries for a long time, and it was not until my book on the crosses 
of the moor appeared (ist Ed., 1884) that this was understood. It had 
been variously read as Roolande, Bod Bond, and Booford, but after 
much careful examination of the letters, coupled with various refer- 
ences, I was able to decipher them. The inscription is BOC LOI1D, 
the ancient form of Buckland,* and the name was in all probability cut 
on the cross by the Monks of Buckland Abbey to mark the limits of 
their lands, which included the manor of Walkhampton, which extends 
as we have seen, to the boundary line of the forest. These lands were 
given by Amicia, Countess of Devon, to endow the abbey, and the gift 
was confirmed by her daughter, Isabella de Portibus. Immediately 
above the name a small incised cross will be observed. 

This interesting relic is seven feet four inches in height, and 
measures two feet eight inches across the arms. It will be noticed 
that the shaft is broken, and is now held together by an iron clamp on 
each side. This damage resulted from the cross being intentionally 
thrown down by two lads when searching for cattle in this part of the 
moor. This was in 1846, but it was soon after repaired by a stone 
mason, named John Newcombe. 

I have ventured to suggest elsewhere that the second name of the 
cross may be derived from the Cornu-Celtic word nans, a valley, dale, 
or ravine, standing, as it does at the head of the Swincombe valley. 
But it is quite possible that Nuns is a comparatively modern name, or 
corruption of one. The earliest record of it is in 1699, when it appears 
as Nannecross. A full account of this interesting object is given in 
the book to which reference has just been made. [Crosses, Chap. 
IX.] 

Quite near to the cross is Nun's Cross Farm, enclosed about 1870 
by John Hooper. Some years ago a modern dwelling-house took the 
place of the quaint little thatched cottage that he erected. Near by 
are the remains of Nun's Cross Mine. 

(For route from Siward's Cross to Childe's Tomb, see Rx. 3). 

To return to Princetown we follow the reave northward, with the 
farm enclosures on the R. When these latter are passed we continue 

* Boc Land, i.e., Book Land, or land held bv charter. 



3 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

on the same course, and at the distance of nearly a mile from the cross 
shall reach the corner of the newtake already noticed. The wall will 
then become our guide to South Hisworthy Tor, and to the moor gate 
at the end of Ivybridge Lane. (T. 6). 

(This excursion may be extended to Childe's Tomb. See Ex. 3). 



Ex. 3. Peat Cot White Works Fox Tor Mire Childe's Tomb- 
Fox Tor Mining Remains Kists in Tor Royal Newtake. 7 m. from 
and to Princetown. With route from Siward's Cross to Childe's Tomb, 
1 4- m. ; from Peat Cot to Princetown by the leat, 2 m. ; and direct route 
to the kists in Tor Royal Newtake. 

Leaving Princetown by the road leading to Tor Royal we shall 
make our way to Peat Cot, as in T. 7, for the purpose of visiting the 
Swincombe valley, in which are several objects of interest. (On reach- 
ing the entrance to South Hisworthy House, R., which is just beyond 
Tor Gate, L., we shall notice a gate L. of it, and into this it will be 
worth while to turn for a few minutes. In the second field is a circle 
resembling the fringe of a turfy mound, 36 yards in diameter, and 
within this is another, across which is a short piece of wall cutting off 
a segment of it). Shortly before the road reaches Peat Cot we leave 
it and enter a field L., where a footpath runs to the hamlet. 

Peat Cot may also be reached by way of Ivybridge Lane (T. 6, 
Ex. 2). At South Hisworthy Tor strike into the green path L., and 
descend to Castle Road. Vide supra. 

From Two Bridges Peat Cot may best be reached by way of 
Round Hill Farm. The visitor will cross the Blackabrook at the steps 
S. of the farmhouse, and then strike S.W. over Tor Royal Newtake, 
leaving Tor Royal House R., to the corner of the enclosures in front 
of the latter. Thence as in R. 34. To go direct to Childe's Tomb 
from the steps a course S. by E. must be followed across the newtake, 
keeping Royal Hill R. This will bring the rambler to the hunting-gate 
mentioned post. From Prince Hall Lodge to the tomb, see R. 27. 

Peat Cot, though not dating back to early times like Babeny, or 
Pizwell, or Hexworthy, is yet not devoid of interest. It shows what 
the nineteenth century settler has been able to accomplish on Dart- 
moor, and is a realization of a small part of Sir Thomas Tyrwhitt's 
dream. The mother of Peat Cot, Charlotte Worth, died in March, 1906, 
aged ninety-four, and in possession of all her faculties. She came of a 
long-lived stock ; not, however, natives of Dartmoor, but of Wembury, 
on the coast near the mouth of the Yealm. Mrs. Worth's father, 
Richard Edwards, died at White Works, aged ninety-nine ; his mother 
lived till she was over a hundred, as also did his brother. Peat Cot, 
which is fairly sheltered from the westerly winds that are so detri- 
mental to the agriculturists on the moor, consists of a few small farms. 
The Devonport leat runs quite close to it, and is carried round the hill 
on the side of which the settlement is situated. 

Leaving this little group of Dartmoor dwellings we pass over the 
hill to the S.E., and make our way to White Works, which place is less 
than half- a- mile distant. Just before reaching the first of the cottages 
we again meet the Devonport leat as it comes round the hill from the 
E., and this we cross by a granite footbridge. White Works owes its 



EXCURSION 3. WHITE WORKS. FOX TOR MIRE. 39 

existence and its name to a mine. This has been closed for some years, 
hut the evidences of it are abundant around the few dwellings that now 
constitute the place. We remember when two large waterwheels 
were to be seen revolving here, and when the blacksmith's hammer 
was constantly heard ringing on the anvil. For some time the mine 
was worked by Mr. Moses Bawden, of Tavistock, a gentleman who has 
been connected with other similar operations on the moor of an exten- 
sive character. Those who now live at White Works look not to the 
bowels of the earth for their support, but to its surface. By breeding 
ponies and rearing other stock, and doing such labour as their hands 
may find for them to do, they contrive to get a living, and if the prize 
of wealth is not to be obtained, they have what is far more than its 
equivalent health. 

The cottages fir;?t reached are of recent erection, and take the 
place of older ones that had gone to decay. Those seen lower down 
are part of the original settlement, and with their thatched roofs 
present a picturesque appearance. Around them are the grey walls 
of a number of small enclosures. 

The wide flat in front of White Works is Fox Tor Mire, and looking 
across this in a S.E. direction, a tor will be observed, the only one that 
is here in sight. This is Fox Tor, and below it, and a little to the L., 
a plain piece of ground will be seen, which is known as Sand Parks. 
Here, if the visitor looks carefully, he will notice a dark object. Its 
form cannot be distinguished at this distance, but it is the tomb to 
examine which is one of the objects of our present excursion. 

[Before leaving White Works it will be well to mention two objects 
described post (in the route from Siward's Cross to Childe's Tomb), as 
the rambler may wish to take them on his way to Sand Parks, instead 
of proceeding by the more direct way hereafter sketched. The first 
of these is a cross on the further side of the mire, and the other a stone 
pillar near Wheal Anne Bottom. To reach the cross, which is about 
half-a-mile S.E. by S. of White Works, the visitor will pass over the 
upper end of the mire. This he may readily do, as the few swampy 
places in this part of it are easily avoided. He should not, however, 
attempt to cross it lower down. Though not so dangerous as formerly, 
there are yet many parts of it where the ground is treacherous, and it 
is as well to give it a wide berth. A branch of the Swincombe river, 
here only a small brook, runs through the middle of it. On the further 
side, i.e., the south, the ground rises, and some short distance up the 
slope is a new newtake wall. The cross is about midway between 
the edge of the mire and this wall. It is set up on a rock, and around 
it is much scattered granite. Wheal Anne Bottom is westward of the 
cross, and in full view ; a little stream courses through it, and joins the 
Swincombe river. By following this up for a short distance, and then 
striking R., the stone pillar will be seen.] 

Making our way down by the lower cottages at White Works, and 
crossing the Strane, a small tributary of the Swincombe, we pass 
onward with the wall of Tor Royal Newtake I,. Ere long we reach 
Stream Hill Ford, close to the Wheal Emma weir, where we shall cross 
the Swincombe, and by directing our steps a little to the L. of Fox Tor 
shall reach Sand Parks. We shall find the object of which we are in 



40 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

quest about -]- m. northward of the tor. To be exact, jt is m. from the 
confluence of the two streams near the weir, S.S.E. by E. But unfor- 
tunately what the rambler will see is not the ancient monument spoken 
of by Risdon in the early part of the seventeenth century as one of 
Dartmoor's " three remarkable things," but a late nineteenth century 
erection that bears little resemblance to it. I have elsewhere given a 
full account of Childe's Tomb, and the legend of the luckless hunter; 
and have also related how I found the kist, and the stones that once 
surmounted it, * but it is perhaps necessary that my notices ' of this 
object should be briefly recapitulated here. Before doing so, however, 
we will sketch the route to the tomb from Si ward's Cross. 

[Siward's Cross to Childe's Tomb, i miles. Passing down with 
Nun's Cross Farm on our L., we cross the little brook of the same name, 
and then the Plym road S. of Nun's Cross Ford. We pursue an easterly 
direction up the slope, keeping rather higher than a direct route would 
necessitate, in order to examine the stone pillar already referred to. 
Presently we shall reach a reave running along the side of the hill, and 
following this toward the E., shall soon arrive at the stone. This we 
shall find to be an ordinary shaft, about 5! feet in height. The head, 
which was discovered near by a few years ago, has part of a cross cut 
in relief upon it. Eastward is the little stream running down Wheal 
Anne Bottom, and when we reach this we must make for the newtake 
wall below. (The latter was erected about 1904 ; it runs on the 
line of an old reave). Reaching the newtake we strike about E., 
gradually leaving the wall on the R., and when nearly opposite White 
Works, shall come upon the cross already mentioned as being set up 
on a rock. There is much scattered granite near by, but if the 
directions here given be followed, the object will not be missed. It 
was discovered by I,ieut. M. Lennon Goldsmith, in 1903, after the 
latest edition of my book on the Dartmoor crosses had appeared. He 
found it lying on the ground near the rock in which the socket was cut, 
and afterwards had it re-erected, and secured in its place with cement. 
A portion of the shaft appears to be missing, but otherwise this 
ancient relic is in an excellent state of preservation. It faces E. and 
W. It is 41 inches high ; the bottom of the shaft is 43 inches in 
girth ; the arms measure 22 inches across ; and the head rises 7 inches 
above the shaft. Near the cross is a kistvaen within a circle of 
stones. 

The discovery of this cross adds another to the line of those objects 
extending from Buckland Abbey across the forest (T. 2), and, as Lieut. 
Goldsmith observed when acquainting me with his find, tends to 
confirm my contention that they marked an old track. [Crosses, 
Chap. X.] Since this cross was discovered another on the same line 
has come to light ; it is described further on (Ex. 39). 

Continuing on our way eastward to Sand Parks, with the newtake 
wall R., we soon reach the tomb, which is distant only a little over 
m. from the cross.] 

The story of Childe, the hunter, which I have frequently heard in 
the forest, was first related by Risdon nearly three hundred years ago. 

* Ancient Stone Crosses of Dartmoor. Chap. X. Folk Rhymes of 
Devon, p. 4. 



EXCURSION 3. CHILDE'S TOMB. 41 

It is to the effect that one Childe, of Plymstock, " a man of fair possess- 
ions," being overtaken by a snowstorm when hunting on Dartmoor, 
slew his horse and disembowelled him, hoping to preserve himself by 
seeking shelter in the carcase. But he was there frozen to death, and 
having, as our old topographer states, " ordained, by his will, that 
wheresoever he should happen to be buried, to that church his lands 
should belong," he was carried by Tavistock men to the Abbey Church 
for interment. They were, however, able to accomplish this only by 
a stratagem. The people of Plymstock having learnt what was taking 
place, assembled at the bridge over the Tavy, with the intention of 
preventing the Tavistock men taking the body to the Abbey. But 
the latter, hearing of this, threw a slight bridge across the river, and 
carrying over their prize in triumph, became the possessors of Childe' s 
lands. The people of Plymstock "were deceived," says Risdon, 
" by a guile " ; "in memory whereof the bridge beareth the name of 
Guilebridge to this day." Our author also tells us that Childe's Tomb 
was to be seen on the moor in his time, though he does not say in what 
part of it, and that it once bore the following lines : 

" They fyrste that fyndes and brings rnee to my grave, 

The priorie of Plimstoke they shall have."* 

This story is probably a version of some early legend. Childe 
does not seem to have been a proper name, though some writers not 
only apparently think it was, but have gone so far as to furnish the 
supposed hunter with another indeed, he has had no less than three 
Christian names given to him, Amyas, John, and Oswald. In all 
probability it was the Saxon Cild, a common appellation. Further, 
nothing is known of any Priory of Plymstock, and this perhaps accounts 
for the word " lands " being substituted for " priorie " in later versions 
of the couplet. Tavistock Abbey possessed the manor of Plymstock, 
but it belonged to it at the time of the Domesday Survey. That 
Guile Bridge was simply the Guild Bridge, or bridge that led to the 
Guildhall of Tavistock, is much more likely to be the case than that it 
obtained its name in the manner the tradition states. It is difficult 
also to understand how we find the hunter's grave in the forest, when 
the story says he was buried at Tavistock. It is true that the body of 
a stranger found on the moor might have been interred on the spot, 
and afterwards exhumed on his identity being discovered, but that 
could hardly have happened at so late a period as the end of the tenth 
century, when Tavistock Abbey was founded. The grave, consisting 
of a kist within a stone circle, is precisely sitniliar in plan to those 
which we know to belong to pagan times, and there can be little doubt 
is very much older than that religious house, though there are indica- 
tions that the kist itself is not of such great antiquity as those generally 
seen on the moor. That a Christian monument should have been 
erected upon it is not inexplicable, since we know that the cross was 
frequently planted in similar situations in early times. Menhirs have 
been fashioned into the symbol of that faith, or have had it graven 
upon them, as we shall see in places on the borders of the moor. The 
story of Childe the Hunter must be regarded as a myth, but at the same 
time there is no doubt that, like most legends, there is an element of 
truth underlying it. 

* Risdon's Survey of Devon, p. 223. Edit. 1811. 



42 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

Although Risdon does not state in what part of the moor Childe 
was said to have been buried, forest tradition has always pointed to- 
the tomb under Pox Tor as that of the unfortunate lord of Plymstock. 
This tomb remained intact until about 1812, when it was destroyed by 
a Mr. Windeatt, who enclosed Fox Tor Farm, and built the house, the 
ruins of which will be seen on the slope eastward. It consisted of a 
calvary of three stages, surmounted by a large worked stone in which 
a cross was fixed. In the first edition of Carrington's poem Dart- 
moor (1826), the tomb is figured, but as this was probably drawn from 
memory, it is not a true representation of it in every particular, though 
no doubt correct in its main features. A note to the poem states that 
Mr. Windeatt removed some of the stones from the tomb, and used them 
for building purposes and for door steps. More than half a century 
after this was written I discovered the whole of the stones with the 
exception of three, but not in the place the note would seen to indicate. 

When I was engaged in my investigations of the Dartmoor crosses 
in the seventies, Childe's Tomb naturally attracted my attention. 
But its exact site appeared to be then unknown, and it was not without 
some trouble that I discovered it. I was, however, aided in my search 
by some information obtained from Richard Eden, a moorman with 
whom I was well acquainted, and who was born at Fox Tor Farm. 
All that was then to be seen was a small mound, and some half buried 
stones. An account of my exploration is given in my book on the 
crosses, and it is therefore only necessary to state that I discovered 
the greater part of the missing stones. Some of these yet form a bridge 
over the brook below the ruined farmhouse. With the " restoration " 
I had nothing to do, beyond raising my voice against the manner in 
which it was carried out. The present cross and stone in which it is 
fixed were cut at Home, in 1885. 

Mining operations near Fox Tor were evidently of an extensive 
character. Fox Tor Gert, as the deep gully running up to the tor is 
named, has been worked for tin, as also has the branch of the Swin- 
combe that runs down in front of the farmhouse, and which rises not 
far from Little Aune. (Ex. 43). The visitor to Childe's Tomb will 
probably wish to ascend Fox Tor, and here he will see the gert on the 
eastern slope of the hill, and also behind, or to the S. of the tor. 

He will likewise be able to examine an old mining house, which 
is not wanting in interest. It will be found at the end of Black L,ane 
(T. 61), where that old path runs into the gert, and S. of the tor. It 
stands on the W. side of the way, which here passes through a gully, 
and consists of the walls of a building, 23^ feet by 14 feet on the outside. 
The doorway, as is usual in these houses, is near one corner, and the 
fireplace appears to have been at the opposite end. 

Adjoining the southern wall of the farm enclosures, and near the 
bank of the Swincombe branch that flows in front of it, are the remains 
of another mining house, about the same width but a little longer 
than the one just noticed. It is built against a bank, a plan often 
followed by the constructors of these huts on the moor. Most of the 
wall that formed the western end has disappeared. 

The path known as Sandy Way (T. 56), runs from Sand Parks 
up the hollow to the E.S.E., down which the stream comes. This it 
leaves on the right in ascending and goes on to Aune Head, where it 
becomes a plainly-marked track. 



EXCURSION 3. KISTVAENS. THE CROCK OF GOLD. - 

Fox Tor farmhouse presents nothing that will detain the visitor, 
unless it be that he desires to look more closely upon the building 
with which so many of the incidents of Eden Phillpotts' novel, 
The American Prisoner, are associated. If such be the case he may 
amuse himself for half-an-hour in searching for Maurice Malherb's 
wine cellar, but we fear the result will be disappointing. 

Passing down to the ford on the Swincombe we again cross that 
stream, but instead of returning te White Works shall make for a 
hunting gate in the wall of Tor Royal Newtake, which we see near 
by. Our first point will then be a tumulus about i m. N.N.W., and 
which will come in sight as we mount the slope. On our R. are some 
other enclosures near the river, one of which is known by the name of 
Joan Ford's Newtake, in which are three small upright stones standing 
in a row. 

A few hundred yards in a north-easterly direction from the tumulus 
we shall come upon a ruined kistvaen, close to the source of a rivulet ; 
and a little further on, but in a more northerly direction, are two others, 
also dilapidated. Here we are near the summit of Royal Hill, the 
highest point in the newtake, and if we leave this a little to the L., and 
proceed in a north-westerly direction for about \ m. beyond it we shall 
reach the kistvaen known as the Crock of Gold. It is situated close 
beside the track leading from Princetown to Hexworthy (T. 8), and is 
a well preserved kist, with some of the stones that once encircled it yet 
remaining. The track we shall now follow W. to Bull Park, where, 
passing through a gate, we soon reach the entrance to Tor Royal, the 
residence of Mr. A. E. Barrington, the High Bailiff of Dartmoor. 
Passing upward we bend R., and speedity find ourselves at Princetown. 

[A pleasant way of returning from Peat Cot is by the Devonport 
leat. The best plan is to cross it at the bridge at the little settlement, 
and passing for a short distance over the newtake, strike it again above 
the bend. There is a path on the bank which the rambler may follow. 
Just before reaching Tor Royal the woods are passed, and when the 
trees are in leaf the contrast between the slope on which they grow 
and the bare moor around it is very striking. A short distance beyond 
Tor Royal the road from Bull Park (supra) is reached.] 

[The kistvaens in Tor Royal Newtake may be visited from Prince- 
town direct by following the Hexworthy track (T. 8) to the Crock of 
Gold, and then crossing over Royal Hill to the others. This will be 
the reverse of the latter part of the homeward route from Childe's 
Tomb just sketched. The walk may be extended to White Works, 
and the return made by way of Peat Cot and the leat.] 



Ex. 4. The Ockery Antiquities on Round Hill Farm Prince 
Hall Swincombe Crock of Gold Bull Park. About 9 m. from and to 
Princetown. WITH ALTERNATIVE RETURN ROUTES from Swincombe, 
via White Works or Tor Royal Newtake, and from Prince Hall, via 
Moorlands and Bachelor's Hall. 

From Princetown our way takes us along the Two Bridges road 
past New London. This is the name given to the four blocks of dwell- 
ings on the R., and considered to be appropriate since they were 



44 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

erected under the superintendence of a London man ; much of the 
material of which they are constructed was brought from there, and 
being several storeys in height they much more resemble town houses 
in plan than they do those usually seen on Dartmoor. Beyond them 




FROM MAIN ROAD NEAR NEW LONDON. 

we descend the hill to the Ockery, having Arrow Head Field on our L., 
so called in consequence of the finding there of some flint implements. 
We cross the Blackabrook by a modern bridge, formerly known as 
Trena Bridge, and turn R. On the R. bank of the stream is the Ockery, 
the approach to it being by means of a clapper. Though not of great 
size this is a good example of these structures, and consists of buttresses 
with centre pier, but the addition of parapets to some extent destroys 
its primitive appearance. The Ockery was formerly a very picturesque 
building, having an exterior gallery ; renovation has altered it, but 
has not altogether destroyed its old-time air. 

Entering Lower Watern Newtake by a gate near the bridge, we 
pass down by the Blackabrook, and noticing some low tumuli near the 
bank as we proceed, shall shortly reach the wall of one of the enclosures 
belonging to Round Hill Farm. On the further side of this, and quite 
near to the stream, is a group of kistvaens, and less than 200 yards 
from these in a N.E. direction are the remains of two others, placed 
side by side. Further on in the same direction, and on the slope of 
Round Hill where it declines towards the Dart and the lower part of 
the Blackabrook, are other examples of kists, as well as tumuli and hut 
circles. Having examined these we shall turn westward, and leaving 
Round Hill Farm to the L., shall reach the track by which it is 
approached from the Two Bridges road. This we follow N. to Round 
Hill Cottage, once the home of Jonas Coaker, locally renowned as the 
Dartmoor poet, where we regain the road we left at the Ockery, within 
a short distance of Two Bridges. 

In Lower Watern Newtake the Princetown and Hexworthy Races 
have been held. These consist of races for ponies, galloways, and 
horses. 

[As the Round Hill antiquities are situated in enclosed land, it 
will be well for the visitor to obtain permission at the farm to examine 



EXCURSION 4. PRINCE HALL. 45 

them. From Two Bridges they are, of course, reached by way of 
Round Hill Cottage.] 

On leaving Two Bridges we pass up the hill behind the hotel. 
On the brow the road forks, the L. branch running to Moreton and 
the R. to Ashburton. We follow the latter, with Muddy Lakes New- 
take on our L., and during our progress towards Prince Hall Lodge 
shall look upon several fine tors. Across the newtake, and at no 
great distance from us, is Crockern Tor (See post.] To the R. of 
this, and standing up boldly on a lofty ridge, is " Longaford's strange 
mitre of earth and stone,"* and beyond it Higher and Lower White 
Tors. In front is Bellaford Tor, a prominent object in every view 
in this part of the moor. Away to the R. we see the high land of 
the south quarter of the forest rising like a huge barrier from the 
Swincombe valley, and extending from Cater's Beam, L., to Hand 
Hill and Kylesbarrow, R. If we look carefully at it we may discern 
a pile of rocks, not defined against the sky, but rising from its dusky 
side. This is Fox Tor, already noticed [Ex. 3], which, like Crockern 
Tor, is chiefly interesting on account of its associations, in this instance 
only legendary. 

At the distance of about i m. from the fork of the roads we arrive 
at Prince Hall Lodge, R., and passing through the gate make our way 
along the road that leads to the house (T. 10). This is bordered with 
trees, but they have bowed before the prevailing westerly winds. 
Stunted in growth they tell but too plainly that it is only in the 
sheltered spots on the moor that planting can be undertaken with any 
success. 

Prince Hall was one of the ancient tenements of the forest [see 
Ancient Tenement in the Terms section], and was known by the name 
it at present bears several centuries ago, being mentioned as Prynshall 
in a forester's account of the time of Henry VIII., while in a document 
of a later date it appears as Prynce Hall. In 1702 it was in the 
possession of William Gidley, and in the last quarter of the eighteenth 
century was held by a Mr. Gullet, one of those who about that time 
entertained hopes that the forest might be profitably cultivated. 
From him it passed to Judge Buller, and was afterwards held by 
Mr. G. W. Fowler, whose operations on the farm were on a very 
large scale. [Dev. Alps, Chap. 3.] But they proved unsuccessful, 
except in one respect ; he certainly showed that such a style of farming 
as he adopted was not suited to Dartmoor. Some of the older people 
still speak of him, and will tell you that there was one thing Mr. 
Fowler deserved special praise for : he grew the largest turnips ever 
seen on the moor. " Proper gert benders, zure 'nuff but most o' 
mun was holla." 

The road will conduct us by the side of the house, which is large, 
and, for the moor, of imposing appearance, and down the lawn in 
front of it to Prince Hall Bridge, which spans the West Dart. Here 
the scene is of a very attractive character, particularly in the summer, 
when the trees are in leaf, and the hedgerow that borders the little 
lane that leads up from the bridge on the southern bank of the river 
is bright with young ferns and wild flowers. Near the top of the ascent 
the lane turns R. to Moorlands, a farm close by, but our way will be as 

* The River. Book I., Chap. XIII. 



46 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

in T. 10. Crossing the little Rue Lake, which falls into the Dart below 
Cherry Brook Foot, we enter Swincombe Newtake, and soon reach the 
gate at Swincombe Farmhouse. This building formed one of Sir 
Thomas Tyrwhitt's lodges, and appears to have been erected on land 
long enclosed. In a list of the newtakes in the forest made over two 
hundred years ago there are three enclosures named respectively 
Swancombe Head, Swancombe, and Swancombe Ford. 

A short lane leads to Swincombe Ford, over the stream of that 
name, the farmhouse being on the R. as we proceed, and a cottage on 
the L. The latter was the abode for many years of John Bishop, a 
true specimen of the old style of Dartmoor man. He retained his 
primitive manners to the last, insisting on using a flint and steel in 
place of matches, among other things, and " couldn' abide any new 
fashioned notions." The footbridge at the ford is usually known as 
the Fairy Bridge. 

We shall return to Princetown by the track running between that 
place and Hexworthy (T. 8), and for this purpose shall either retrace 
our steps to the gate of the newtake, and then turn L. behind Swin- 
combe farmhouse, or pass in front of it. Though we now pass over 
the track the reverse way of that in which it has been described, it 
will be followed without difficulty, and we shall soon be led to the gate 
opening upon Tor Royal Newtake, across which the green path is well 
denned. About midway we shall pass the kistvaen called the Crock 
of Gold, noticed in Ex. 3, from which point we make our way to Bull 
Park, and thence by the road to Princetown. 

[To return by way of the Swincombe Valley, noticed in the Hex- 
worthy District, will be found very interesting. The visitor will cross 
the stream by the footbridge, and follow it up to the point where it 
receives the tributary that comes down from under Fox Tor farmhouse, 
whence he may make his way to Princetown either by the White 
Works or by Tor Royal Newtake (Ex. 3). The walk may be shortened 
by returning direct to Princetown from Prince Hall Bridge. The 
visitor will follow the postman's path from Moorlands (T. 9), which 
will lead him across the northern side of Tor Royal Newtake, where he 
will pass over the Cholake and the Lanson Brook, the former a tribu- 
tary of the West Dart and the latter falling into the Blackabrook. 
The path will bring him to Batcheror's Hall, whence the road will lead 
him past New London, R., to the highway on the outskirts of Prince- 
town. The view from Bachelor's Hill Newtake, above New London, 
is very fine. It embraces Mis Tor, Maiden Hill, Cowsic Head, Bear 
Down, Row Tor, Meripit Hill, Hameldon, the valley of the Dart, Holne 
Moor, and many other prominent objects.] 



EXCURSION 5. WISTMAN'S WOOD. 47 



Ex. 5. Wistman's Wood Foxholes Crow Tor Row Tor Bear 
Down Man Antiquities on Conies Down The Cowsic Valley. 8^- m. 
from and to Two Bridges. FROM THE Cowsic TO PRINCETOWN : Black 
Dunghill The Blackabrook Rundle Stone. IF To BEAR DOWN MAN 
BY WAY OF Crockern Tor Littaford Tors Longaford Tor The White 
Tors Brown's House, 9 m. IF BY WAY OF Bear Down Clapper Bear 
Down Tors Lydford Tor, j\ m. IF FROM AND TO PRINCETOWN (re- 
turning by Black Dunghill) add ij- m. 

For Cut Hill see Ex. n. 

From the southern edge of the great fen hereafter described 
as covering so much of the N. quarter of the forest, two lofty ridges, 
each about i m. in width, extend for about 3 m. in a southerly direction , 
and terminate at Two Bridges. These ridges, which are crowned with 
tors, forming prominent objects when viewed from the road at Prince- 
town, are separated by the valley of the West Dart. Along the foot 
of the Western ridge runs the Cowsic, the other being bounded on the 
east for some distance by the Cherry Brook. The three streams here 
flow southward, their courses being roughly parallel. The greater 
part of the western ridge and the whole of the eastern, are now enclosed 
within newtake walls. Those who, some century ago, took in these 
large tracks of land " improvers " they delighted to call themselves 
under grant from the Duchy, were careful to select the best parts of 
the forest, and pushed their walls out to the verge of the fen, thus 
leaving those who possessed an undoubted right to the pasturage 
of the moor, only the boggy parts of it. In this excursion the 
rambler will see much enclosed moorland, and will be able to form 
some idea of what Dartmoor would have been reduced to had those, 
of whom Sir Thomas Tyrwhitt was the chief pioneer, been permitted 
to realize their idle dreams. 

In the valley of the West Dart, about ij m. above Two Bridges, 
is situated one of the curiosities of Dartmoor. This is Wistman's 
Wood, and consists of three small groves of dwarf oaks growing from 
the midst of a clatter, and extending for about -I- m. along the L. bank of 
the river. Several suggestions as to the derivation of the name have 
been made, one being that it is a corruption of the Celtic words uisg 
maen coed, signifying the stony wood by the water, but there is also 
reason for believing the word to be derived from wealas, meaning 
foreigners, a term applied by the Saxons to all not of their race. At all 
events, the older people living on the moor used to speak of this oak 
grove as Welshman's Wood, and it seems not at all improbable that 
Wistman is merely a corruption of this. Wealasman's Wood would 
thus be the wood of the Celts, regarded as foreigners by the Saxon 
settlers. [Gems, Chap. I.] 

The path from Two Bridges to the wood lies through the enclosures 



48 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

of Crockern Farm, at one time known as Board'n House, and these 
are entered at a gate on the L. in ascending the hill immediately behind 
the hotel (T. n.)* No directions are needed, as the path is followed 
through the enclosures beyond which the wood is seen. The oaks 
grow quite near to the Dart amongst the rocks forming the clatter, and 
are so dwarfed that their boughs will often be seen resting upon the 
blocks of granite. The site of the wood, a stone-covered slope, seems 
altogether unsuited to the growth of trees, but in reality it is to the 
presence of the boulders that the oaks owe their preservation. These 
have not only sheltered them, but have probably prevented their being 
cut down for fuel by the tinners. Trunks and boughs are thickly coated 
with moss, and consequently appear much larger than they really are. 
In 1886 the central grove took fire, by what means was never satis- 
factorily explained, and much damage was done. Time has, however, 
healed the wound the flames inflicted. 

When the belief was held that the Druids once turned Dartmoor 
into one wide temple, Wistman's Wood was regarded as being a spot 
they particularly patronised ; indeed, it was said to have obtained its 
name from them, this meaning neither more nor less than the wood 
of the wise men. The Druids, by the way, showed their wisdom by 
cutting mistletoe (though where they found it on Dartmoor it is rather 
difficult to say) and by making stones rock, end other similarly useful 
acts. The valley, with its ruined hut dwellings, its oak groves, and 
the Dart perhaps as its oracle, was presumably regarded as another 
Dodona. But the Druids have gone now, and left only snakes and 
foxes to occupy the wood. As a holt for the latter it probably serves 
a much more popular purpose than when it was given over to the 
white-jjearded priests. Many a fox has been bolted there, and one 
game little terrier, who often showed his prowess among the moss- 
covered rocks, now lies beneath one of its aged trees. This is Jumbo, 
which belonged to Mr. Sam Adams, a former Master of the Lamerton 
Hounds. One day in April, 1 904, after being as active as ever in the field, 
the game little animal died suddenly, and was buried in the wood. 

To reach the higher end of the wood it will be better that we keep 
on its upper side, that is to say, along its eastern verge. About 50 
paces above the central grove is a large triangular-shaped stone in the 
midst of the clatter, on which is an inscription setting forth that a 
tree was cut down on this spot in 1866 by Mr. Wentworth Buller. 
A section of the trunk is now in the Albert Memorial Museum at 
Exeter. 

About a third of a mile above the higher oak grove, which is due 
W. of Longaford Tor, is Wistman's Wood Ford on the Dart, and to 
this we shall now direct our steps, f On our way we pass a small 
deserted dwelling, constructed of wood, once the abode of a warrener, 
and in which readers of the River will recognise the home of Nicholas 
Edgecombe. In full view as we descend towards the stream is Crow 

* The public right of way, as already stated (T. n), is now 
disputed. This is one of the results of the work of the forest " im- 
provers." Board'n is equivalent to wooden. 

t Here the rambler passes over what was formerly Wistman's 
Warren. If he cannot cross the river at the ford he wifl perhaps be 
able to do so at the weir where the Devonport leat is taken from it. 



50 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

Tor, placed on the southern extremity of the hill peninsulated by its 
two branches. (Crow rhymes '.with now. See View from North 
Hisworthy). The ford is situated about 200 yards below the con- 
fluence, and it was here that the Lich Path (T. 18) crossed the Dart. 

The side of the valley in which Wistman's Wood is situated is 
included within Longaford Newtake, the wall of which is carried 
along the L. bank of the Dart. We shall find ourselves in Bear Down 
Newtake, after having crossed the river at, or near, the ford, which, 
unless it be in flood, is not difficult. Passing up the R. bank we 
soon reach the smaller branch of the Dart alreadv referred to 




FROM ABOVE WISTMAN'S WOOD. 

and which is immediately without the northern wall of the last- 
named enclosure. This stream flows down from a hollow called 
Dart Hole, and is sometimes known as the Foxholes Water, and 
also as Methern Brook. It forms the boundary between the east 
and west quarters of the forest, the line running from Horse 
Hole southward to Dart Hole, and thence down to the West Dart. 
(See Quarters in the Terms section). Just above the confluence the 
northern wall of Longaford Newtake runs off in a direction E. by N., 
crossing the Dart and passing up the hill to Higher White Tor. At the 
point where this wall leaves the little stream another will be seen 
running up the hill in a direction N. by E. through a clatter, known as 
Foxholes. This we follow up the slope to Crow Tor, about | m. distant, 
not far beyond which it terminates. Many years ago I learnt from one 
whose memory carried him far back into the nineteenth century, that 
it was intended to take in more land here from the forest, the example 
of those who had enclosed Longaford and Bear Down, and the other 
large tracts in the vicinity, presumably inciting others to follow in 
their steps. Much of the wall was built, but fortunately it was never 
completed. The fragment at Crow Tor forms a part of it, and another, 
and larger part, is to be seen near Row Tor, whence it runs down to the 
Dart, and up the hill in a N. easterly direction, for about f- m., to a 
point not far from Cherry Brook Head, and then turns southward, and 
is carried for some little distance down by the side of that stream. 
This part of the enclosure is known as Wild Banks Newtake. 

Crow Tor we shall find to consist of several lumps of rock, one of 
which, placed exactly on the brow of the hill where the latter drops 



EXCURSION 5. ROUTE TO ROW TOR. 5 1 

rather suddenly to the streams, is a conspicuous object from some parts 
of the lower valley. 

Less than m. almost due N. from Crow Tor is Row Tor, to which, 
as it affords a good view of the moor, the rambler up this valley will no 
doubt desire to make his way. The ground is good, and the rise gradual, 
the tor being only about 150 feet higher than Crow Tor. It is, how- 
ever, of considerable elevation, being no less than 1,793 feet, and is 
seen standing up boldly from the surrounding moor from the street at 
Princetown. The tor gives name to that part of the forest extending 
a little to the N. of it, and a considerable distance to the E. This is 
known as Rowtor, and it abuts on Broad Down, about i\ m. in the 
latter direction. At that end of it is Rowtor Gate, hereafter mentioned 
(T. 1 8, 78), and to a miry spot near this, and a small stream issuing 
from it, have been given the name of Rowtor Marsh, and Rowtor Brook, 
though I have not heard them so spoken of by the moormen. JThe 
latter is sometimes called Middle Brook. 

The name of the tor became attached to this area in consequence 
of the latter forming what was probably to have been called Rowtor 
Farm, and of which Wild Banks Hill would have constituted a part. 
Rowtor Gate was the approach to it from the Post Bridge district. 
A ruined dwelling (see post) stands within this uncompleted enclosure, 
and is now known as Brown's House. 

Before proceeding to Bear Down Man from Row Tor we shall 
sketch the route to the latter by way of the ridge between the West 
Dart and the Cherry Brook. This will lead us first to Crockern Tor, 
which is reached from the hotel at Two Bridges by following the 
Moreton road for about 4- m. to Parson's Cottage, close to which a gate 
gives access to the newtake in which the tor is situated. The cottage, 
which is now in ruins, was built in the early part of the nineteenth 
century by the Rev. J . H. Mason, Vicar of Widecoinbe, who held land 
here under a grant from the Duchy. It is also known as Billy Clack's 
Cottage, having once been in the occupation of the Rev. William Clack, 
a sporting parson, of Moretonhampstead. 

Crockern Tor will be seen on the brow of the hill behind the cottage, 
from which it is distant only about 300 yards. In itself it presents 
nothing remarkable, consisting only of a small group of rocks, and 
attaining an elevation of no more than 1,295 feet. But it is one of 
those objects to which interest is lent by its historic associations. 
Without these it would fail to appeal to the beholder, but viewed in 
its connection with the Stannaries it at once claims attention. We 
shall, however, defer our notice of it until we have finished our excur- 
sions in this district, as it will be more convenient to deal with it 
separately. 

Passing Crockern Tor and proceeding along the ridge in a direction 
a little W. of N., with the wall on our R., we shall, at the distance of 
about m., reach Longaford Newtake, just within which are the three 
groups of rocks known as the Littaford Tors, of which mention is 
elsewhere made. (T. 18). On a map drawn from a survey made 
at the beginning of the last century, and which was spoken of soon 
after its publication as being defective in names, these groups of rocks 
are marked as Little Bee Tor, although the name as we have it to-day 
was that by which they were then called on the moor. In a book 
published in 1832 this name occurs, only it is there rendered Littleford. 



52 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

Prom this it seems probable that the error on the map occurred in the 
transcription of the name, and other mistakes on it may perhaps be 
explained in the same way ; or they may in some instances be due to a 
wrong reading of his copy by the engraver. This was very likely the 
case with regard to Beetor Cross (R. 4), which is shown on the map in 
question as Sector Cross. But though these errors are to be deplored, 
they have nevertheless served one useful purpose. They have been 
re-produced in more than one book dealing with the moor, and thus 
have shown the Dartmoor student that their writers have not gathered 
their information on the spot, but have adopted the much easier plan 
so delightfully described by Captain Marryat in his article on writing 
a book of travels. 

Passing the northernmost of the Littaford Tors, we make our way 
to Longaford Tor, less than m. distant, with the Dart valley on our 
L., and the great dun slope that stretches away to the Cherry Brook 
on our R. The rambler will do well to ascend Longaford, which 
attains an elevation of 1,595 feet, for the view from it is exceedingly 
fine. The pile is rather different in character from most of the tors on 
the moor, consisting not of rocks alone, but of rocks and turf, and is 
thus very easy of ascent. It is somewhat of a conical form, and a 
conspicuous object in all those parts of the moor centring round what 
we have called the Great Central Depression. (See Situation and 
Extent, etc.) From Cut Hill it at once arrests the attention of the 
beholder who looks down upon the valley of the West Dart by its 
striking form, though it is 400 feet lower than that eminence. 
Cut Hill is seen rising against the sky in a direction about N.N.W. 
(Ex. ii). 

The next pile on this ridge is Higher White Tor, or Whitten Tor, 
as it is usually called, and which, like Longaford, is also a conspicuous 
object. It is of greater elevation than that tor, being placed on the 
highest part of the ridge, which is here 1,712 feet high. Its distance 
from Longaford is about the same as the distance of that tor from the 
nearest of the Littaford group. To this pile we make our way, and 
thence to a gate in the northern wall of the newtake, a short distance 
due N. of which is Lower White Tor. 

The masses of rock so named are placed upon the brow of a steep 
declivity forming the western side of Hollowcombe Bottom. The tor 
is interesting as being the point where a reave of stone and turf, which 
may be traced for some distance eastward, has its termination. This 
is noticed in the Excursions in the Post Bridge District. (Ex. 46). 

Leaving Lower White Tor we turn our steps in a north-westerly 
direction, or, to be more precise, N.W. by N., and crossing a slight 
depression in the side of the hill shall reach Brown's House, which is 
about m. distant. The situation of this ruined dwelling is such as 
would certainly satisf}' the greatest lover of solitude. From what I 
have been able to gather it never became what its builder intended it 
to be. As we have already seen, the work of enclosing the land around 
it was never completed, and consequently, instead of becoming the 
home of a settler, it was suffered to fall to decay. 

Across the valley of the Dart, and in full view, is Row Tor, and to 
this we now make our way direct. Should the river prevent the visitor 
striking a beeline it must be followed upward for a short distance, 
when a means of crossing it by the natural stepping-stones will no 



EXCURSION 5. BEAR DOWN MAN. 53 

doubt present itself. The distance from Brown's House to the tor is 
rather over 4- m. 

We have already stated that Row Tor is a prominent object in , 
the view from several points in this part of the moor. It does not 
greatly exceed in elevation the stretches of heath surrounding it, 
except on one side where the ground drops some 200 feet to the Dart, 
but the form of the hill renders it conspicuous. The rocks of the tor 
are disposed in a form approaching that of an oval, and enclose a small 
area. Almost due W. of the tor, and less than 4- m. from it, are the 
springs of Summer Brook, a feeder of the Dart, which pursues a course 
directly opposite to that of the river into which it falls. Just below 
its source, and near its L. bank, is the bottom known as Horse Hole, 
where is the junction of the north, west, and east quarters of the forest, 
as hereafter mentioned. (See Quarters in Terms section). This is about 
4; m. N. W. of Row Tor. A short distance to the N. of it is Summer 
Hill, on which are some rocks known as Flat Tor, but they present 
nothing remarkable. Still further N. is West Dart Head, distant, if 
the line via Crow Tor be followed, about 2 m. from the ford above 
Wistman's Wood, or 4 m. from Two Bridges. 

Bear Down Man is a little over 4; m. from Row Tor in a south- 
westerly direction. Our way thither will lead us across a part of 
Methern Hill with Dart Hole on our left. The menhir is quite close 
to Devil's Tor, which does not consist of piles of granite, but merely 
of flat rocks scattered about the hill. Although it bears a name sug- 
gestive of some tradition I have never been able to gather any in 
connection with it. It was the opinion of one moorman whom I 
consulted that the pillar represented the Devil, and that the tor, which 
can hardly be truly regarded as such, " was plenty good enough vur 
he." 

Man is, of course, the Celtic maen, stone, and the word is found 
so corrupted in all parts of the country. The pillar is nearly 1 1 feet 
high, and about 8 feet in girth. 

Horse Hole is about \ m. N.N.E. of Bear Down Man, and Cowsic 
Head 4- m. N.N.W. The course of the Cowsic is at first almost due S., 
and the Walkham, a little over i m. to the W., runs parallel to it. 
Between the springs of the Cowsic and Spriddle Lake, W., is Maiden 
Hill, 1,774 feet, and southward of this is Conies Down, which is pro- 
bably the Condyshull of a fourteenth century document. The Lich 
Path (T. 1 8) runs along the southern verge of this. Rather over 
4 m. due N. of Cowsic Head are the upper waters of the Tavy, and 
between the two the ground is very heavy, this being the southern 
edge of the great fen that extends northward to Ockment Hill. 

The rain gauges seen in this part of the moor are in connection 
with the Devonport Water Supply. 

[Should the visitor desire to make his way direct to Bear Down 
Man from the ford on the Dart above Wistman's Wood, he will follow 
the Methern Brook for about J- m., keeping it on his R. Then, leaving 
it, he will pursue the same course, i.e., N.W., up the hill, and will soon 
reach his objective.] 

On leaving Bear Down Man we shall strike S.W. to the Cowsic, 
which we cross, and make our way down the stream with Conies Down 
Tor (T. 1 8) on our R. Just below this is a group of hut circles, and 
J of a mile to the W. a double stone row, but the stones of the latter 



54 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

are not very large. It is close to the L/ich Path, and extends for a 
distance of about 350 feet, running nearly N. and S. Not far from the 
southern end of it are what appear to be the remains of a small cairn, 
probably despoiled by the builders of the Bear Down enclosures, 
which are not far off. A little way below the hut circles is Travellers' 
Ford, where the Lich Path (T. 18) crosses the Cowsic, and if, on 
reaching this old track, we follow it for a short distance towards the 
W., we shall observe the row on the R., or northern, side of it. 

Continuing on our way down the stream we soon arrive at Cowsic 
Fork, which is just below the ford. The branch which comes from the 
N.W. rises close to the Lich Path, and is sometimes known as the 
Conies' Down Water. The Cowsic here runs through a deep hollow, 
called Broad Hole, where, in the year 1831, the remains of an 
oak were discovered in the bank. When dug out the tree was 
found to consist of the trunk, with a part of the root and a branch, and 
was thought to be larger than any of those in Wistman's Wood. In 
Broad Hole is Bear Down Newtake Corner, where the northern wall 
joins the western one. The former runs up the hill eastward, and 
passing close to Lydford Tor is carried to the West Dart, which it 
reaches near the confluence under Crow Tor, as we have already seen. 
A few hundred yards below the corner the western wall leaves the 
eastern for the western bank of the stream, so as to include this part 
of the Cowsic within the Bear Down enclosures. Passing down through 
Broad Hole we soon after cross a small tributary rivulet, and find our- 
selves on the eastern edge of Holming Beam, or, as the name is now 
often rendered, Omen Beam. This comprehends that part of the moor 
lying between the Cowsic and the upper waters of the Blackabrook. 
A considerable portion of it is now included in that part of the prison 
enclosures to which the name of the New Forest has been given. Holm- 
ing Beam is noted for the abundance of its whortleberry plants, and has 
long been a favourite place with the gatherers of that fruit. Old mine 
workings exist here, as the name would indicate, and much peat was 
formerly cut near the Blackabrook. About i in. below the Bear Down 
Newtake Corner the wall is carried to the eastern bank of the Cowsic, 
and very near to this point the Devonport leat crosses that stream. 
Making our way southward with the leat and the river on our L., and 
the prison enclosures on our R., we reach the Tavistock road at a point 
\ m. W. of Two Bridges, and exactly 2 m. from Travellers' Ford. 

This excursion will be found particularly interesting, and will 
enable the visitor to gain a good idea of the upper valley of the West 
Dart as well as of the Cowsic valley. To reach Bear Down Man by 
way of the latter it will, of course, only be necessary to follow the 
stream upward, and cross it at, or above, Travellers' Ford. 

[If our destination be Princetown we leave the Cowsic just where 
the Bear Down wall is brought across it, near the lower ned of Broad 
Hole, and climbing the steep on the R., make our way to Black Dung- 
hill, the summit of which (1,615 feet) is a little over | m. distant, in a 
direction S.W. by W. A quarter mile beyond this we reach a track 
(T. 12), and this we follow southward with the Blackabrook on our R. 
Soon we arrive at the wall of the New Forest Prison enclosures, and 
entering them shall cross the stream. Still following the track we shall 
pass Fitz's Well (Ex. 6), and speedily reach the high road a short 
distance from Rundle Stone (Ex. i, 6). When the convicts are at work 



EXCURSION 5. ROCKS IN THE COWSIC. BEAR DOWN. 55 

in the enclosures here it is very likely that the visitor will not be allowed 
to pass this way. In that case he will turn R. on reaching the wall, 
and follow it up the hill to the corner, near Little Mis Tor (Ex. 6). 
Here he will turn L., and still keeping close to the wall will, at the 
distance of i m., reach Rundle Stone. (Ex. i, 6) ] 

Another route to Bear Down Man from Two Bridges is by way of 
Bear Down Hill. The distance from the hotel is 3^ m. On leaving 
the latter the visitor follows the Tavistock road, and just after passing 
the entrance to Bear Down Lodge will reach a gate on the R., where 
a road leads direct to Bear Down Farm. The bridge over the Cowsic 
takes the place of one erected by Mr. Edward Bray, the encloser of the 
farm, and who died in 1816. This was swept away in the great flood of 
July, 1890. Some of the rocks in the bed of the stream near here, and 
on its bank, bear inscriptions. These are the work of Mr. Bray's son, 
afterwards Vicar of Tavistock, who, presumably lamenting the absence 
of the Druids, and the stir and bustle consequent upon their frantic 
endeavours to discover mistletoe on Dartmoor, conceived the idea of 
consecrating the rocks in this part of the valley to Theocritus and 
Virgil, and to British bards, and suitably inscribing them, and thus, as 
he says, " give more animation to the scene." His method of proceeding 
was to trace the letters on the stone with a paint brush, and then get 
them cut by a labourer with a pick. It is fortunate that he recorded 
what he had done, for had this been omitted he would have caused no 
end of trouble. The speculations of the antiquaries upon the work of 
Mr. William Stumps would have been as nothing compared to the 
theories that would have been advanced by the modern Dryasdusts. 
In sparing us these Mr. Bray has proved more fortunate than in his 
endeavours to impart " animation " to the district. 

A very short distance above the bridge, and in the beautiful dell 
that renders this part of the Cowsic so charming, is an interesting 
clapper. It was swept away in 1873, but the stones were afterwards 
replaced, and some of them secured with iron clamps. In 1890 it was 
again partly destroyed by the flood that did so much damage in this 
part of the moor, and was then rebuilt by the Dartmoor Preservation 
Association. Its length is about 37 feet, and its breadth rather less 
than 4 feet, while its height above the stream is 3^ feet. There are 
five openings. 

Ascending the hill we soon reach the farmhouse, where we shall 
be readily accorded permission to pass up through the enclosures. 
Above the house is the Devonport leat, here crossed by foot bridges, 
and just beyond that is the great bare hill. Our first point is the 
chief of the Bear Down Tors, which is exactly i m. distant from the 
spot at which we cross the leat, and in a direction almost due N. On 
a small map in Bellamy's Natural History of South Devon (published 
in 1839), illustrative of the zoology of Dartmoor, Bear Down is shown 
as the principal station of the stone-chat. Whether this bird is now 
to be observed in greater numbers here than in any other part of the 
moor I cannot say, but so far as I have been able to discover they are 
as plentiful on Lakehead Hill, between the Cherry Brook and Post 
Bridge, as anywhere. Two-thirds of a mile from the leat we reach 
the outer, or northern, Bear Down Newtake, within which the tors 
are situated. They consist of a group of four, the southernmost being 
the smallest. Very near to it is the principal pile, which rises to a 



56 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

height of i, 68 1 feet, and forms a conspicuous object from many of 
the hills in the surrounding parts of the forest. Viewed from a distance 
from any point from N.E. to S.E., it presents the appearance of a huge 
cairn, with a small conical pile in the centre of it. This is especially 
noticeable from the slope of the hill above Broad Marsh (Ex. 46) on 
the East Dart, and from the high ground round Aune Head (Ex. 43). 
Another of the tors is placed on the brow of the hill nearer the West 
Dart, and the fourth is a short distance northward of this. Lydford 
Tor, which is the last we shall pass, is about |- m. N.W. of the latter, 
or less than \ m. N. by W. of the chief of the group. As already stated, 
the northern wall of the Bear Down enclosures passes close to Lydford 
Tor as it runs across the hill from the Cowsic to the West Dart. 

In the Rev. E. A. Bray's journal mention is several times made 
of Hannaford, who was his tenant at Bear Down. From his two 
grandsons I have been able to learn something respecting him. His 
Christian name was John, and he was the father of James Hannaford, 
who lived for so many years at Headland Warren (Ex. 22). John 
Hannaford, it appears, built a great part of the newtake wall at Bear 
Down, but for some reason that I could never discover, was unable to 
obtain payment for his work. Having spent a considerable sum upon 
it the loss so crippled him that he was compelled to relinquish the 
farm. He was buried at Mary Tavy. 

Bear Down Man is rather under a mile from Lydford Tor, and lies 
a little W. of N. Our way thither will take us over gently rising 
ground, with Dart Hole to the E. and the Cowsic to the W. The 
return to Two Bridges may be made by way of the Cowsic Valley, as 
already described, or by the valley of the West Dart. As the latter 
route has been given from Two Bridges to the menhir, the objects 
named in it must, of course, be looked for conversely as the rambler 
makes his way to the former. In a similar manner he will be able to 
vary any of the excursions here described. 

Several objects, indicative of a prehistoric and medieval popu- 
lation, have been discovered in the vicinity of Two Bridges. Fhnt 
flakes and chips have been found near the bridge, as well as in Lower 
Watern Newtake (Ex. 4), at Crockern Farm, and in the track leading 
to it. John Hannaford, the occupant of Bear Down, told Mr. Bray 
in 1827 that his uncle had found silver coins about the size of a sixpence 
in some of the cairns on the moor, and that he himself had found 
human hair in a kistvaen that he had destroyed. Hannaford, by the 
way, was, on his own confession, guilty of many acts of vandalism, a 
statement that will perhaps incline some to think that since he was 
so prone to interfere with the erections of others he was justly re- 
warded by the failure of his own building operations. Some human 
bones are also said to have been found near the road under Bear Down 
Farm. In a kist not far from the same place, which Mr. Bray opened 
in 1832, a small fragment of pottery of coarse texture was found. 
Some oak bowls were dug up many years ago in that part of the moor 
lying between the Moreton and Ashburton roads, and which is now 
enclosed and known as Muddy Lakes Newtake. In Gawler Bottom, 
much nearer Post Bridge (Ex. 46), an oak bowl was also found about 
the year 1891. These were probably used for measuring tin. 
In February, 1905, Mr. F. Rounsfell, when raising stone for road 
mending a little to the E. of Parson's Cottage in the newtake below 



EXCURSION 6. RUNDLE STONE. 



57 



Crockern Tor, found, a stone axe-hammer head. While engaged in 
his work he came upon a flat stone about 18 inches square, just below 
the surface, and on breaking this up discovered the implement beneath 
it. In the centre of it was a neat perforation for the reception of a 
wooden handle. It had been ground and polished, and one end was 
fashioned as a celt, with a cutting edge, and the other as a hammer. 
Its weight was i pound 9 ounces. 

[For the route to Cut Hill from Princetown or Two Bridges see 
Ex. ii.] 



Ex. 6. Rundle Stone Great Mis Tor Greena Ball The Walk- 
ham The Blackabrook Holming Beam Fitz's Well. About yf m., 
Princetown. Two Bridges add about i m. EXTENSION To Sandy Ford, 
the Lich Path, and the Cowsic. 

To Fitz's Well direct (return) 4^ m. 



Black 
Dunghill. 



Maiden Hill 

Conies Down 

Tor. 




FROM ROAD ABOUT IOO YARDS S. OF RUNDI,E STONE. 



If our starting-point is Princetown we take the road running past 
the church and the prison to Rundle Stone, and if we set out from Two 
Bridges we follow the Tavistock road to the same spot. As we have 
already spoken of the Rundle Stone (Ex. i ), there will be little to detain 
us now. The destruction of the monolith is greatly to be deplored, 
for, though we hear nothing of it until 1702, it is highly probable 
that it was standing long prior to that time. It was one of the few 
objects set up on the forest boundary line, most of those by which it 
is marked being natural ones. The house near by, on the R. as we 
reach Rundle Stone Corner from Princetown, was formerly an inn, 
and near here at one time there was a gate across the road. Several 
years ago the house was greatly damaged by lightning. 



58 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

Proceeding a short distance on the Tavistock road we take the 
first turning on the R. and make our way towards Mount View, a 
house which stands not far from the highway. After passing some 
enclosures beyond this we emerge upon the common with the wall of 
the New Forest Prison ground (Ex. 5) on our R. This wall is built 
just within the forest bounds, and our way lies along by it. On our 
L. is that part of Walkhampton Common which, together with a 
tract on our R., formerly bore the name of Mis Tor Moor. It is spoken 
of as such by the jurors who surveyed the bounds of the forest in 1609, 
but is seldom so referred to now. Ancient workings extend from near 
Rundle Stone to the Walkham, and in close proximity to these are a 
number of hut circles and some small pounds The latter are on the 
side of the hill below Wain Tor, or Little Mis Tor, and almost due W. 
of it. This Tor will be seen a little to the L. just before we reach the 
corner of the prison enclosure (Ex. 5). Though not of great size, 
Wain Tor is a conspicuous object from many points, owing to its 
situation, and square, compact form. 

Passing upward, and still pursuing the same course we have been 
following from Rundle Stone, we speedily reach Great Mis Tor, one of 
the grandest of the rocky crowns of the moor. From whichever side 
it is seen it presents an imposing appearance, but the best view of it is 
probably that obtained from near Merivale Bridge. It is also seen to 
great advantage from Langstone Moor (Ex. 8), while from Roborough 
Down the grouping of this fine pile, with Roose Tor and Staple Tor 
and Cocks' Tor Hill, presents all the appearance of a mountain chain. 
The view from the tor is extensive and varied. On one side is seen 
the whole of West and North- West Devon, and much of the eastern 
part of Cornwall. Away to the south is Mount Edgcumbe, and the 
Tamar at Saltash, with the masterpiece of Brunei which spans it. 
Thence ranging northward the eye lights upon the hills of " rocky 
Cornewaile," and the tors that rise from the midst of King Arthur's 




LOOKING N.N.E. FROM MIS TOR. 

Land. On the other hand, we look into the great moor we are per- 
ambulating, and see much of the old-time hunting-ground, and if we 
have learnt to recognise the forms of the chief of its tors from the lofty 
summit of North Hisworthy, we shall here see many that are known 
to us. Westward of the Walkham are several fine piles, which are 



EXCURSION 6. IVIES TOR. 



59 



noticed in the excursions from Tavistock. The one nearest to us, in a 
direction W. bv S., is Roose Tor ; southward of that is Great Staple 
Tor, and beyond them the rounded Cocks' Tor Hill (Ex. 8). To the 
N.W., and on the further side of Langstone Moor, is another pile. 
This is White Tor (Ex. 8), or Whittor, as it is more often called, and 
beyond it i the valley of the Tavy. The stone circle on Langstone 
Moor, noticed in Ex. 8, is not very far from Mis Tor, and when the 
river can be crossed may readily be reached from it. It is about m. 
from the Walkham, and N.N.W. of the tor. Should the visitor decide 
to include this object in the present ramble he may, after having 
examined it, make his way to the point we shall presently reach, by 
following the Walkham and crossing it at Shallow Ford. Or he may 
return to the Rundle Stone by way of Men vale, first visiting Roose Tor 
and Staple Tor (Ex. 8), and then descending to the hamlet. 

The meaning of the name of this tor is not apparent. The sug- 
gestion concerning it offered in the days when the Druidic theory was 




LOOKING N.E. FROM MIS TOR. 

rife, is not worth consideration. The tor was known as Mystor, or 
Mistorr, in the thirteenth century, and is mentioned during succeeding 
centuries in documents relating to the forest. 

As elsewhere stated (see Bondmark in the Terms section) the 
boundary line between the forest and its purlieus seems to have been 
drawn through the tor, so that part of the pile was within the royal 
hunting-ground and part without. In the survey of 1609 the bond- 
mark is specified as " a rocke called Mistorrpan," and this name also 
occurs more than 300 years earlier in the deed of Isabella referred to 
below. Mis Tor Pan is undoubtedly the large rock-basin on the mass 
of granite forming the southern part of the pile, and yet by some strange 
mistake the name has been affixed in the Ordnance Maps to Mis Tor 
Marsh, some third of a mile to the N.E. of the tor. That this should be 
corrected is important, as the forest boundary is expressly stated in the 
deed above referred to to be drawn from Mistorpanna, and if this be 
identified with the marsh the forest line is thrown considerably back. 
But the rock is evidently meant, and as we have seen, was specially 
mentioned as Mistorrpan in 1609. By this name also was the rock 
known to the peasantry early in the nineteenth century, and has con- 
tinued to be so called. The basin is a very fine example. It is about 



Oo PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

3 feet in diameter, and 8 inches in depth ; the bottom is flat, and there 
is a small channel leading from it to the edge of the rock. 

But the basin also bears another name. It is sometimes referred 
to as the Devil's Frying-pan, and several stories are related in con- 
nection with it in which the Evil One figures. 

As we have already seen, the forest boundary is drawn from North 
Hisworthy Tor to Mis Tor. Looking southward towards the former 
we have the forest on the L,. of an imaginary line running from one to 
the other, and Walkhampton Common, as previously mentioned, on 
the R. The latter formed part of the lands given by Amicia of Clare, 
Countess of Devon, in 1280, to found the Abbey of the Blessed Mary 
and Benedict of Buckland. The gift was afterwards confirmed (in 
1 291) by her daughter, Isabella de Fortibus, Countess of Albemarle 
and Devon, and Lady of the Isle of Wight. Isabella was left a widow 
at the age of 23, and two years after succeeded to the possessions of 
her father, Baldwin de Redvers, her brother dying without heir male, 
and thus became the richest heiress of her time. Among these pos- 
sions was included the Isle of Wight, the lordship of which had been 
bestowed upon Richard de Redvers by Henry I. She died in 1303, 
and on her deathbed sold the island to Edward I. for 6,000 marks. 
With her the line of De Redvers became extinct, and many of the 
estates passed to the Courtenays. 

Another considerable tract of land on Dartmoor, forming part of 
the Chase of Okehampton, was also held by the De Redvers. (Oke- 
hampton District). It is not a little curious that in the names of these 
commons the termination Hampton appears, and yet is found nowhere 
else on the moor, or in the border parishes. Many of the names of the 
latter exhibit the oft-found Saxon termination ton, though in more 
than one instance the word is apparently traceable to the Celtic dun, 
a hill, the heavy sound of the initial letter having given place to a 
lighter one. But hampton is found only in Walkhampton and Oke- 
hampton locally pronounced Wackinton and Ockinton though in 
neither does the word seem to possess its usual signification. It would, 
however, be unsafe to conclude that it does not. Ham and ton may, 
together, be taken to mean a farm, or enclosed land, with its dwelling- 
house and outbuildings, the house town, as it were, and the term came 
to signify an inhabitated settlement. In Walkhampton the second 
syllable does not appear to have any connection with the third, but 
only with the first, the name being derived, we may reasonably suppose, 
from the river Walkham. Risdon, writing early in the seventeenth 
century, calls this river the Store [Gems, Chap. XXI.], but even if it 
were then so known, it is certain that at a much earlier time it bore a 
name closely resembling the one by which it is called to-day, being 
referred to as the Walkamp in the deed of Isabella de Fortibus. Thus, 
Walkhampton would mean the town, or settlement, on the Walkham, 
if we could be sure that the deed gave us the earliest form of the name of 
the river. But this is doubtful. There are many Dartmoor streams 
bearing the name of Walla, or Wella, and one that of Wollake, and I 
should be inclined to place Walkham in the same category, and to 
regard its early name to have been either Walla or Wollake. In 
Saxon times the settlement on the stream would be called Walla- 
hampton, or Wollakhampton, and by an easy transition Walkhampton. 
But it is also very probable that we do not see the word ham in this 



EXCURSION 6. THE HANGING ROCK. FITZ'S WELL. 61 

name at all ; that the early name of the river was the Walla, and that 
Walkhampton is Walla cwm ton, the town in the combe, or valley, of 
the Walla. (Gems, Chap. XXI.) 

Leaving Mis Tor and its interesting traditionary and historic 
associations we shall make our way down the hill to the Walkham, our 
course being a little E. of N., thus following in the footsteps of the old 
perambulators. On our R. is Mis Tor Marsh, already mentioned, 
where the ground drops towards the Prison Leat. About ^ m. from 
the tor we reach Greena Ball, where are three cairns, situated a short 
distance to the R. of the line we are pursuing ; then descending the /V /) 
steep slope we reach the Walkham at what is known as the Hanging 
Rock, and immediately opposite to a combe down which flows a little 
stream called Dead Lake. To the Hanging Rock, which marks the 
extreme northern part of Walkhampton Common, the river forming 
its western boundary, the oft-repeated story of the sheep-stealer 
attaches. In the attempt to climb over it with the sheep on his 
shoulders he slipped, and the animal's legs being clasped round his 
neck, he was strangled. From the Rundle Stone to this point we have 
been traversing the boundary line of the forest, which here crosses 
the Walkham and runs up Dead Lake, but now we leave it. The 
suggestion that has been made that the line was once drawn from Mis 
Tor to White Tor rests on nothing but supposition, and is directly 
contrary to such evidence as we possess concerning it. 

We turn eastward and trace the Walkham upwards. Soon we 
shall find it makes a great bend, the stream flowing from the N. Jiist 
above this bend the track leading from the Blackabrook to Cudlipp 
Town Down and Wapsworthy (T. 12) crosses the river at Shallow Ford. 
But we do not go quite so far as that, for OP reaching a rivulet that 
comes down into the Walkham from Black Hole, R., we turn up by 
it, and following it for about 100 yards, shall find ourselves on the 
track. Following this up the hill we shall cross the Prison Leat at a 
fording-place, and about m. further on shall reach the springs of the 
Blackabrook. From this point the route to Princetown and Two 
Bridges has been given in Excursion 5, in which it was also stated that 
the path through the Prison ground lies by Fitz's Well (T. 12). 

This object we shall find about | m. S. of the point at which our 
track by the Blackabrook enters the New Forest enclosure (Ex. 5). 
Since the formation of the latter a wall has been built round the well, 
otherwise it is the same as ever it was, except that it is less striking 
now than when it stood, as I remember it, on the open moor. Fice's 
Well, as it is locally called, used to be spoken of as being warm in 
winter and cold in summer, and according to Bellamy is a spring of 
the kind that are in evident connection with rivers, and which, he 
j>ays, " to have attained their elevated temperature, must have 
descended through some passages of the river-bed to a great depth of 
the earth before reappearing at the surface."* 

A little structure formed of slabs of granite, about 3 feet high, is 
raised over the well, the cover stone being oblong, and measuring 
nearly 4 feet in length, by rather over 3 feet in width. In the front 
part of this cover is a sunken panel, in which are carved in relief the 
letters I. F., and the date 1568. John Wilson, the Christopher North 

* Natural History of South Devon, p. 146. 



2 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

of Blackwood, noticed this well when on a visit to Dartmoor, and mis- 
read the date as 1168, " which," he says, " must be a lie." But had 
he been more careful in his examination he would have found that the 
inscription does not lie. The second figure is rather curiously formed, 
it is true, but this is only characteristic of the manner of writing it in 
the sixteenth century, and it would be recognised by anyone to-day 
as 5.* The letters are supposed to represent the initials of John Pitz, 
and there is good reason for believing this to be the case. [Crosses, 
Chap. XI.] Early in the last century there was a moorland tradition 
to the effect that John, or James, Fice, a traveller, experienced some 
great relief from the spring, and in gratitude raised the little edifice 
over it, while another story, related in Tavistock, told how this was 
set up by John Pitz, of Fitzford. He and his lady being " pixy-led " 
when riding over the moor, found, on drinking the water of a certain 
spring, that the spell of the mischievous elves was broken, and that 
they could no longer lead them from their way. Grateful for this 
deliverance he placed the granite covering over the water that possessed 
such miraculous power (Ex. 15). Two or three other stories are related 
of this well. 

Quite near to it a clapper spans the Blackabrook. It was swept 
away in 1873 by the same flood that so greatly damaged the one under 
Bear Down (Ex. 5), and remained in a dismantled state for some years, 
but has fortunately been restored. The path that evidently passed this 
way seems to have been the precursor of the one on which the present 
high road is formed, for in the eighteenth century we find that the track 
which then ran across the forest passed the Rundle Stone. Con- 
tinuing on our way we shall soon reach the road, which is exactly \ m. 
from the well. 

[Should the visitor desire to extend this walk he may, instead of 
returning from the Walkham by the Blackabrook Head path (T. 12), 
make his way up that river to the Lich Path (T. 18), where it crosses 
it at Sandy Ford. 

This is rather less than \ m. above Shallow Ford. Following the 
Path eastward he will cross the Prison L/eat at a bridge, and 
make his way along the edge of Conies' Down to Travellers' Ford on 
the Cowsic, which is about i m. from the Walkham. Instructions for 
reaching the head waters of the Blackabrook from this point are given 
in Ex. 5. This will add about 3 m. to the ramble.] 

To reach Fitz's Well from Princetown direct the first point will be 
the Rundle Stone ; then turn R. into the Two Bridges road, and take 
the first turning on the L. Here the Prison ground is entered, the path 
running through it as described above. From Two Bridges the way 
will lead the visitor along the Tavistock road to within a few hundred 

* " During the whole of the sixteenth century, in inscriptions, the 
5 took different forms, resembling more or less the same figure as 
commonly written in France at the present day, and in many instances 
it is easily mistaken for a i, particularly in inscriptions of the middle 
and latter half of the century." Thomas Wright's Essay on the 
Antiquity of Dates expressed in Arabic Numerals. But Christopher 
North ought to have known that the figure could not be i . 



EXCURSION 6. THE WALKHAM. MERIVALE. r; 3 

yards of Rundle Stone Corner, when he will enter the Prison ground 
on the R. Although the path to the well existed long before there 
were any prison enclosures on the moor, and the public have an un- 
questionable right of way there, visitors are, as previously observed, 
generally warned off when the prisoners are at work near where they 
may happen to be passing. It would be well therefore that the 
rambler should so time his visit to those parts of the Prison enclosures 
to which he has access as to be sure that no convicts will be there. 
They are not abroad after 5 p.m. 

ALTERNATIVE ROUTE from Mis Tor to Rundle Stone. Hut Circles 
Blowing Houses on the Walkham Merivale. 

If the rambler has not already visited the old tinners' houses on 
the L. bank of the Walkham, described in Ex. i , and also desires to see 
the hut circles on the rock-strewn slope to the south-west of Mis Tor, 
he may perhaps prefer to return to Rundle Stone Corner by a route 
that will embrace these. Prom the tor he will pass down the hill to 
the newtake wall, his course being S.W. Entering the newtake, and 
still following the same course, he will come upon the hut circles when 
about half way between the wall and the river. These ruined dwellings 
are scattered on the side of the hill, and a few of them are enclosed 
within small pounds. One of these is situated not very far from the 
Walkham. By following the river downward he will soon come upon 
the second of the blowing-houses described in Ex. i, and still further 
down, at the lower end of some mining gerts, will reach the other. On 
this common near Over Tor (Ex. i ), a mass of granite called the Church 
Rock used to be pointed out as one of the abodes of the pixies, and it 
was said that by placing the ear against it the sound of church bells 
could be heard. A similar story is told in connection with an outlying 
pile of White Tor, on Cudlipp Town Down (Ex. 8). Passing down the 
stream to Merivale Bridge we gain the Princetown road, following 
which we climb the hill L. to Rundle Stone. 

Merivale is much in favour with the angler, but not every one of 
them perhaps meets with a similar experience to that of Mr. A. B. 
Collier, the well-known Dartmoor artist, when he was once fishing in 
the neighbourhood. The body of an elderly man, which had been 
found in the river, was brought into the Dartmoor Inn while he was 
there. An inquest was held, and on the foreman of the jury being 
asked for the verdict, he announced as their finding, " Died by the 
visitation of the Almighty, brought on by crossing the river when it 
was vlidded." 



Crockern Tor. 

Directions having been given for reaching this, the first of Risdon's 
"three remarkable things" in the forest (Ex. 5), and the subject of 
the Stannaries having received notice in the Terms section, we may 
now confine our remarks to the tor itself as a meeting- place of the 
tinners of Devon. 



64 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 

Unfortunately Crockern Tor has not escaped the hand of the 
vandal, and objects that formerly existed on the hill, and which would 
have rendered it doubly interesting to-day, are no longer to be seen 
there. These, we learn from Risdon, consisted of " a table and seats 
of moorstone hewn out of the rocks," and were presumably used by 
the stannators at their gatherings. A hundred and sixty-five years 
after that writer's book was completed, namely, in 1795, Mr. John 
Laskey, during an excursion on Dartmoor, visited Crockern Tor, but 
found that the table and seats had disappeared. Making enquiries 
in the locality, he discovered that the relics had been removed to Prince 
Hall, during the time that estate was in the occupation of Mr. Gullet, 
who commenced his operations there in 1780. Thirty years after 
Mr. Laskey' s visit the spoliation of Crockern Tor was ascribed either 
to Sir Francis Buller, who succeeded Mr. Gullet at Prince Hall (Ex. 4), 
or to Mr. Thomas Leaman. But there is good reason for believing 
that the information obtained by Mr. Laskey was correct, and that it 
was Mr. Gullet, who is known to have erected many new farm buildings 
at Prince Hall, and not Sir Francis, who resorted to the tor as a con- 
venient quarry. That Mr. Leaman, however, also had a part in the 
despoiling of the rude court of the tinners, there is little doubt. He, 
I find, was the owner in the latter part of the eighteenth century of 
Dunnabridge Farm, at that time one of the ancient forest tenements, 
but now belonging to the Duchy, and to this farm it was reported the 
stone forming the stannators' table had been removed. In the Rev. 
E. A. Bray's journal of 1831, he states that the tenant of Bear Down 
then told him that the stone was drawn to Dunnabridge Farm by 
twelve yoke of oxen, and many years ago I heard the same story on 
the moor. 

Immediately within the gate of Dunnabridge Pound (Ex. 42), is 
an interesting object sometimes referred to as the Judge's Chair, and 
which it has been said was brought from Crockern Tor. But this story 
has evidently arisen through confusing the pound with the farm, and 
was certainly never heard on the moor in the first half of the nineteenth 
century. In the year above named Mr. Bray visited Dunnabridge 
Farm for the purpose of seeing the stone his tenant had told him of, 
and nothing can be more certain than that such a. report had not arisen 
at that time. After seeing the stone at the farm, which is still there 
(Ex. 42), he went on to the pound and examined the Judge's Chair, 
which, however, was not then known by that name, and which he 
suggested might have been the seat of an Arch-druid. He says not a 
word about this having been brought from Corckern Tor ; on the con- 
trary, he expresses his satisfaction that the person who was said to 
have carried away the table from the tor did not have recourse to the 
pound for the stone he required. It is quite plain that the story 
originated after Mr. Bray's time. It became known, probably through 
the medium of Mrs. Bray's book, that something was to be seen at 
Dunnabridge (meaning Dunnabridge Farm) that had been taken from 
Crockern Tor, and it is easy to see how the relic in Dunnabridge Pound 
should come to be regarded as that object, and also how it should 
be called the Judge's Chair. I was rather amused once when, 
after explaining this to a driver who was in the habit of taking 
visitors to the pound, he said to me, " Well, I shan't have it that 
way. I've always told everybody it was the Judge's Chair, and 



CROCKERN TOR. 65: 

that 'twas brought from Crockern Tor, and I'm not going to alter my 
story now." 

By the side of the Moreton road, and not very far from the ruined 
cottage below Crockern Tor, is another stone which used to be 
associated with the hill of the tinners, but on what grounds I could 
never discover. It was brought to my notice many years ago, but alL 
I could learn was that it was called the Judge's Corner. It is not far 
from Spader's Cotage, but on the R. of the way in going towards Post 
Bridge, and at a corner of Muddy Lake Newtake. Its situation prob- 
ably accounts for its name. 

[Dunnabridge Pound is reached from Two Bridges, from which it 
is distant 2|m., by the Ashburton road, which passes Prince Hall Lodge 
(i m.) and crosses the Cherry Brook by the bridge of the same name 
just beyond. The pound and the farm are described in the Hexworthy- 
District, Ex. 42.] 



Littaford Longaford 
Tor. Tor. 




?ROM ASHBURTON ROAD BEYOND TWO BRIDGES. 
NEAR PRINCE HAW, I<ODGE. 



Bellaford Tor. 



Hameldon. 




FROM ASHBURTON ROAD BEYOND TWO BRIDGES. 
NEAR PRINCE HAI.I, I<ODGE. 



Fl 



66 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 



Shorter Excursions. 

By means of these the foregoing rambles may be varied. The 
places where descriptions of the different objects, and the directions 
for reaching them may be found, are indicated in brackets. As in the 
case of the other Excursions, the distances given include the return. 

S. Ex. i. Hut Circles at Head of Yes Tor Bottom, 3^ m. T. B., 
6J- m. Devil's Bridge, in Devil's Gully (Ex. i). Strike up over com- 
mon R., making towards the railway. Leave it a little on R. Hut 
circles will soon be seen on the common. Make towards the railway 
L., where it is seen at the bottom of the hill, and a hut enclosure 
(Ex. i) will be observed. Return to railway (on the hill) and follow 
it to the siding at the quarry. Then cross, and return to Princetown 
by the path running near to it (Ex. i). 

[This excursion may be extended by passing down the hill from 
the pound to the railway, and crossing it. This can then be followed 
round King Tor to the siding named.] 

S. Ex. 2. Hisworthy Tor, Hollow Tor, .and Red Cottages, 4 m., 
T.B., 7 m. North Hisworthy. Bear a little L. down hill to Hollow 
Tor. Continue down hill to road leading to Red Cottages (Ex. i). 
Go on to the quarry and the railway. Turn L,. and follow the latter 
to Princetown, as in the previous Ex. 

S. Ex. 3. Merivale Antiquities, 6 m. T.B., 7 m. Rundle Stone 
(Exs. 1,6); before reaching this, Herne Hole, where is the prison 
quarry, is passed L. Mission Room (R. i a). Down the road for \ m. 
Strike L. to the rows (Ex. i). 

S. Ex. 4. Ward Bridge and Vixen Tor, 12 m. T.B., 13 m. 
Rundle Stone (Ex. i, 6). Mission Room (R. i a.) Down the hill to 
gate on L. Enter (Ex. i) and follow track to Long Ash Farm (Ex. i). 
Cross Long Ash Brook by clapper, then on, still following the track, to 
Hucken or Okel, Tor (Ex. i). On past Davy Town Farm and cross 
brook by Withil Farm (Ex. i). Turn down the hill R. to Ward Bridge 
(Ex. 7). Up the hill (Ex. 7) to Sampford Spiney. Pass church on L. 
and on to common. (Ex. 7, T. 13). Follow track below Pu Tor Cottage 
and continue on with wall on R. Pass Heckwood Tor on L. of track 
(T. 13). Descend to Beckamoor Brook, with Vixen Tor on hill on 
further side (T. 13), or go by way of Vixen Tor Farm. Onward to 
road and turn R. to Merivale Bridge (Ex. i). Cross bridge to gate of 
lane leading to Long Ash (ante) and return to Princetown by road, 
as in Ex. i. 

S. Ex. 5. Blowing Houses on the Walkham, 7 m., T.B., 8 m. 
Rundle Stone (Ex. i, 6). Mission Room (R. i a). Strike in over 
common R. Descend to river. Lower House about a furlong above 
Merivale Bridge (Ex. i, 6). Higher House about 4- m. further up. 
(Ex. i, 6). On R. bank of river is the farm, of Shillapark. 

S. Ex. 6. Mis Tor. Rundle Stone, 64- m., T.B., j\ m. (Ex. i, 6). 
Then as in Ex. 6. 

S. Ex. 7.Fi'z's Well, $\ m. See Ex. 6. Rundle Stone (Ex. i, 6). 
Turn in from Two Bridges road (Ex. 6), Follow road \ m. to Well. 

S. Ex. 8. Blackabrook and Holming Beam, 84- m., T.B., 64- m. 
Rundle Stone (Ex. i, 6). Up by wall towards Mis Tor (Ex." 6). 



Shorter Excursions from Princetown and Two Bridges. 67 

"Turn R. at corner. Follow wall down to Blackabrook (Ex. 5, 6, and 
T. 12). Cross stream and follow wall to next corner. Turn R., keeping 
wall on that side, to road near Two Bridges. Turn L. for that place, 
and R. if for Rundle Stone. (P.T. im. less if return is made by way 
of T.B.) 

S. Ex. 9. Peat Cot and Nun's Cross, $ m., T.B., 8 m. Castle 
Road (Ex. 3). Leave Peat Cot on L. Strike Track (T. i, as sketched 
in Ex. 2), and follow it to Nun's Cross. Return to Princetown by 
T. i. The distance from T.B. will be less if the visitor goes by way 
of Round Hill, as in Ex. 3. 

S. Ex. 10. White Works and Swincombe, 84- m., T.B., n4- in. 
Castle Road (Ex. 3) on to White Works (Ex. 3). "Thence to the "ford 
below Fox Tor (Ex. 3), and follow the river down to Swincombe Ford 
(Ex. 4). Cross by the Fairy Bridge (Ex. 4, 43). Thence home by the 
track through Tor Royal Newtake (T. 8, Ex. 4), or, if the destination 
be Two Bridges, across Swincombe Newtake (T. 10), to Prince Hall 
Bridge. Return, reverse of Ex. 4. If the return to T.B. is made by 
way of Prince Hall the distance will be g\ m. 

S. Ex. ii. Nun's Cross and the Rows near Down Tor, 7 m., T.B., 
10 in. Nun's Cross (T. i, Ex. 2). Thence up the hill in front, bearing 
a little to the R. with the head of the Newleycombe Lake (Ex. 2), 
which flows W., on the R. Keep on W. to the rows which will be seen 
on the common (Ex. 2). Then turn N.W., and descend the hill to the 
Newleycombe Lake ; cross, which it is usually easy to do, and up to 
Kingsett. Thence back as in Ex. 2. 

vS. Ex. 12. Lether Tor Bridge, Nosworthy Bridge, Combeshead, 
and Thrushcl Combe, 12 m., T.B., 15 m. Lether Tor Bridge, as in 
Ex. 2. Thence on to Nosworthy Bridge (Ex. 39), and up through 
Dean Combe (Ex. 39), to Combeshead Farm. Thence to Thrushel 
Combe. See also Ex. 37 ; and from Sheeps Tor, Ex. 39. The Mining 
Remains at Dean Combe Head, and the Antiquities at Thrushel Combe, 
are described in Part V. (Exs. 37, 38, 39). 

S. Ex. 13. Hart Tor Hut Circles and Rows, 3^ m.-, T.B., 6 m. 
Hart Tor (Ex. 2). Circles on slope on nearing it. Rows on slope on 
further side (Ex. 2). Down the hill to Black Tor Ford, and return as 
in Ex. 2. 

S. Ex. 14. Black Tor, Blowing Houses on the Mew, and Peak Hill, 
6 m., T.B., 9 in. Devil's Bridge (Ex. i). Double Waters (Ex. i). 
Strike L. over common to Black Tor. Descend to the ford (Ex. 2), 
and follow down stream for a short distance to the Blowing Houses. 
Mount R. bank, and make for wall of Stanlake Farm (Ex. 2). Keep 
wall on L., and pass over common S.W. Hut circles may be seen here. 
Ascend Peak Hill. Turn R. to Princetown road. 

R. 5. describes the way from Princetown to Dartmeet. Reverse 
in R. 42. 



68 PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES DISTRICT. 



Routes from Prineetown and Two Bridges. 

The Route distances given do not include the return. 

R. i. To Tavistock. W. (A) Rundle Stone, Merivale, Moor 
town, about j-i- m. (B) Rundle Stone, Merivale, Moor Shop, about 
7| m.* T.B., \ m. further. Reverse, R. 15. 

[The objects passed on this route are described as follows : 
Those between P.T. and T.B. and Merivale are noticed in Exs. i, 6 ; 
those beyond Merivale in Exs. 7, 8. It would be well that these should 
be consulted before starting.] 

(A) Rundle Stone (Ex. 6), thence westerly by the road, passing 
the granite posts by the roadside (Ex. i), and shortly afterwards cross 
the head waters of the Long Ash Brook (Ex. i), near the Mission Room. 
A fine view of Mis Tor on the R., and in front a very extensive one of 
the country beyond the Tamar, with the Cornish hills in the distance. 
The antiquities noticed in Ex. i are on the plain piece of ground seen 
L. soon after passing the Mission Room, a short distance across the 
common. Here are hut circles on either hand ; soon after passing 
them Merivale Bridge is reached. ^ m beyond the bridge is the fourth 
milestone from Tavistock, near which we may leave the road, and 
follow a green track (L). This is part of the branch of the Abbots' 
Way (T. i), and will lead us to a ford over the Beckamoor Combe 
Water (Ex. 7), and thence to the Windy Post (Ex. 7). The track then 
descends to Quarry Lane (T. i, Ex. 7), entering it near the gate of 
Moortown. At the western end of Quarry Lane the path over Whit- 
church Down is followed (T. i). This leads by another cross (Ex. 7), 
and by the golf links, when the Tavistock road will be struck. Cross 
this and bear L. to the Square Seat (Ex. 7), and pass down the edge of 
the common with the wall of the enclosures close on the R. From the 
first gate reached (in the corner) a good path leads direct to the G.W.R. 
Station. (B) The road from the fourth milestone crosses Beckamoor 
Combe (Ex. 8) under Cocks' Tor (Ex. 8), and a short distance beyond 
the third milestone leaves the common. Descending Pork Hill it 
reaches Moor Shop (Ex. 8 ; cross roads, R. to Peter Tavy, L. to Horra- 
bridge), and ij m. further on passes the entrance to Mount Tavy 
(R. Ex. 8), from which Vigo Bridge, near the N.E. end of the town, is 
\ m. distant. 

R. 2. To Lydford. N.W. by N., from Rundle Stone ; N.W. 
from T.B. (A) Mis Tor, White Tor, Hill Bridge, Yard Gate, Forstall 
Cross, about n m., T.B., -i- m. further. (B) Cowsic, Black Dunghill* 
Walkham, White Tor, T.B.,"n m. Reverse, R. 22. 

[Objects passed E. of the Walkham are described in Exs. i, 6; 
objects W. of that stream in Exs. 8, 9, 10.] 

* Prineetown Church is about 7 m. from Tavistock. The distances- 
here given are from the cross roads near the Duchy Hotel. 



Route 2. Princetown and Two Bridges to Lydford. 69 

(A) Rundle Stone (Ex. 6) thence to Great Mis Tor as in Ex. 6, and 
down the steep side of the hill N.W. by N. to the Walkhain, which 
should be struck at the weir of the Grimstone Leat. Cross the stream, 
and climb the bank to the group of hut circles immediately above, 
close to which is the stone circle noticed in Ex. 8. White Tor stands 
about i m. N.W. on the further side of Langstone Moor, but in making 
for this object it will be well to keep a little to the R., in order to 
avoid the marshy ground around the springs of the Peter Tavy Brook. 
By the side of the path under White Tor (T. 16) is the menhir men- 
tioned in Ex. 8] 

[Should the state of the weather render the crossing of the Walk- 
ham doubtful, it will be better for the excursionist to make his way 
from Rundle Stone to Merivale Bridge, and when near the fourth mile- 
stone from Tavistock turn R. to Great Staple Tor (Ex. 8). Just before 
reaching it the narrow path to Peter Tavy (T. 14) will be struck, and 
may be followed for a short distance down the hill, or the rambler may 
make his way N. to Roose Tor, and then descend the hill L. The point 
to be gained is the wall of the Wedlake enclosures, northward of Roose 
Tor, which is kept close on the L. to the corner of it, when the 
rambler makes direct for White Tor, crossing the Peter Tavy Brook, 
and shortly afterwards striking the green path (T. 16). The menhir 
is here on the R.] 

From White Tor (Ex. 8) the way lies N.W. to the foot of Cudlipp 
Town Down, about i m. distant. Here, very near to the wall of the 
enclosures, is a rubble heap thrown up by the miners, and close to this 
is a stile, whence a path leads straight down across one field to the 
Wapsworthy road. On reaching this the rambler will turn R., the 
road here running about N.E. This he will follow for about m., 
when he will turn L. into Church Lane, and descend to Hill Bridge 
(Exs. 8, 10). 

[Another route from White Tor to the bridge is by way of Waps- 
worthy (Ex. 10). From the tor a direction a little W. of N. is followed 
to a rough track that comes up through the newtakes from the settle- 
ment named. On reaching the latter turn L., and follow the Peter 
Tavy road for about \ m., and then turn R. into the lane leading to 
the bridge.] 

From Hill Bridge pass up the road by Hill Town (Ex. 10), and 
where it forks choose the L. branch, but avoid taking the next turning L. 
Very shortly Yard Gate (Ex. 10) will be reached, on passing through 
which strike R. , close to the wall of an enclosure to the common. Here 
the rambler is on an old track to Lydford (T. 18), and will follow it, 
with Yellowmead Farm (Ex. 10) below him on the R., to Forstall Cross 
(Ex. 10). Two or three paths cross here (T. 18, 21, 25), but the one 
that must be followed runs about N.W. by N. It passes over the ridge 
and in m. or so reaches the gate at Down Lane (Ex. 10), which runs 
almost in the same direction. At the bottom of the lane is the Oke- 
hampton highway, which the excursionist, turning R., follows to the 
seventh milestone from Tavistock, passing Higher and Lower Beardon 
on his L. He enters the gate close to it, and passes down through the 
brake with Skit Steps on the R. to the foot-bridge near the old mill. 
Crossing this he follows the lane, and bearing L. will speedily enter the 
village. 

(B) This is the better route from Two Bridges. The commons are 



70 Route 3. Princetown and Two Bridges to Okehampton. 

entered just after crossing the Devonport Leat on the road to Rundle 
Stone. Pass up N., with the Cowsic R., and the wall of the Prison 
enclosures L. (Ex. 5). On reaching the corner of the wall strike 
N.W. by W. across Holming Beam to Black Dunghill nearly | m., 
just beyond which the track (T. 12) passing Blackabrook is reached. 
Follow this, the direction still about the same, to Shallow Ford (Ex. 6) 
on the Walkham, in. further. Follow the track for 4 m. to Dead- 
lake Head (Ex. 8), and then strike due W. across Langstone Moor 
(Ex. 8) to White Tor, From this point the directions will be found 
under A. 

R. 3. To Okehampton, with branches to Belstone. N. 

Walkham Head, Tavy Hole, Broad Amicombc Hole, Dinger Plain, 
West Mil Tor, P.T. about 154 m., T.B 4 , 14 m. If by way of Maiden 
Hill (Ex. 5) from T.B. the distance from that place will be 13-^- m. 
Belstone i m. less from either place. Reverse, R. 29. 

[For description of objects S. of Walkham Head see Exs. 5,6, 10 ; 
those between that place and Broad Amicombe are noticed in the 
Lydford District, Ex. 1 1 ; those beyond Broad Amicombe are in the 
Okehampton District, and are described in Ex. 15. See also C.R. 2, 
10, 17.] 

Rundle Stone (Ex. 6) ; thence to New Forest Corner, near Little 
Mis Tor (Ex. 5, 6), and down N.N.E. to the Prison leat, which is followed 
nearly to the point where the water is taken in from Spriddle Lake. 
Just before this is reached the Lich Path (T. 18) is carried over the 
leat, and here the rambler crosses, and turns R. Soon after this 
Timber Bridge is crossed, and beyond it the track forks. But the 
way lies straight on, with the Walkham, here a tiny stream, in sight on 
the L. About i m. above Timber Bridge is the end of the track, and 
the springs of the Walkham are seen a little to the R., the stream 
making a bend just below. 

[Walkham Head may be reached direct from Two Bridges by way 
of the Cowsic, proceeding first as directed in R. 2 (B). When the 
corner of the enclosure is passed the rambler continues a northerly 
course, having the Cowsic on the R., but gradually leaving it, so as to 
strike the Lich Path (T. 18) about m. to the W. of it. Crossing this 
track he pursues a course N.W. by N., passing over Conies' Down 
(Ex. 5) to Spriddle Combe (T. 16). This he also crosses, and, taking 
care not to keep too much to the R. will soon strike the Walkham 
Head track near its end.] 

At Walkham Head the stream (two tiny rivulets here) must be 
crossed, the actual source being left on the R., and in making his way 
up the further bank the rambler must bear a little to the L., in order 
to avoid the fen on the top of the ridge. Progress will not be very 
rapid, the slope, which is known to the moormen as Horsey Park, being 
covered with old turf ties, overgrown with whortleberry plants. On 
reaching the summit of the ridge a part of the moor not hitherto seen 
comes into view. On the high ground on the L., across the valley of 
the Rattle Brook (Ex. 1 1 ), are several tors, chief among which is the 
fine pile of Great Links Tor (Ex. 12). To the R. of this, and in front 
of the rambler, is Amicombe Hill (Ex. 12), and to the R. of that again 
Great Kneeset (Ex. 14). The dip to the L. of this hill, which is of a 
pyramidal form is Broad Amicombe Hole, the point for which we are 



Route 3. Prince town and Two Bridges to Oke Hampton. 71 

making. R. of Kneeset is Black Ridge, with Little Kneeset under it, 
and R. of that Fur Tor, the nearest pile of rocks, and Cut Hill. If the 
visitor has reached the top of the ridge at the proper point, Fur Tor 
should bear N.E. by N. The course is now about N.N.E., a little to 
the R. of the objective, but on reaching the Tavy, above Tavy Hole, 
a line due N. should be followed. The Amicombe should be struck at 
Fur Tor Foot, W.N.W. of the summit of the tor, and followed to its 
source due W. of Great Kneeset. The rambler can make no mistake 
if he avoids following any stream branching from it R. At its source, 
iu Broad Amicombe Hole, he is on the track running from Okehampton 
to Post Bridge via Cut Lane, but it is not defined here. T. 79 and 34 
should now be consulted. The first object to reach is Dinger Tor, a 
very short distance beyond which the rambler will strike the peat 
track, T. 34. For this purpose he will pass through the hollow, and, 
soon striking the head of another little stream, flowing due N., will 
follow it to Kneeset Foot, the point at which it meets the West Ock- 
ment. Here that river is crossed, and the hill beyond it ascended, the 
direction of Dinger Tor from Kneeset Foot being N.E. by N., and the 
distance exactly i m. Lints Tor, which is worth visiting, lies about 
midway between these two points, a little to the L. Viewed from a 
distance its rocks bear a striking resemblance to a tower (Ex. 14). 
(If the Ockment cannot be crossed at Kneeset Foot the rambler must 
make his way up the bank to Kneeset Nose. See Branch to Belstone, 
post, and R. 29). On reaching the peat track beyond Dinger Tor, 
which consists of a single mass of rock, the rambler will have a well 
defined path to the road at Moor Gate (Exs. 14, 15. T. 34). He will 
leave High Willes, Yes Tor and West Mil Tor on the L., and Row 
Tor on the R.- Between the two latter he will find himself close 
to the Moor Brook, and near the bank of this his path is carried to the 
gate. Here the road across Okehampton Park (Ex. 14) to the town is 
followed. 

[From T.B. via Maiden Hill. The Cowsic is followed upwards 
(Ex. 5) to Conies' Down Tor, and a course about N. by W. is then 
followed to the Tavy, which is about i \ in. distant. This will lead the 
visitor over Maiden Hill, on the N. side of which he will pass between 
the sources of the Cowsic and Spriddle Lake. Here he crosses the 
fen, and unless the weather be dry it is not advisable to adopt this 
route. On reaching the Tavy it is crossed, and a direction W.N.W. is 
followed down the hill, with Fur Tor on the R., to the Amicombe, 
when the directions given ante must be followed. 

Branch to Belstone. On leaving Amicombe Hole a course N.Tv. by 
N. is taken, which will lead the rambler to the West Ockment at a 
point where it makes a sharp bend i m. above Kneeset Foot. He 
follows it upwards for -I- m., and crosses it at Kneeset Nose, where it 
receives Brim Brook (Ex. 14, 16), which flows from the N.N.E. This 
tributary then becomes his guide, and must be followed to its source. 
Less than 4 m. beyond this, N.N.E. , the head of the Blackaven will be 
struck, and this is followed to the clapper below East Mil Tor, known 
as New Bridge (Ex. 16, T. 35). The rambler may now either trace 
the stream to Crovenor Steps (Ex. 16), where it falls into the East 
Ockment, or he may strike N.E. across the common, and reach that 
river above the enclosures belonging to East Ockment Farm (Ex. 16), 
and follow it down to the steps, which are at the N.E. corner of the 



72 Route 4. Princetown and Two Bridges to Chagford. 

farm enclosures. From this crossing place a road runs about N.E. to 
Belstone village. 

To Belstone from Two Bridges. N. C.R. 2 to East Dart Head. 
Thence due N. across the fen to Taw Head, not quite -J- m. Newtake 
is R. (Ex. 19, Extension), and Cranmere L. From Taw Head follow 
the river ; the route is given in C.R. 10. 

[If the rambler desires to go by way of Cut Hill he will follow the 
directions given in Ex. n, Extension. From the summit of the hill 
he will make for East Dart Head, either by proceeding N. for a few 
hundred yards, and then steering about E.N.E. to the Dart, which he 
will follow to its source ; or he may strike N. by E. over Flatters for 
i m., and then N.E. by N., with the summit of Black Hill L., for 
4 m., which will bring him to the head of the river.] 

R. 4. To Chagford, N.E., 12 m. Moreton, 13 J m. T.B., \\ m. 
less. Reverse, R. 35. 

[The objects met with on these routes are described in Exs. 4, 5, 
21, 46 ; see also roads.] 

(Few directions are necessary, the high road being followed in 
each case, but should the rambler desire to make his way over the moor 
to Chagford he will find instructions for doing so in the Excursions in 
the Post Bridge District, at which place he will leave the road. Or he 
may pass up the West Dart by Wistman's Wood (Ex. 5), and ascend 
the hill to the wall beyond Brown's House (Ex. 5), when he will find 
himself on the line of route from Tavistock to Chagford (R. 10, B) q.v. 
The line comes from Row Tor, W., and crosses Broad Down to the 
East Dart). 

The first point is Two Bridges. Thence bear I,, on the brow of 
the hill behind the hotel, to Post Bridge, passing Crockern Tor (Ex. 5) 
and the Powder Mills (L) on the way. Bellaford Tor (Ex. 44) is R., a 
little beyond the latter. Cross the East Dart and ascend Meripit Hill 
<Ex. 45) to Newhouse, or as it is now called, the Warren House Inn. 
1 4- m. beyond this the Chagford road branches I,. 

[To Chagford. For the first | m. the road runs over the common, 
and then descends to Jurston, just beyond which the Bovey is crossed 
at Jurston Bridge. It then ascends to Meldon Hill, over the side of 
which the rambler makes his way, with the common L. Beyond this 
is Nat Tor Down, which he leaves R., and then descends into Chagford, 
with Padley Common L. See Chagford District.] 

From the junction the Moreton road runs on to Moor Gate 
{Ex. 21), 4m. from the town, where it leaves the moor, i m. further 
on is Beetor Cross (Ex. 22), where the visitor bears L., but not into the 
narrow road leading to Beetor Farm. Pass over Worm Hill, at the 
bottom of which the Bovey is crossed, i m. beyond this is Bughead 
Cross, from which Moreton is distant another mile. 

R. 5. To Bovey Tracey. E. by N. (A) Dartmeet, Ponsworthy, 
Cockingford Mill, Pudsham Down, Newhouse, Hemsworthy Gate, P.T. 
1 6 m. T.B., via Prince Hall, \j\ m. (B) Two Bridges, Higher 
Cherry Brook Bridge, Bellaford Bridge', West Shallowford, Rowden Down, 
Dunstone Down, Blackslade, Hemsworthy Gate, P.T. 17 m. T.B. 15^ m. 
(C) Post Bridge, Runnage, Grendon Bridge, Gore Hill, Widecombe, 
Hemsworthy Gate, P.T. 18. T.B. 16^ m. Reverse, R. 42. 



Route 5. Princetown and Two Bridges to Bovey Tracey. 73 

Route A is the most convenient. 

[Objects between the starting points and Dartnieet and Post 
Bridge are described in Exs. 4, 42 ; objects beyond Grendon Cot and 
Dartmeet, in Exs. 28, 41 ; and those near and beyond Hemsworthy 
Gate, in Exs. 2?, 26.] 

(A) Prom P.T. by Tor Royal Lodge (T. 8) to Bull Park ; across 
Tor Royal Newtake, passing the Crock of Gold (Ex. 4) to Swincombe 
Newtake and Swincombe Ford. Thence to Hexworthy, as in T. S, 
and down to Hexworthy Bridge. Pass up between Huccaby and the 
chapel and through the gate at the top of the hill, then turn R. to 
Dartmeet. (Hexworthy District). From T.B. by the Ashburton road 
past the entrance to Prince Hall (Ex. 4) and on to Lower Cherry Brook 
Bridge and Dunnabridge Pound. Thence on by the enclosures of 
Brimpts, noticing Huccaby in the valley, R., and down to Dartmeet. 
(Or the track from Prince Hall Lodge to Hexworthy and Huccaby may 
be followed, T. 10). Up Dartmeet Hill, passing the Coffin Stone 
(Ex. 41), and on to Ouldsbroom Cross, where the Ashburton road turns 
R. Straight on (the next road L. goes to Sherwell and Babeny) 
across Sherberton Common, and leaving this at Lock's Gate Cross, 
descend to Ponsworthy, on the road to Widecombe. Through the 
hamlet and up the hill, and ij m. on take the turning R. This lane 
runs by Cocklngford Mill (Ex. 26), and up the hill by Stone Cross, 
which is about J m. from the mill. Then keep I,., passing over 
Pudsham Down to Ruddycleave Bridge ; cross this and strike N.E. 
up over the common to Newhouse (Ex. 26, R. 42). Thence onward 
with the ruirs L. and Rippon Tor high on the R., to Hemsworthy Gate, 
first turning R. (Exs. 25, 26). 

(B) To Hemsworthy Gate, via Bellaford. Two Bridges, as in R. 4 ; 
thence to Higher Cherry Brook Bridge, 2 m. on the Post Bridge road. 
Cross this and enter gate R., following the track by the wall over 
Lakehead Hill to Bellaford Bridge (T. 18). The next point is the 
Walla Brook, beyond Riddon Ridge, i-J- m., which stream should be 
struck between Riddon and Babeny, the course being S.E. (See re- 
marks on crossing this in R. 42). Thence over the hill a trifle S. of E. 
to the road close to West Shallowford. Cross the West Webburn 
below the farm (T. 52), and pass up the side of Jordan Ball to Rowden 
Down (S. Ex. 86). Keeping R. the rambler will pass through the stroll 
on the E. side of the down to the road, which he will follow for a short 
distance S.E., and then strike across Dunstone Down, E., to Higher 
Dunstone, passing close to Wind Tor on the way. Thence we follow 
the Widecombe road for about 100 yards, and turning R. to Lower 
Dunstone, cross the East Webburn below it. A little beyond Chittle- 
ford we enter a field, L. (S. Ex. 87), and passing in front of Blackslade, 
gain the stroll above Tunhill (Ex. 26). Thence strike E.N.E. to Pil 
Tor , m., and E. by N. to Hemsworthy Gate, 4 m. 

(C) To Hemsworthy Gate via Punnage Bridge. From Two Bridges 
through Post Bridge, as in R. 4, turning R. from the main road just 
before it enters on the common (Ex. 44). Follow the lane to Runnage 
Bridge, and thence across Soussons Common to Ephraim's Pinch, 
passing through the gate to Grendon Bridge. This road is the old 
Church Way (T. 76). Cross the Webburn and up to Hill Head. 
Descend by Blackaton Farm, and crossing the Blackaton Brook, leave 
the road and ascend the narrow way up Gore Hill (Ex. 28) to Blacka- 



74 Route 6. Princetown and Two Bridges to Ashburton. 

ton Down. There is a green path over this, running S.E., by which 
the head of Church Lane is reached. Descend this, and at the bottom 
turn R. to Widecombe, which is close by. Leaving the Church R. 
ascend Widecombe Hill, with Bonehill Rocks L.. Top Tor R., and follow 
road to Hemsworthy Gate. If driving it will be necessary to keep 
to the road at Blackaton, which is carried round Bittleford Down. 

From Hemsworthy Gate the road runs E., with Rippon Tor high 
on the R. Skirting the head of Hound Tor Combe, it goes under 
Saddle Tor, L., and then bends N.E. A green path here runs over 
the down by which the pedestrian may shorten the distance a little. 
The road descends, with Punchaford Ball R., and Hey Tor L., to the 
Moorland Hotel (Ex. 25). i m. further on it leaves the commons, 
and leads directly to Bovey Tracey Station, which is 3 m. distant. 

R. 6. To Ashburton and Buckfastleigh. E. by S. (A) Dartmeet, 
Ouldsbroom Cross, Pound's Gate, New Bridge, Holne Bridge, P.T. 13+ m., 
or via Two Bridges, 14^ m., T.B. 13 m., to Ashburton. 

(B) Hexworthy, Saddle Bridge, Holne, Holne Bridge, P.T., via 
Swincombe, i2\ m., T.B. 13^ m., to Ashburton. 

(C) White Works, Sandy Way, Aune Head, Ringleshutts, Holne, 
Holne Bridge, P.T. 13^ m., T.B. 14 m., to Ashburton. 

Reverse, R. 49. 

[Objects are described (A) in Exs. 4, 27, 28, 41, 42 ; (B) in Exs. 
4, 43, Holne Moor Section, and S. Ex. 96 ; (C) in Exs. 3, 43, and as 
in B.] 

(A) To Ouldsbroom Cross via Dartmeet, as in R. 5 (A). Turn R. 
and follow road past Ouldsbroom Farm to Uppacott (Ex. 28), and 
thence on to Pound's Gate (Ex. 27, 28). Down the hill, with Leigh Tor 
on the L,., turning R. at the foot, and skirting Deeper Marsh, to New 
Bridge. Up the hill, with Holne Chase on the L., then down Holne 
Chase Hill to Holne Bridge, whence road leads direct to Ashburton, 
distant 2 m. 

(B) To Hexworthy from P.T. and T.B. as in R. 5 (A) Take the 
Holne road, running S.E. from the hamlet to .Saddle Bridge (Hexworthy 
District}, distant f m. Cross the Wo Brook, and ascend Combestone 
Tor Hill. Pass tor on L. and on by Hangman's Pit to the Paignton 
Reservoir. Thence follow the road to Holne Moor Gate. Descend the 
hill, and take first turning to the L. Holne village lies R. a little further 
on. Pass this, and reach top of Holne Chase Hill. Descend to Holne 
Bridge. 

(C) Leave P.T. by Castle Road (T. 7, Ex. 3) for White Works. 
Thence as in Ex. 3 to the confluence near Fox Tor Farm enclosures. 
(This point may be reached from T.B. by way of Prince Hall and 
Moorlands (Ex. 4). From the latter the rambler should cross the E. 
side of Tor Royal Newtake, in a direction due S., keeping the wall some 
distance on the L. The Swincombe river is i^ m. from Moorlands). 
Cross stream, and follow up that branch of the Swincombe flowing 
down from the S.E., keeping it on the R. Soon the old track known 
as Sandy Way (T. 56) will be struck, and will lead the rambler by 
Aune Head Mire (Ex. 43) to the deserted Ringleshutts Mine, on Holne 
Moor. Thence a road leads to the highway very near to Holne Moor 
Gate. (See B. ante). 

[If the rambler is bound for Buckfastleigh he does not turn L. 



Route 7. Princetown and Two Bridges to South Brent. 75 

below Holne Moor Gate, as in B., but keeps straight down the 
steep Langaford Hill. The lane runs by Hawson, which lies L., and 
shortly afterwards forks. Either way leads to Buckfastleigh, but the 
R. branch is the shorter way, though not so well adapted for driving.] 

R. 7. To Brent, S.E-, Ivybridge, S. by E., and Cornwood, S. 
Siward's Cross, The Plym, Ducks' Pool, Red Lake Ford, Western Whita- 
burrow, Shipley, 12 m. T.B. add i-i- m. 

Branch to Ivybridge from the Plytn : Ernie Head, Green Lake 
Bottom, Valley of Erme to Hartord Bridge, 12% in. T.B. add i-t m. 

Branch to Cornwood from Siward's Cross : Hart Tors, Shaver- 
combe, Shell Top, Pen Beacon, gk m. T.B. add i4- m. 

From T.B. the most direct route to Siward's Cross is by way of 
Round Hill Farm and Peat Cot as in Ex. 3. Reverse, Rs. 58, 59. 

[The district through which these two routes run is described as 
follows : Between P.T. and the Plym in Exs. 3, 37 ; between the Plym 
and the Erme in Exs. 33, 35 ; from the Erme to Shipley in Exs. 30, 32 ; 
and from the Erme to Harford Bridge in Exs. 32, 33. See also T. I.] 

To the common via Ivybridge Lane, and on by South Hisworthy 
Tor to Siward's Cross as in Ex. 2. (Here the Cornwood route branches. 
See post). The next point in Plym Ford, which lies beyond the ridge 
in front of the rambler in a direction S.S.E., and one mile distant. A 
reave will be seen running up the hill to the cairn on Eylesbarrow 
(Ex. 37), but this must be left well to the R., and the distance between 
it and the rambler gradually increased as he ascends. If he chooses 
he may follow the track leading from near Nun's Cross Farm (see T. i), 
to Plym Ford, but the distance will then be rather greater. (At the 
ford the track to Ivybridge diverges from the Brent route : we will 
here describe the latter). The first point is a large stream work on the 
Black Lane Brook, nearly i-i- m. distant, its direction being E.S.E. by 
E. This course the rambler accordingly follows up the hill, leaving 
-some rocks known as Great Gnats' Head (Ex. 37) a little to the R. 
When on the summit of the hill, and i m. from the ford, the line of 
route passes near Ducks' Pool, which will be seen L. Care must be 
taken in ascending this hill not to bear too much to the L., or the 
rambler will get on to the fen surrounding the source of the Plym ; it is 
better that he should err by keeping a little too much to the R. When 
Ducks' Pool is passed the stream work will soon be sighted. The 
rambler has now to make for Red Lake Ford (T. i, Ex. 30), and crossing 
the stream work will strike S.E. over Green Hill, with the Erme in the 
valley R. (the river is not yet seen), and Stall Moor rising beyond it. 

[Green Hill may also be reached from Princetown by way of 
White Works and Fox Tor. To the first-named T. 7 is "followed ; 
thence the way lies to the ford, as in Ex. 3 ; up Fox Tor Gert, S. of 
the tor, to Fox Tor Head, where Black Lane is struck (T. 75) ; down 
this path to the stream work with Green Hill L. This is the best 
route for riders.] 

Middle Mires, which is really a shallow gully, will be crossed 4- m. 
from the stream work, and J m. further on Red Lake, where also is a 



76 Route 7. Princetown and Two Bridges to Ivybridge. 

large working of the old miners, will be reached.* The ford is nearly 
at the head of these remains, and as the track leading to it is plainly to 
be seen, the rambler will not very well miss it. On crossing the ford 
he will find himself on the Abbots' Way (T. i ), with a good path all the 
way to the moor gate at Shipley. Follow the Abbots' Way for -J m. to 
the Crossways, where the ruined Zeal Tor tramroad (T. 60) intersects 
it at right angles. Here leave the Abbots' Way, and turn R. into the 
tram-road, and follow it till you lose it on the brow of the hill above 
Shipley. For a notice of this tram-road see Ex. 30. The road from 
Shipley to Brent runs down the valley with the river on the L. * m. 
outside the moor gate Didworthy Bridge is seen L. Here the rambler 
has a choice of paths to the village. He may either go straight on, 
and, passing through the hamlet of Aish, descend to Lydia Bridge 
(Brent District), or he may cross Didworthy Bridge, and, passing 
through the yard at the back of the Sanatorium (Ex. 29), reach a 
path that will lead him by the hedge across two fields to a narrow 
bridle path, which will bring him to Wash Gate. Here a road runs up 
to Lutton, where he will turn R., and descending Splatton Hill will 
soon be led to the village. 

[To Ivybridge. The route from Plym Ford is at first along the 
branch of the Abbots' Way (T. i), which, however, is not here very 
well defined. It runs up the hill from the river in a direction S. by E. 
to Broad Rock (Ex. 34), which is about i m. distant, S.E. Great 
Gnats' Head is seen L. in ascending. From Broad Rock the course 
is S.E. for 2 m., when the Erme will be struck near Green Lake Bottom, 
on its R. bank, opposite to Stony Bottom (Ex. 33). Erme Head, 
marked by a wilderness of stones, will be seen on leaving Broad Kock, 
and must be kept L,., the way lying across the side of the hill that 
rises from the R. bank of the river. Horton's Combe, i m., where a 
little stream runs down L., is crossed near its head ; beyond this is 
Stinger's Hill (Ex. 33), to the S. of which Green Lake Bottom is 
situated. If preferred the Erme may be followed from its source to this 
point instead of the route over the hill. No further directions are 
necessary, as the Ernie will lead the rambler to Harford Bridge (Ex. 32) 
about 4 m. below. There is good walking near the river on the R. bank. 
When in sight of Piles Wood (Ex. 32), which is on the L. bank under 
Three Barrows and Sharp Tor, a track (T. 65) running under Staldon 
Barrow, will be struck. In Green Lake Bottom a stone row may be 
seen running across the tin work. This can be followed to the fine 
stone circle on Stall Moor (Ex. 33), and will not take the rambler out 
of his way, as it runs parallel to the Erme. On emerging from the moor 
gate at Harford Bridge turn L- to the church, and follow the road R. 
past Broomhill, Lukesland, Erme Wood, and Stowford (Exs. 32, 33). 
(If it should be desired to visit Erme Pound and the antiquities near it, 
the Erme must be followed from its source, the rambler keeping on the 
L. bank. Soon after crossing Red Lake, where it falls into the Erme, 
the Pound will be reached. For a description of the remains near it 
see Ex. 32. After examining these the river can be crossed, and the 
route just sketched followed to Harford Bridge, or the rambler may 

* The clay works started here a few years ago have, unfortunately, 
changed the aspect of this spot, which previously to their establish- 
ment was one of the most secluded in the south quarter of the forest. 



Route 8. Princetown and Two Bridges to Shaugh, 77 

make his way to Harford Church, by Quickbeam Hill and Sharp Tor 
(Exs. 32, 33). To do this he will cross Stony Bottom (Ex. 32), the 
depression down which Hook Lake runs into the Erme, at a point 
about m. above that river, and follow a southerly course. By doing 
this he should be able to see the line of granite posts defining the 
boundary between Harford Moor and Ugborough Moor (Ex. 32), and 
by following these will be led to the dip between Three Barrows and 
Sharp Tor. The clay railway will also form a guide across this part of 
the commons. He will then see Harford Church in the valley, about 
1 4- m. distant, and in making towards it must be sure to keep above- 
trie enclosures on the R. When he conies abreast of the Church he 
will see a moor gate, where a lane runs down R. directly to it. 

[To Cornwood. From Siward's Cross follow the reave (see ante)- 
up to Eylesbarrow (Ex. 37), and then descend the hill in a southerly 
direction to the Plym, passing Higher and Lower Hart Tors. The 
stream should be struck at Plym Steps (Ex. 37), where the Langcombe 
Brook falls into it. Then up the hill S. by W. to Shavercombe Brook 
(Ex. 37), i m. distant. Cross this, and continue on the same course, 
passing above Hen Tor (Ex. 37). On the further side of the Plym, 
opposite to this tor, is Ditsworthy Warren House, which is in full 
view. One mile S. of Hen Tor is' Shell Top (Ex. 34), the loftiest 
eminence in this neighbourhood. This is the next point, and on 
reaching it Pen Beacon (Ex. 34) will be seen below, 4 m. distant and 
in a direction S. by E. The two are connected by a reave. This may 
be followed, and on passing the Beacon, a course S.S.E. must be 
followed for i m. to Broker's Plantation, where West Brook Gate 
opens upon a path leading by Rook Farms to Heathfield Down, which 
is close to the village. (Ex. 34). 

R. S. To Shaugh and Plymptou. S.S.W. Nosworthy Bridge, 
Shcepstor Village, Cadaford Bridge, P.T. about 8 m. to Shaugh ; 
12 m. to Plympton. T.B. add i4- m. Branch to Cornwood and~ 
Ivybridge. Reverse, R. 67. 

[Objects between P.T. and Nosworthy Bridge described in Exs. 2, 
39 ; between Nosworthy Bridge and Cadaford Bridge in Ex. 38 ; 
between Cadaford Bridge and Plympton in Ex. 36.] 

To Crazy Well Bridge, via Cramber Tor, as in Ex. 2. Thence 
descend the hill southward to the White Works track (T. 2) and turn R. 
About -i m. on, near where Raddick Lane comes down R., a lane branches 
L. Strike into this, and in another \ m. or so the ruined Nosworthy 
Farm will be reached. Cross the clapper over Newleycombe Lake L-, 
and then almost immediately turn R. to the Narrator Brook flowing 
from Dean Combe (Ex. 39). Cross this and follow the path with the 
Burrator Lake R. (Ex. 39, T. 73) to Sheepstor village, which is i m. 
distant. Pass down near the church, leaving it L-, and cross the 
Sheepstor Brook just below. Pass up Portland Lane, running S., to 
Ringmoor Cot, which is situated L. of the road. Here leave the road,, 
which turns a little to the R., and follow the footpath over the top of 
Lynch Down (T. 72), which runs S., to Brisworthy Plantation, 4 m. 
distant, Ringmoor Down (Ex. 38) being on the L. Just beyond this, 
at the corner of the enclosures, the Tavistock and Cornwood road is. 
reached (T. 69), and here the rambler turns L. for a few yards, then. 



78 Route 8. Princetown and Two Bridges to Plympton. 

leaving the lane to Brisworthy L-, turns sharp to the R., just afterwards 
again bending L., the road running nearly S. Down the hill, with the 
Wigford Down Clay Works R., to Cadaford Bridge (Exs. 36, 38). At 
the S. end of it the road branches L. to Cornwood, R. to Shaugh and 
Plympton. 

[The Cornwood road runs up to the grounds of Lee Moor House 
(Ex. 36), passing Blackaton Cross on the top of the hill. It then goes 
down to the Torry Brook (Ex. 36), which it crosses, and ascends the 
hill to Tolchmoor Gate (Ex. 36). Soon after it again descends, and 
nearly i m. from the gate Quick Bridge is crossed. Further on the 
road is carried over the Piall Brook (Ex. 34), beyond which it skirts 
Heathneld Down and enters Cornwood village. The road to the station 
runs R. ; that to Ivybridge, 3 m. distant, L.] / 

For Plympton and Shaugh the rambler ascends the hill R. from 
Cadaford Bridge, and on the top passes Shaden Plantation R., shortly 
afterwards reaching Brag Lane End. Here he turns R. for Shaugh 
(Shaugh District), which is near by. If his destination be Plympton he 
keeps straight on to Niel Gate, i m. distant, where he leaves the common. 
m. further on Browney Cross is passed (Ex. 36), and \ m. beyond 
this the road crosses the Lee Moor Railway. Plympton Station is 
3 m. distant. 

[The road from P.T. to Yelverton has been described, as far as 
Goad's Stone, in Ex. i. Beyond that waymark it climbs over the 
shoulder of Peak Hill (Ex. 39), and shortly after the descent on the 
further side is commenced it enters upon the enclosed land, i m. 
beyond this it passes through Dousland, and in another mile Yelverton 
is reached.] 



C. R. 1, 2. Princetown and Two Bridges to Cranmere. 



79 



ROUTES TO CRANMERE. 

(The Pool is described in Part III. Directions for reaching 
it are given in each district). 

C. R. i and 2. From PRINCETOWN AND TWO BRIDGES, 
7-V m. from T. B. (A) via East Dart. Higher White Tor, as in Ex. 5, 
2 m. from T. B. Leave it R. Thence N. by Lower White Tor to 
Cherry Brook above Hollow Combe, and across Broad Down to the 
stream-work at Broad Marsh on the East Dart, 2 m. (Or the course 
may be N.N.E. from the Cherry Brook as in R. lob, in which case the 







N.W. 



Cranmere. 
FROM MH,E WEST OF E. DART HEAD. 



Dart will be reached at Sandy Hole, and must be followed up through 
the pass to the stream- work. This will add another | m.) About J m. 
above the point where the Dart should be struck the river bends R., 
flowing from the N. Follow it to its source sheep paths on L. bank 
2 m. From this point Cranmere is -i- m. distant N.W., or N.W. by 
W. from the highest spring, which comes from a heathery hollow in 
which there is a small rock. This hollow is in the higher corner of the 
swampy source, R. in ascending. Between the river head and the pool 
the ground, which is spongy, but not difficult to pass over, rises gently 
to the top of the Cranmere ridge, so that the goal is not in sight. When 
the summit of the ridge is reached High Willes with the deep cleft 
marking the valley of the West Ockment, comes into view. Make for 
this and the pool will be struck. 

(B) 71 m. from T.B. Valley of the West Dart to the bend J m. 
above the wall that crosses under Row Tor (Ex. 5). Leave the river L. 
and strike N.N.E. for nearly J m. to the East Dart, which should be 
reached at Kit Steps, at the head of the stream-work near Broad 



8o 



C. R. 1, 2. Princetown and Two Bridges to Cranmere. 



Marsh. Thence as in A. (A or B form the first part of the route from 
\P. B. to Belstone ; see R. 3. Reverse, R. 29). 

(C) via Cut Hill, 8 m. from P.T. ; 7^ from T.B. The route to Cut 
Hill from P.T. and T. B. is given in Ex. n. Thence to East Dart 
Head, see R. 3, also R. 63. From Dart Head to the pool, see A. 

(D) via Cowsic Head. 7^ m. from T. B. ; 9 m. from P. T. From 
T.B. to head of Cowsic, see Ex. 5. From P.T. the first point is Rundle 
Stone ; thence to New Forest Corner ; thence N.E. over the S. side of 
Black Dunghill to the Cowsic, near the Bear Down wall. Follow the 
stream to its head. Thence due N. over the ridge to the Tavy, which is 
struck a little below its source. (Cut Hill is R.) The next point is 
Fur Tor, N.N.W.. which must be kept L. Thence as in E. 

(E). From P. T. via Walkham Head, 9 m. (This is an easy 
route). Rundle Stone and New Forest Corner, as in Ex. 6. Turn R. 
to the Prison leat. Thence as in R. 3 to Walkham Head and Tavy 

Great Black Cranmere. 

Kneeset. Ridge. x 




FROM LITTLE KNEESET. LOOKING N.E. 

Hole. E.N.E. to Fur Tor, which keep L. ; and descend Cut Combe 
to Fur Tor Wood* ; R. bank of Cut Combe Water ; when it bends L. 
leave it ; strike N. across Rush Bottom and over eastern side of Little 
Kneeset to Black Ridge Water, rather over 4 m. from Cut Combe 
Water ; this should be struck where two branches meet. Follow up 
L. branch to source. (Should the R. in ascending be followed it will 
not throw the rambler out much). Rising ground. Cranmere is -\ m. 
N.N.E. If ground is bad ascend Little Kneeset, and cross it N.W. by 
N. to Black Hole. Follow up the branch of the Black Ridge Water 
that comes down L- or N. This branch joins the other less than ^ m. 
due N. of the summit of Little Kneeset, 1,665 feet. Great Kneeset is 
about |- m. northward. Follow this branch nearly to its source, m., 
under Great Kneeset, and then strike E. by N. along the edge of Kneeset 
Pan Black Ridge, fen, R. ; the pan, good ground, L. This will lead 
directly to the pool). 

Return routes to P. T. and T. B. are shown in R. 27 to Hollow 
Combe ; also by way of Tavy Head and Cut Hill, in R. 29 ; and from 
Cut Hill in Ex.' 1 1 . 



* The name still attaches to this spot, though no wood now exists 
here. Oak has been found buried in the peat near by. (Ex. 1 1). 



Jj 
a 

UJ 

I 

Z 

Of 



u. 





o 
z 

a 

L 
3 






Gl 



82 ROAD DISTANCES TO HEXWORTHY. 



HEXWORTHY DISTRICT. 

DISTANCES. BY ROAD: ASHBURTON, via Holne, 8-? r m. ; 
via Dartmeet, 9| m. BOVEY TRACEY, via Dartmeet, 14 in. 
BUCKFASTLEIGH, ;4- m. ; to Station, 8J m. CHAGFORD, 
1 5f m. DARTMEET, ~i\ m. HOLNE, 4$ m. IVY BRIDGE, via 
South Brent, 17^ m. LYDFQRD, via Moor Shop, 19 m. MORETON, 
17$ m. OKEHAMPTON, via Post Bridge, 26 m. ; tna Moor Shop, 
27 m. PLYMPTON, via Prinoetown, 20? m. ; via Ivybridge, 23 m. 
POST BRIDGE, via Two Bridges, 8f m" PRINCETOWN, 6| m. 
RUNDLE STONE, 7 m. SHAUGH, via Dousland, 16 m. SOUTH 
BRENT, via Buckfastleigh, \z\ m. TAVISTOCK, via Two Bridges 
and Rundle Stone, 13 m. TWO BRIDGES, si m. WARREN 
HOUSE INN, ii m. WIDECOMBE, 6+ m. YELVERTON, via 
Two Bridges and Princetown, 12^ m. 

NEAREST RAILWAY STATIONS: ASHBURTON, 8^ m. MORE- 
TON, 171 m. PRINCETOWN, 6|- m. 



Important Points and Landmarks. 

Aune Head Bellaford Tor Black Lane Dartmeet Fox Tor 
Hapstead Ford Horn's Cross Petre's Bound Stone Prince Hall 
Bridge Pupers. Places of Interest. Cater's Beam Childe's Tomb 
The Coffin Stone Combestone Tor Dunnabridge Pound Gorge of 
the Dart Huccaby Cleave Piskies" Holt Prince Hall Sherburton 
Firs Wo Brook Foot Yar Tor. Prehistoric Antiquities. Corndon 
Tor : cairns Rows on Sherwell Down Holne Lee : tumuli Mardle 
Ring : hut enclosure on the Mardle Money Pit : kistvaen near Yar Tor 
Saddle Bridge : enclosures Sharp Tor Hut Circle Snowdon : cairns 
and enclosures Swincombe Valley : hut circles Yar Tor Hill : huts. 
Mining Remains. Aune Head : stream works and tinners' huts Black 
Lane : stream works and tinners' huts Deep Swincombe : blowing 
nouse and other remains Dry Lakes : old workings Gobbet : old 
workings Hangman's Pit: workings The Mardle : workings S win- 
combe Valley : workings Week Ford : blowing house. 

Hexworthy is one of the old forest settlements, and originally 
consisted of five holdings (see Ancient Tenements in the Terms Section). 
One form of the name is Hextworthy, and in 1344 we find Robert de 
Hextenworth referred to as a holder of land in the forest. In 1379 
there is mention of Bysouthexworthi, which was probably one of the 
enements. The present form of the name as used by the moormen 
is Haxary, 



EXCURSION 41. THE FOREST INN. 83 

The area over which these rambles extend is not large, much 
of the district being noticed in the excursions from Princetown, 
Ashburton, and Brent, besides which it is also crossed by a number 
of routes. The visitor will, however, be able to lengthen his walks 
if he desires to do so by connecting the present excursions with others 
previously described as here indicated. 

In Ex. 41 that part of the district east of the Dart between Babeny 
and Rowbrook is noticed ; this abuts on the ground covered by Ex. 28. 
Ex. 42 embraces the part between the East Dart and the Swincombe 
river, and abuts on Exs. 44, 5, 4. Ex. 43 takes in that between the 
Swincombe river and the Wo Brook, and abuts on Exs. 3, 29. Holne 
Moor is described in the Brent and Ivybridge District. 



Excursions from Hexworthy. 

[Tracks: 2, 8, 10, 53 to 56, 75,80,81. Routes passing through 
the district : 5a, 42 ; 6abc, 49 ; 27, 63 ; 33, 64.] 

Ex. 41. The Forest Inn, Huccaby, Dartmect [Gorge of the Dart, 
3^ m. from Dartrneet to Wellsfoot Island], Babeny, Corndon Tor, Yar 
Tor, Sharp Tor, Dartmcet Hill, The Coffin Stone, 8 m. 

From the Forest Inn at Hexworthy the beholder looks upon one 
of the finest scenes on Dartmoor, though it is not quite as it was when 
we first knew it, when in the little settlement across the combe only 
rough granite walls and thatch were to be seen. In the valley the West 
Dart conies sweeping round a low promontory on which are some old 
farm enclosures known as The Byes. Huccaby Farm stands on the 
further bank, and above this are the Brimpts Plantations, and beyond, 
the crests of Corndon Tor and Yar Tor. 

From this comfortable little hostelry the rambler will follow R. 53 
down the hill towards the river, passing Jolly Lane Cot, the last of the 
dwellings to be erected under the old custom of building a house between 
sunrise and sunset, and thereby claiming the land on which it stood, 
and also the enclosure that could be formed round it. [Hundred Years, 
Chap. I.] Across the river is Huccaby House, the former residence 
of Mr. Robert Burnard, F.S.A., whose researches on Dartmoor have 



Brimpts. 



Corndon Yar 
Tor Tor. 



Dartmeet 
Hill. 




FROM THE FOREST INN, HEXWORTHY. 



84 HEXWORTHY DISTRICT. 

thrown much light on the subject of its pre-historic antiquities, as well 
as upon its ancient mining. Mr. Burnard may be regarded as the pioneer 
of spade work among the rude stone remains, and both singly and in 
conjunction with the Rev. S. Baring-Gould, and the Rev. Irvine K. 
Anderson, of Mary Tavy, has done good service in this direction. 

Hexworthy Bridge takes the place of a clam, but it is probable 
that the forerunner of the latter was a clapper. Here the road runs 
over the Marsh, as it is called, towards St. Raphael's Chapel. An old 
track (T. 2) is carried from this to Week Ford, at Wo Brook Foot. By 
following it the Piskies' Holt may be reached. Its situation is marked 
by four sycamores [Pixies, Chap. I.] Below it the West Dart flows 
through Huccaby Cleave, often called Cleave Combe, or, as the moor- 
men say, Clay Combe. On the I/, as we proceed is Huccaby, an ancient 
tenement. The final syllable is sounded by the moor folks so as to 
rhyme with my, and the name has probably some relation to the 
Byes on the other side of the river. Older forms of it are Hokecaby 
and Hookerby. We pass up the hill and turn R. at the gate. A little 
further on I/, is Brimpts Gate. This is one of the ancient tenements, 
and in 1 307 is referred to as Bremstonte. Three hundred and twenty 
years later it appears as Brymst, and still later, in 1702, as Brimpston. 
Thence our way takes us down Hart Hole Lane to Dartmeet. Looking 
up stream the woods and plantations of Brimpts are seen clothing the 
hillside L. On the R. is Yar Tor. Close to the bridge on this side 
the remains of a clapper will be seen. This was destroyed by a flood 
in 1826. About twenty-five years ago it was partly "restored," but 
some of the stones have been again displaced. Below the bridge is 
the confluence of the two Darts. On the hillside S. is Combestone 
Farm (see Holne Moor Section in the Brent District in Part IV.); on 
the L. is Dartmeet Hill. 

[The GORGE OF THE DART, 3^ m. from the bridge to Wellsfoot 
Island. To trace the Dart through the deep valley below Dartmeet 
Bridge will reward the rambler. He should make his way down by the 
L. bank. (On the R. bank there is a fisherman's path from Holne Cot 
upward, which is open on certain days as stated in S. Ex. 96). 

On leaving the bridge there is a fine view of Huccaby Cleave, 
through which the West Dart comes down to meet the eastern branch. 
On our L. is Dartmeet Hill ; R. the tongue of land on which are the 
enclosures of Combestone Farm, and below this, on the same side, is 
Combestone Wood. Below Combestone Island the river bends L. or E. 
Under Rowbrook Farm, L., is that part of the valley known as Langa- 
marsh Pit. Here, close to the stream, is Lug Tor, sometimes called 
Lucky Tor, and also the Raven Rock. It is a mass of granite draped 
with ivy, and resembles a ruined castle. Some times it is spoken of as 
the Eagle Rock. (cf. Bench Tor, in the Holne Moor Section). Close 
to it is Black Pool and a couple of small islands, and a little stream that 
flows from East Combe. A short distance below this the Wennaford 
Brook comes in from S., and not far up the valley from which it issues 
is the dam at the lower end of the Paignton Reservoir. (Holne Moor 
Section in Brent and Ivybridge District). Now the Dart sweeps north- 
eastward round the promontory on which Bench Tor is situated R. 
Below the tor is White Wood. Opposite to the extremity of the 



EXCURSION 41. VALLEY OF THE DART. 85 

promontory Simon's Lake falls into the river, and here are the boulders 
known as the Broad Stones. To " heer the cry o' the Brad Stones " 
is a sign of coming foul weather. A little further down below 
Mil Tor L., is Mil Tor Wood, near the lower end of which is 
Mil Pool, and a miry spot known as Stony Marsh. Under Bench Tor, 
but on the L. bank is Hockinston Tor, and close to it Hockinston 
Marsh. Below Sharrah Pool is Sharrah Pool Marsh, at the head of a 
group of three islands, Bel Pool, Little Bel Pool, and Long Island. At 
the lower end of the latter is a fine waterfull. Here on the R. bank is 
Ford Newtake. Half-a-mile further down, and under Holne Wood, is 
that part of the river called Hannaford Stickles, not far below which, at 
Wellsfoot Island, the Dart bends E. and emerges from the gorge. 
Below the next bend its course is N. under Cleave Wood R. to New 
Bridge (Exs. 27, 28). 

From Bel Pool Island the rambler may climb the steep hili to 
Dr. Blackall's Drive, N.E. (S. Ex. 95). Here he will turn L. and follow 
it north westward to Bel Tor Corner (Ex. 28), and there again turning 
L. will make his way by Ouldsbroom to the head of Dartmeet Hill, 
and descend to the bridge. Distance from and to Dartmeet, if the 
ramble does not extend beyond Bel Pool Island, 6 m.] 

From Dartmeet Bridge we follow for a short distance the path 
running up the valley under Yar Tor to Sherwell (T. 53). Across the 
stream some portion of the ancient sylvan honours of Brimpts is seen. 
Many years ago a number of oaks were felled here for ship timber, 
though they were not used for that purpose. On the brow of the hill 
is the clump of trees to which the name of The Seven Sisters has been 
given. Below may be seen the ruins of Dolly's Cot. To this retired 
spot a certain moorland Benedict brought his newly-wedded wife, in 
order to place her out of the reach of those who admired her rather 
more than he cared for. This was in the days when Sir Thomas 
Tyrwhitt was the master of Tor Royal (Ex. 3), and some of the guests at 
his bachelor house parties seem to have been attracted by the " beauty ' ' 
of the moor. I find it has been stated that the " First Gentleman 
in Europe " was one of the guests, and that he made love to Dolly. It 
is unfortunate that what is nothing more than an idle story should be 
stated as a fact. As is well known George IV. was a friend of Tyrwhitt' s 
but there is no evidence that he was ever at Tor Royal, or even on 
Dartmoor, either as Prince Regent or King. In 1788 the prince came 
to Plymouth to see his brother, the Duke of Clarence, off on a voyage, 
but Tor Royal was not then built, and it does not appear that His 
Royal Highness came into Devonshire after that date. 

We leave the path over Yar Tor Down under the tor and follow 
the Dart up to Babeny, where the Walla Brook comes into it. Over 
the latter, not far above the confluence, is a very interesting clapper. 
This consists of three openings ; the stone over the eastern one is 
7 feet 4 inches long, and 3 feet 10 inches wide ; that, over the centre 
opening is 9 feet 10 inches long, but much narrower ; and the third 
5 feet 9 inches in length. Above Babeny is Mill Hill, which forms the 
southern slope of Riddon Ridge, over which we have already con- 
ducted the rambler (R. 5, 42b). In 1302 or 1303 the holders of the 
tenements in the forest built a mill at Babeny at their own cost, the 
king supplying the timber, which was felled in his wood. At this mill 



86 HEXWORTHY DISTRICT. 

each tenant had to do service, as appears from an account of the prince's 
manors of the 22nd March, 1344. Babeny has been mentioned as one 
of the " villages " the inhabitants of which petitioned Bishop Brones- 
combe in 1260 to allow them to pay their tithes to the church of Wide- 
combe, which they attended, their own being so far away (see T. 18). 
It is sometimes called White's Babeny, and a similar prefix is borne 
by a ruined farm in the locality. This is White's Slade, on the L. 
bank of the East Dart opposite Lough Tor Hole Farm (Ex. 44).* 

Turning eastward we climb the hill between the enclosures to 
Sherwell, one of the ancient vills. In Edward the First's time there 
is mention of a Hamlin de Sherwell, who held land at Dunnabridge. 

Thence we make our way to the summit of the lofty Corn Down, 
m. E., where are several fine cairns. Southward is Corndon Tor, 
and still further S. Sherwell Down, or as it is often called, Sherberton 
Common (Ex. 28). Sherwell, by the way, is always Sherell on the 
moor. Here, near the Babeny road, is a double stone row, with appear- 
ances of a third line between the others, and not far off is another 
double row. S.W. of Corndon Tor, but on the western side of the 
Babeny road, is the kistvaen known as Money Pit. One of the side 
stones and one end stone remain, as well as the covering slab, which is 
of a lonzenge shape. This kist is enclosed within a circle, of which nine 
stones are standing ; it is i2-\ feet in diameter. Between Corndon 
Tor R. and Yar Tor L. there is a fine view of the eastern side of the 
forest, with the ancient enclosures of Riddon Farm on the further side 
of the Walla Brook valley. In the opposite direction Sharp Tor, with 
its bold outline, is the chief feature in the scene, while beyond is Holne 
Moor and the distant in-country. From Yar Tor, which is qiu'te close 
to the kist, N.W., the view is much extended. But apart from this 
the tor should be visited, as although not rising high above the turf, 
some of the piles are very striking. 

From Money Pit we make our way to Sharp Tor, passing Oulds- 
broom Cross L. Here formerly stood the stone cross elsewhere 
spoken of as now serving as a gate-post at Lower Town Farm. [Crosses, 
Chap. XVI. See also Ex. 27.] There is mention of John of Ollesbrom 
in the fourteenth century, and that is probably the correct form of the 
name. Keeping the farm enclosures L. we strike across the common 
to the tor, which we shall find to consist of two separate piles rising 
from a large conical base, the southernmost being the larger and higher. 
There is a rock basin on this, but not a particularly good example. 
Mil Tor to the S.E. we have elsewhere noticed (Ex. 28). E. of this are 
a number of reaves forming rectangular enclosures, and a fine hut 
circle, the wall of which is about five feet thick. It is constructed of 
very large stones, one of them being 9 feet long and over 5 feet wide. It 
is this hut to which we have referred as probably resembling the small 
enclosure formerly existing near Shilstone Tor (Ex. 18). Reaves and 
hut circles are found on other parts of this common. 

On the side of the hill from which Sharp Tor rises is the solitary 
farm of Rowbrook. This moorland dwelling, with the wild valley 

* In the time of James I. we have mention of a reave, as le rewe, 
in this locality. It is named in connection with Wenford Lake, which 
forms one of the boundary points of the manor of Spitchwick. Wen- 
ford Gate (Vennyfer Yeat) is mentioned in Elizabeth's time. 



EXCURSION 41. THE COFFIN STONE. 87 

below it, is the scene of the story of Jan Coo, which I gathered many 
years ago from the late Mr. Richard Cleave, of Hexworthy, and which 
I have related in my Tales of the Dartmoor Pixies, Chap. VII. (1890). 
The farm is approached by a track branching from the road at Bel Tor 
Corner (Ex. 28), and is carried down the side of the combe through 
which runs the little Simon's Lake. 

On leaving Sharp Tor we strike N.W., with the ruined cottage at 
the head of East Combe below us L., and shall regain the road at the 
top of Dartmeet Hill. On each side of this are a number of reaves. 



Sharp Tor. 



Holne Moor. 

Bench Tor. 




FROM THE ROAD AT TOP OF DARTMEET HII.L. BOOKING DUE S. 

and on the R. many scattered hut circles. A little way down a green 
track will be seen I,. By following this we shall be led to an object 
long associated with an old custom. This is known as the Coffin Stone, 
but it really consists of two blocks of granite. Here the bearers rest 
the coffin when a corpse is being borne from this part of the moor to 
Widecom.be for burial. On the surface of the stones several initials 
and small crosses are incised [Crosses, Chap. XVI.] Near here, but on 
the other side of the road, is a small enclosure with a hut circle at one 
end of it. Descending to the bridge we shall return to Hexworthy 
(as in R. 42). the centre of the most interesting and attractive part 
of the forest. 



88 



HEXWORTHY DISTRICT. 



Ex. 42. Huccaby Tor, Stone Row, Lough Tor, Dunnabridge Pound, 
Sherburton, Swincombe, 6| m. 

Our first point is the gate above Huccaby, as in the preceding 
excursion, and here we turn I,, with Snider Park Plantation R. A 
short distance on is Huccaby Cottage, whence a track runs northward 
to Post Bridge (T. 81). Here we enter upon the commons, but instead 




S.E. 



Huccaby. 
FROM THE ROAI> NEAR HUCCABY COTTAGE. 



of following the track shall strike L. to Huccaby Tor, which, however, 
presents nothing remarkable, and thence Is.W. to the wall of some 
enclosures on the sides of the little combe down which Cocks' Lake 
runs on its brief journey to the Dart. Here we strike N. and make our 
way to the scanty remains of the old Brimpts Mine buildings. Not 
far from these is a fallen menhir, from which runs a double stone row, 
and near by are vestiges of other monuments. Still proceeding north- 
ward, but keeping the wall R., we shall soon reach Lough Tor, close 
to which we come upon the rectangular enclosure known as Lough Tor 
Pound. The gateway is on the side nearest the tor, and the walls are 
high. This the moormen used to speak of as a " sheep measure." 
Its capacity being known, when it was filled with these animals there 
was no need of counting them to ascertain their number ! North 
and east of the tor, from which there is a fine view of the moor, the 
ground drops steeply down to that part of the East Dart valley bearing 
the name of Lough Tor Hole the Lafter Hall of the moormen and 
here is the farm also so called (T. 81, Ex. 44). 

Ttfrning from the pile we strike S.W. for about 1 m. to the track 
leading from Post Bridge to Dunnabridge (T. 80), and follow it to the 
latter place, keeping the wall R. We have already noticed Dunna- 
bridge Pound in the section on Crockern Tor, in the Princetown District, 
and have referred to the story of the so-called Judge's Chair. This 
obiect w'll be seen immediatelv within the gate ; there is little doubt 



EXCURSION 42. DUNNABRIDGE POUND. 89 

that it is really a dolmen. The wall of the pound, like that of Erme 
Pound (Ex. 32) is built on the line of a more ancient enclosure. That 
sepulchral monuments were erected on, or close to. the walls of such is 
proved by the existence of the kistvaen at the end of the stone row on 
Brown Heath (Ex. 32), the circle enclosing which touches the vallum 
of a large hut pound. Close to this object at Dunnabridge Pound 
a slab will be seen in which are several circular holes, but it is now 
broken along the line of these. It appears probable that this once 
formed the side of the sepulchral chamber. In many examples of 
enclosed dolmens similar holes are found. If, however, the visitor 
should not agree with this opinion, he may amuse himself by supposing 
that disturbers of the peace during the time of the drifts were put to sit 
beneath this stone canopy, and their legs secured in these holes, since 
we find the reave of the manor of Lydford laying out a certain sum in 
1620 for the repair of the pound walls, gate, and stocks at Dunnabridge. 
The enclosure has long served as a drift pound. In 1342 there is 
mention of it in an account of the bailiff of Dartmoor, where the sum 
of threepence is shown as having been expended for a lock for the gate 
(see Pound in Terms Section). Eastward of the pound, on Dunnabridge 
Moor, is another circular enclosure, the wall of which is much over- 
grown. 

The bridge near the pound -has been built during recent years. 
When Mr. Bray visited the place, in 1831, he was surprised at finding 
no bridge there. In this connection it is well to remember that in the 
earlier forms of the name the final syllable is brig, and not bridge. 
Across the road is Brownberry, one of the ancient tenements which 
now belongs to the poor of Brixham. Quite close is Dunnabridge 
Pound Farm. Near the bridge is a track leading to a gate. This runs 
on to Dunnabridge Farm, which, like Brownberry, was one of the old 
forest holdings, but is now the property of the Duchy. Here, over a 
water trough in the yard, is the large flat stone referred to in the 
Section on Crockern Tor. That this was brought from the tor there is 
good reason to believe. It was by confusing Dunnabridge Farm with 
Dunnabridge Pound that led, in all probability, to the report that the 
dolmen was brought from there. The farm is not far from the Dart, 
over which, but higher up the stream, are some stepping-stones, by 
means of which Little Sherburton is reached from this side. 

To the R., or N., of the read running westward to Two Bridges is 
the farm of Smith Hill. The house stands on the R. bank of Cherry 
Brook, which is there spanned by a clapper. On Smith Hill, between 
Cherry Brook and the Moreton road, a small feeder takes its rise, and 
is sometimes called the Smith Hill Brook. Below this, at Cherry 
Brook Bridge, is another feeder, the Muddy Lakes Brook, which has 
its source in the newtake bearing that name. 

If the condition of the Dart be suitable the rambler may proceed 
by Dunnabridge Farm to the steps, and thence to Little Sherburton, 
from which he will pass up S. to Swincombe Newtake. If this cannot 
be done he will descend from near Brownberry to the clam and make 
his way up to Sherburton, as in R. 33, and will readily get permission 
to follow the lane running westward from the house to the newtake 
named. Here, on the R., in the corner of the enclosure abutting on 
the newtake, are the remains of a circle consisting of ten stones. A 
reave runs from it down to Little Sherburton. 



90 HEXWORTHY DISTRICT. 

Striking S. over Swincombe Newtake we shortly reach Swincombe 
Ford, and thence make our way to Hexworthy, as in T. 8. 

[The estate of Sherburton, which is one of the old forest tenements, 
is situated on a tongue of land round which the West Dart makes a 



Bellaford Tor. 



Lough Tor. 




FROM SWINCOMBE NEWTAKE. 



Dunnabridge Pound. 
BOOKING N. BY E. 



bold sweep, its course being northerly on the W. side and southerly on 
the E. The ground rises rather steeply from the river in places. 
There were formerly three tenements here called Sherborne, " or 
lying in Sherborne." This form of the name is found as early as 1360 ; 
in Queen Elizabeth's time it appears as Shurbora. There is mention 
also of Sherborne Wood in 1358 ; Sherborncroft in 1416 ; and Sher- 
borne Foot about 1521. The names of Sherling, Shirebourne, and 
Sherlond are also met with, and they appear to refer to the same place.* 
On the N.W. side of the estate, close to the river, are traces of a former 
building, and the spot used to be known as Broom Park. Below the 
house at Sherburton the Swincombe runs down to the Dart, and over 
this the road is carried by means of a clapper of two openings' (R. 33). 
This was originally only of sufficient width for packhorses. Advantage 
has been taken of a rock to serve as a foundation for the centre pier. 
The imposts are supported by stones placed in the manner of brackets. 
A short distance below this is the confluence of the streams, the spot, 
which is a charming one, being marked by the plantation known as 
Sherburton Firs. This may be reached from Hexworthy by passing 
through the enclosures N. of the hamlet. Below this is Timber Pool, 
so called from an oak tree brought down by a flood, and which remained 
there for some time ; near it is the patch called Black Furzes, which is 
probably the Blackfursses mentioned in a bailiff's account in 1350. The 
road from Sherburton Bridge to Hexworthy runs over Gobbet Plain.] 

* Previous to 1301, in which year he is described as a " fugitive," 
Joel Bird held a ferling of land " at Sherling, in Dartmoor." In 1307 
Walter Dernelof held half a ferling and four acres " at Shirebourne, 
in the King's waste of Dartmoor " ; and in 1340 Abraham Elyett paid 
rent sixpence, for two acres of land " in Dunbridgeford," and one 
parcel of land " upon Sherlond, which he took of the lord to hold for 
the term of his life." 



EXCURSION 43. THE SWINCOMBE VALLEY. 91 



Ex. 43. The Swincombe Valley, Deep Swincombe, Ter Hill, Aune 
Head, The Wo Brook, Down Ridge, Saddle Bridge, Week Ford, 6J m. 

For a short distance we follow the route to Princetown (R. 42, T. 8). 
This will take us by the road above the Forest Inn nearly to Gobbet 
Plain, where we turn L. through the gate, and make our way along the 
lower side of the stroll with the Arrishes R. Just above where we enter 
the newtake, and on the higher side of the Wheal Emma Leat, is the 
Long Newtake. This is formed on the site of an ancient pound, and 
contains a number of hut circles. A little further on we shall desert 
the track, which runs down to Swincombe Ford and the Fairy Bridge, 
and strike L. by some hut circles. From one of these the door jambs 
have been removed until about 1878 the pits in which these stood 
could be plainly seen and appear to have been carried to the enclosure 
below, where the two gate-posts have all the appearance of such stones. 
The Swincombe valley extends from Sherburton Firs to Si ward's Cross, 
and in the lower part of it hut circles are numerous. Whether it be 
the combe of Sweyne, or the combe of swine, I am not prepared to say, 
but if any should incline to the latter view they may perhaps consider 
that there is some evidence in favour of such a derivation in the name 
of a little mining hut in Deep Swincombe, which the moor people 
usually call the Pigs' House ! Deep Swincombe is a small lateral 
combe that we presently reach, and from it a little stream issues to 
fall into the river at Swincombe Ford. On reaching it we shall pass 
upward, and just above the leat shall find this curious hut. The hol- 
lowed stone in front of it so nearly resembles a pigs' trough that the 
name given to the place seems not inappropriate. To a sharp pointed 
stone not far off the name of Swincombe Point was given by Will 
Mann, formerly of Hexworthy. 

On leaving the combe we strike up the hill W. of S., and in rather 
less than i m. shall reach Mount Misery, the name which has been given 
to the higher corner of Fox Tor Newtake.* Here is an old cross, and 
the head of another. A short distance eastward on Ter Hill Terrell, 
as the moormen call it are two others (T. 2). The easternmost one, 
which is a very fine cross, was taken to Sherburton many years ago 
by the late Mr. Richard Coaker, who desired to preserve it there, but 
was brought back by him when he learnt that the Duchy authorities 
were averse to its removal. [Crosses, Chap. X.] 

Leaving the summit of Ter Hill, 1575 feet, L-, we strike S.E. by 
S. to Aune Head Mire, nearly i m., having the source of a branch of 
the Swincombe R. and the springs of the Wo Brook L. If we keep a 
little to the R., that is, more S., we shall come upon Sandy Way, and 
this will lead us directly to the head of the mire (T. 56). At the N.W. 
corner of this, and near the path, are the remains of a small rectangular 

* The name of Fox Tor attaches to several objects in this valley 
from this newtake up to Fox Tor Gulf and Fox Tor Combe. In the 
newtake are one or two kists to which I called the attention of the 
Ordnance Surveyors many years ago. Others will be found on the 
further side of the valley in Tor Royal Newtake (Ex. 3), and in May's 
Newtake adjoining it. 



92 HEXWORTHY DISTRICT. 

building of the kind associated with the tinners. Also close to the 
path, and not far from the mire, is the large boulder known to the 
moormen as Luckcombe Stone. On reaching the verge of the swamp, 
which is of considerable extent, we shall find that we can pass down 
on its western side (R. 33, 64) and reach the point where the Aune, or 
Avon, flows from it. On each side of the rivulet the ground is hard 
for a few feet, so that it can be traced to the spot where it wells up 
up in the centre of the morass. A short distance down stream, and on 
its W. side, is another mire, which bears the name of Little Aune. 
Extending south-westward from the swamp is Nakers Hill, which is 
really a flank of Cater's Beam. The latter drops to the river at a point 
rather less than ^ m. from the head of the mire, and is peninsulated by 
the Avon and Fish Lake. At the foot of the Beam, that is to say, along 
the bank of the Avon to its confluence with Fish Lake, is an old stream- 
work, in which the stone heaps are much overgrown with vegetation. 
Some little distance from the L. bank, and not far above the confluence, 
are the ruins of two tinners' buildings, placed so closely together as to 
leave only sufficient room for a man to pass between, and in this narrow 
passage, which was in all probability, covered in, art the entrances 
Fish Lake rises in the midst of the fen, its source being usually referred 
to as Fish Lake Mire, but before reaching the Avon runs through 
some hard ground which extends down by that stream to Heng Lake 
(Ex. 29), between which and the confluence is another stream- work 
(R. 64). A branch of Black Lane (T. 75) runs westward from Fish 
Lake Head across the fen. East of the Avon below its springs is 
Ryder's Hill, the summit of which bears S.E. by E. from the head of 
the mire. On this is Petre's Boundstone, described in the Section 
on Holne Moor. 

Almost due N. of Aune Head is the source of the Wo Brook, which 
in the first part of its course runs N. between Ter Hill on the W. and 
Skir Hill on the E. It then turns and flows S.E. to Hooten Wheals, 
from which it runs N.E. past Dry Lakes, when it again turns and 
pursues a northerly course to the West Dart. Its name is probably 
the Saxon wog, crooked, or serpentine, which well describes it. From 
a short distance below its source to Hooten W 7 heals it runs through 
Skir Gut, or Gert, though the valley below Skir Ford is often called 
Henroost Gully. We strike a little E. of N. from Aune Head to the 
summit of Skir Hill (on the moor simply called Skir), from which a fine 
view of the eastern side of Dartmoor presents itself. On the R. we 
soon notice a rocky hollow into which we turn, and shall follow the 
little stream that runs through it down to the Wo Brook at Hooten 
Wheals. About m. L., or W., of this is a kistvaen. Hooten Wheals 
is an old tin work, but is now, like Henroost, a part of the mine started 
here within recent years. On the further side of the Wo Brook, that 
is, above the northern bank, is Down Ridge, across which pass two 
tracks, one running out to Aune Head (T. 54), and the other being a 
part of the monks' path from Buckland to the E. side of the moor 
(T. 2). The latter is marked by two crosses, which show its direction 
where it approaches Horse Ford [Crosses, Chap. X.] On the X. slope 
of Down Ridge, close to the gateway where the Aune Head track enters 
upon it, are the remains of a large stone circle. 

We turn R. and follow the Wo Brook down to Dry Lakes, where 
the forest boundary runs up the hill past Wellaby Gulf to Petre's 



EXCURSION 43. WEEK FORD. 93 

Boundstone, and on crossing this ancient working shall find ourselves 
on Holne Moor. Just below, we also cross the Wheal Emma Leat, 
and reach Horse Ford. This is paved, and on the side nearest the 
venville common the letter H., denoting Holne, is cut on one of the 
stones. Above, R., on Horn Hill, is Horn's Cross (Holne Moor Section). 
Keeping near the Wo Brook we make our way down to Saddle Bridge, 
whence the road runs below the enclosures known as Slade direct to 
Hexworthy. 

The old track across the forest (T. 2) can be plainly seen on the 
R. bank of the Wo Brook below Saddle Bridge. This crosses the 
West Dart, into which the Wo Brook falls, at Week Ford, immediately 
above the confluence. The rambler should on no account omit to visit 
this spot. It is one of the most delightful little nooks on the moor. 
Dwarf trees, ferns, moss, and heather, grey boulders, and rippling 
water all combine to form a charming picture. Below its meeting- 
place with the Wo Brook the Dart runs through Huccaby Cleave to 
Dartmeet, passing Clay, or Cleave Brake, and the deep Otter Pool. 
At Week Ford is an old blowing-house, in which an oak is now growing. 
The building is called Beara House in the locality, and is also often 
referred to as The Mill. There are some stones here with hollows 
sunk in them, which probably once served as mortars. On the hillside 
just above is a hut circle to which a gable end has been added at some 
later t'me. It used to be told in the neighbourhood that here the old 
men hid their tools at the time when dragons haunted the valley. 
Just above this the visitor will gain the Hexworthy road. 

On the down not far from the Forest Inn is Queen Victoria'.s 
Cross. This, as the inscription upon it will show, was set up in 1897 
to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee of her late Majesty. 

To Aune Head direct, see T. 54. 

The Routes to Cranmere from Two Bridges and Post Bridge are 
applicable to Hexworthy. But the most direct Route from the latter 
is by way of Arch Tor. The first point will be Dunnabridge Pound, 
which may be reached either by following the road through Huccaby, 
or by crossing the Dart at the clam below Sherburton. From Dunna- 
bridge Pound the Post Bridge track is first followed, but is left when 
the rambler is near Bellaford Tor. He should then strike L. to the 
road, and crossing it make for a small clatter on the further side of 
Gawler Bottom. Just above this is a footbridge over the Powder Mills 
Leat. Cross this, and keeping N. by W. pass up to Rowtor Gate. 
Pursue the same course over Broad Down, and when the East Dart is 
reached the rambler will be near Sandy Hole, and the instructions given 
in C. R. 17 must be followed. 



94 ROAD DISTANCES TO POST BRIDGE. 



POST BRIDGE DISTRICT. 

DISTANCES. BY ROAD: ASHBURTON, via Grendon Bridge, 
ii| m. BOVEY TRACEY, via do., 13! m. BUCKFASTLEIGH, 
via do., 14 m. CHAGFORD, 7 m. DARTMEET, 8* m. GREN- 
DON BRIDGE, 3 m. GRIM'S POUND, via Grendon "Bridge, 4! m. 
HEXWORTHY, via Two Bridges, 8J m. HOLNE, via Hexworthy, 
13 m. IVYBRIDGE, via Dousland, 21 m. LYDFORD, via Moor 
Shop, 17* m. MORETON, 8-J- m. NORTH BOVEY, -j\ m. OKE- 
HAMPTON, via Chagford and Throwleigh, 17 '\ m. PLYMPTON, 
via Dousland, 19 m. PRINCETOWN, 5 m. " RUNDLE STONE, 
5 1 m. SHAUGH, via Dousland, 14* ni. SOUTH BRENT, via 
Hexworthy, 22^ ra. ; via Princetown and Dousland, 26 m. TA VIS- 
TOCK, 1 1 4- m." TWO BRIDGES, tf- m. WARREN HOUSE INN, 
2\ m. WIDECOMBE, via Grendon Bridge, 8 m. YELVERTON, 
ii m. 

NEAREST RAILWAY STATIONS: ASHBURTON, 12 m. MORE- 
TON, 9 m. PRINCETOWN, 5 m. 



Important Points and Landmarks. 

Babeny Bridge Bellaford Tor Cator Gate Grendon Cot New- 
louse, or Warren House Inn Rowtor Gate Sandy Hole Siddaford 
Tor Teign Head Farm White Ridge. Places of Interest. Bellaford 
Clapper Broad Down Falls Dart Valley Dunnabridge Pound 
Laugh Tor Hole Meripit Hill The Sheepfold Walla Brook Valley. 
Prehistoric Antiquities. Assacombe Hill: hut circles and stone row 
Bovey Combe Head : huts Broad Down : hut enclosures Challacombe 
Down : stone row The Grey Wethers : stone circles Grirn's Pound : 
hut enclosure L,akehead Hill : enclosures and kistvaens Roundy 
Park : kistvaen Waters Down : stone row. Mining Remains. The 
Barracks : Mould Stone Broad Marsh : extensive workings and tinners' 
huts on the East Dart Dart Valley: workings King's Oven: ancient 
smelting place Vitifer Mine : old workings. 

The comparatively modern settlement of Post Bridge has grown 
up in the midst of a group of ancient forest holdings, and its name is 
derived from the clapper spanning the East Dart, which flows at the 



CLAPPER AT POST BRIDGE. 95 

Ml 

foot of the slope on which the place is situated. I have heard inhabi- 
tants of Dartmoor refer to the old tracks as post-roads, and the clapper 
in question being on the most important of these, the forerunner of the 
present highway from Plymouth and Tavistock to Chagford and 
Moreton, would no doubt be spoken of as the post-bridge. Indeed, we 
know that this was so some two hundred years ago. In Owen's 
edition of Britannia Depicta, a book to which we have already referred 
(T. 44), and which was published in 1720, the bridge is mentioned. 
On a plan showing the track across the forest from Chagford to Tavis- 
tock the East Dart is marked, though not named, and where the road 
crosses the river are the words, " Post Stone Bridge, 3 Arches." A 
road branching " to Withecomb " is shown, and a small building is 
figured, the latter being marked, " A House call'd Merry Pit." This, 
as its situation shows, was intended for Higher Meripit. The example 
set by the so-called " improvers " of Dartmoor is the neighbourhood 
of Two Bridges was followed in other places, and Post Bridge was one 
of them. Land was enclosed, and a residence was commenced at 
Stannon, about i m. from the high road, biit this was only partly 
completed, and was afterwards turned into a cottage ; the lodges at 
the entrance are still to be seen. Attention, had, however, been 
directed to the locality, and houses were built there for the men em- 
ployed at the mines near the upper waters of the Walla Brook and the 
Webburn. A Wesleyan Chapel was erected, and later, in 1868, the 
Mission Chapel of St. Gabriel. The little place gradually grew, and 
has now become a favourite summer resort. There are good postal 
facilities and telegraphic communication. 

The clapper, which is situated only a few yards below the present 
county bridge, which takes the place of it, is the finest example of these 
interesting objects on the moor. It is 42 feet 8 inches long, and con- 
sists of three openings, and the buttresses and piers are formed of large 
blocks of granite carefully fitted, and dry laid. The upper ends of 
the piers are roughly pointed, in order to offer as little resistance as 
possible to the rush of water during a freshet. These, which are rather 
more than 2 feet thick, project about 18 inches on each side of the 
roadway. The latter is formed of four immense slabs, one being laid 
over the western opening, one over the eastern, while two span the 
centre water-way. The two former are each 1 5 feet 2 inches in length, 
one being 6 feet 9 inches in width and the other 6 feet 5 inches. The 
two centre slabs are smaller, but each is over 12 feet long. They vary 
in thickness from about 8 inches to i foot. The height of the 'bridge 
from the bed of the river to the top of the centre stones is 8 .',- feet ; 
the ends are a little lower, as the roadway is slightly arched. When we 
first knew the clapper the northernmost of the centre slabs lay in the 
bed of the stream. In 1874 I learnt from an old man whom I met on 
the spot that it had been intentionally thrown off about fifty years 
before that time. Enquiries which I afterwards made in the locality 
resulted in several versions of the cause of its overthrow being given me, 
but later on I discovered the facts, and the man who displaced the stone. 
I also found that my aged informant was right as to the time when it 
was thrown down. This was not done in a mischievous spirit. The 
intention was to throw off the slabs in the hope that they would fall 
on their edges, and by resting against the buttresses form, as it were, 
a wall across the river. The water was to find its way between them. 



96 POST BRIDGE DISTRICT, 

The object of all this was to prevent ducks from going too far down 
stream ! Fortunately the first stone that was thrown off fell on its 
face instead of its edge, and the project was abandoned. It is only 
fair to state that this was done by a very young man, and that he 
afterwards regretted it. He lived to see it replaced. This was done 
in 1880, at the instance of the Duchy authorities, the work of lifting 
the stone into its former place on the piers being executed by the 
Messrs. Duke, of the Tor Granite Quarries, at Merivale. But the slab 
does not quite occupy its original position. It is now, as an inhabitant 
once said to me when speaking of it, " upside down and inside out." 

The neighbourhood of Post Bridge, like the Hexworthy District, 
is partly described in excursions from other centres, and is also crossed 
by several of our routes. The area that has still to be noticed is 
therefore not large, but the rambles can, of course, be extended by 
linking them with those to which we have referred. 

Ex. 44 embraces that part of the district southward of the Prince.- 
town and Moreton road, extending from Bellaford Tor to the Warren 
House Inn, and this abuts on ground noticed in Ex. 42, S. Ex. 85, and 
Ex. 22. In Ex. 45 that part of the district northward of the road 
from the Warren House Inn to the East Dart is described ; this abuts 
on Ex. 21, 20, and S. Ex. 58. In Ex. 46 is noticed the district north 
of the road between the East Dart and the Cherry Brook, which abuts 
on Ex. 5. Grim's Pound, which is noticed in Ex. 22, may be reached 
by road via Runnage, Grendon Bridge, and Challacombe, 4-f- m., or by 
Bush Down and Shapley Common, ql m., or by the pedestrian from 
the Warren House Inn, as described in Ex. 45. 



Excursions from Post Bridge. 

[Tracks: 18, 44 to 47, 76, to 81. Routes passing through the 
district : 4, 35 ; 5bc, 42 ; 10, lob, 36 ; 18, 44 ; 25, 45 ; 26, 52 ; 27, 63 ; 
33, 64; 34, 7 1 -] 

Ex. 44. Lakehead Hill, Bellaford Tor, Bellaford Bridge, White'-s 
Slade, Riddon Ridge, Cator Common, Soussons Common, The Warren 
House Inn, 10 m. (ii m. less if the return be made via Runnage 
Bridge). 

Near the W. end of the bridge, and on the S. side of the road, is a 
gate opening on the enclosed Lakehead Hill, and from this an old track 
leads by Bellaford Farm and Lough Tor Hole to the road above Huccaby 
(T. 81), another path running up the slope more to the R. and going 
past Bellaford Tor to Dunnabridge Pound (T. So).* Entering this we 
shall make our way to the ruined building which we see near the bank 
of the river. This was erected as a dwelling-place for miners, and is 
locally known as The Barracks. Mr. Robert Burnard discovered a 
mould-stone here, and also learnt that a blowing-house formerly stood 
on the spot, and that the tinners in this part of the moor used to bring 



* That these tracks are of considerable antiquity is certain, as 
they form the direct means of communication between some of the old 
, forest tenements Meripit, Bellaford, Brownberry, and Dunnabridge. 
In the hunting reports the hill they cross is usually referred to as Naked 
Hill. It should be Lakehead Hill as above. 



EXCURSION 44. LAKEHEAD HILL. 



- 97 



their ore here to be smelted. The mould may be seen just in front of 
the ruin. Another, which was subsequently found here is close to 
the wall of a little outbuilding at the S. end of the yard. The visitor 
will notice that certain garden flowers, the lilac and geranium, still 
haunt the decayed walls. 

Leaving this spot we shall make our way S. over I/akehead Hill, 
on which are several objects of antiquarian interest. Not far from the 
Princetown road R. is the pound known as Kraps Ring, which contains 
several hut circles. The fallen wall covers a space about 12 feet wide, 
but on the N. side it is not quite perfect. It is placed between two 
others, but these have been so despoiled that little more than low banks, 
hardly traceable in places, now remain. At the lower end of the 
northernmost pound is a dilapidated kistvaen. Near Kraps Ring, on 
the S.W., is a fine hut circle, 23 feet in diameter, and close to it another 
about the same size, though not in such a good state of preservation, 
but yet having the door jambs erect. Higher up the hill are some 
sepulchral remains. Among these is a circle of slabs, of which a few 
seem to be missing, 19 feet in diameter, and a kistvaen in a good state 
of preservation. About a furlong S.S.E. of this is another, but much 
dilapidated. Only the two side stones of the kist remain, but these 
are each nearly 6 feet long. The gate of Bellaford Newtake is about 
midway between this and Bellaford Tor, which bears S.W. by S. A 
short distance from the kist is a cairn, and a ruined kist within a double 
circle ; some of the monuments have been restored. The remains of 
stone rows are seen in connection with these ancient graves. 



White Ridge. 



Birch Tor. 




Post Bridge. 
FROM I.AKEHEAD HII.I,. LOOKING N.E. 

Passing through the gate in the wall of the newtake, by the side of 
which runs the ancient Lich Path (T. 18), we make our way to Bellaford 
Tor, noticing as we go the vestiges of a large enclosure and the remains 
of two hut circles. Bellaford (i4- m. from P. B.), is a fine cluster of 
rocks, and forms a very prominent feature in the view from any elevated 
point in the central parts of the forest. On the summit is a small 
rocking-stone, and another, a thin slab, is to be found on the slope 
between the tor and the gate below it, S.E. (This gate is in the corner 
of the newtake, and on the track leading to Dunuabridge. Two granite 

Hi 



98 POST BRIDGE DISTRICT. 

posts are to be seen in the wall close to it, in which are notches for bars, 
similar to others that have been noticed during our rambles. But 
these posts are higher than is usually the case, and. it has been thought, 
belonged to a drift gate, an idea which the proximity of Dunnabridge 
Pound and Lough Tor Pound renders probable). A gold coin was 
found on the tor by a young man of the neighbourhood about 1870, 
but I could not discover its nature further than that it was of early 
date. The view from the tor is good. The plantation seen N.E. is 
called the Cranery. Once a year, in April, the great Dartmoor picnic 
is held on the rocks, the occasion being the last day (Friday always) 
of the Dartmoor Harrier Week. Then " old Bellavur " becomes the 
centre of a scene of animation. Hundreds of spectators, some driving, 
some on foot, cover the slopes, while hounds, horses and riders engage 
in the chase around it. 

Our next point is Bellaford Bridge. This may be reached by cross- 
ing the head of Cranery Bottom E., and descending to the Dart, and 
following it upward, but there is no public path that way. This 
bottom appears to have been formerly called Bellaford Combe, and 
there is a newtake there now of that name. In the Lydford Court 
Rolls of the seventh of James I. the little steam flowing from this 
combe is referred to as " Torrente de Beltaburr combe, Anglice Bella- 
vur combe lake." 

Retracing our steps we once more enter upon Lakehead Newtake, 
and turning R. into the Lich Path pass over the crest of the hill and 
descend towards the farmhouses. There are two of these, Bellaford 
and Lake, both being ancient tenements. 

Bellaford Bridge is about i|- m. below Post Bridge. The most 
direct way to it from the latter is by the path running past The Bar- 
racks (T. 81). On the lower side of it is a clapper of three openings, 
but unfortunately the stone that spanned the centre one is missing. 
It was thrown off intentionally, and, as in the case of the displaced 
stone at Post Bridge, I discovered many years ago who it was that did 
this. \Dev. Alps, Chap. IV."] A stream falls into the Dart close by. 
This is known as the Dury Brook. It rises above Lower Meripit, and 
about i m. below that farm passes Dury, which latter is situated to 
the N. of the road running eastward from the bridge. Both these are 
ancient tenements. In 1689 Dury was held on lease by John Tickell, 
whose son Jonathan was vicar of Widecombe. We may follow the 
road to the Walla Brook, where it leaves the forest, or we may make 
our way down the L. bank of the Dart to White's Slade. f m. below 
Bellaford Bridge. We have already referred to this place (Ex. 41), 
which is situated opposite to the farm of Lough Tor Hole. Neither of 
these are forest tenements. Lartercombfoote and Larterhole are 
mentioned about 1609 ; this is the moorman's form of the name of the 
spot to-day. In 1702 these appear as Laughter Combe and Laster 
Hole, and are given as the names of newtakes.* White's Slade has long 
been a ruin. It is generally spoken of as Snails' House, and to it 
attaches a story similar to the one related of a blowing-house on the 
South Teign, to which we have referred in S. Ex. 56. \Dev. Alps., 
Chap. IV.] This tells us how two spinsters who dwelt here aroused 

* Among other newtakes named in that year are Bradrings, Win- 
ford, Broad Oak, Cocks Lake, Dead Lake, and Holeshead. 



EXCURSION 44. SNAIL'S HOUSE. PIZWELL. 99 

the curiosity of the few gossips in the sparsely populated neighbour- 
hood by their mysterious way of living. They never did any work in 
the garden, nor had they any cattle, and no food was ever seen to be 
taken to the house. Yet they always presented a buxom appearance. 
At length it was discovered that they subsisted on black slugs, which 
they gathered on the moor. The secret being out the women pined 
and died, and the dwelling fell to ruin. Near by are some hut circles. 

[For about i^ m. below Bellaford Combe Lake the Dart pursues 
a straight course through the valley, or "hole," the farm to which the 
latter gives name being about the middle of this. The river then bends 
slightly and flows under Little Newtake Plantation and Brimpts 
Northern Wood. It then turns southward to Dartmeet. The Walla 
Brook comes down from the N. and runs into the Dart by the wood 
named. A short distance above the confluence the Walla Brook is 
spanned by the interesting clapper noticed in Ex. 41, and a little 
further up is Babeny. The latter is about i m. S.E. of White's Slade. 
Nearly i m. N. of Babenj^ is Riddon, an ancient tenement, the holder 
of which in the time of Elizabeth was more than once presented at the 
Lydford Court, as indeed other tenants not infrequently were, for not 
keeping a certain gate and walls in repair, and also for not appearing 
to serve the queen. This farm and Babeny are noticed in R. 5b, 42), 
which crosses Riddon Ridge between Bellaford Bridge and Corn Down. 
Rather less than i m. N. of Riddon is Pizwell Bridge. This spans the 
Walla Brook to which the road comes from Bellaford.] 

Leaving White's Slade we shall make our way over Riddon Ridge, 
our course being N.E. by N., and in i m. shall reach Pizwell Bridge, 
which is a clapper of three openings, but of comparatively modern 
construction. Crossing the stream we shall leave the road which runs 
onward past Cator (S. Exs. 85, 86) to Corn Down, along the eastern 
foot of which it is carried by West Shallowford and Corndonford to 
Locks' Gate Cross (R. 5 a), and turning L. by Pizwell Cottage and the 
plantation, shall make our way northward over Cator Common. On 
the R. or E., are the plantations known as the Grendon Strips, and 
our way will take us to the northern end of the one nearest to us. As 
we approach this point Pizwell, referred to in 1260 as a village, as we 
have already seen (T. 18), will be observed L. Of all the ancient 
holdings on the moor none is perhaps so interesting as this small group 
of farms. The buildings with their thatched roofs probably present 
the same appearance as they did some centuries ago. In 1300 the 
name appears as Pishull. A few years later we find an entry in the 
account of John de Tresympel, custodian of the forest, concerning 
" one clawe of land containing 8a. land at Pishull." This refers to the 
addition of a newtake, and it is stated to be the duty of the holder, 
John Renewith, to manure it in the following year. In 1346 another 
enclosure was made there by John French. This name frequently 
occurs in the various records of the forest, and is still found there. 
Immediately below the dwellings is Pizwell Ford. 

Near the corner of the strip of plantation R. is a double circle, 
which, were it not so overgrown, would be very interesting. The 
outer one, which is 45 feet in diameter, consists of granite slabs, 
partially hidden by heather and hirze. The inner one, which is almost 



IOO 



POST BRIDGE DISTRICT. 



entirely hidden, is about 20 feet in diameter. In the centre is a hollow 
in which there may once have been a kist. " This circle is about m. 
S.S.W. of the gate across the road between Runnage Bridge, W., and 
Grendon Cot, E., and which is placed near the foot of the hill known 
as Ephraim's Pinch. The story attaching to the latter was first related 
to me by Mr. Edward Coaker, formerly of Hexworthy. A man named 
Ephraim laid a wager that he would carry a sack of corn from Wide- 
combe to Post Bridge, a distance of five miles, without dropping it. 
On reaching this hill, after accomplishing three-and-a-half miles of his 
journey, he found the pinch too much for him, and was obliged to 
throw his burden upon the ground. 

[S. of the road between Ephraim's Pinch and Grendon Cot, E., 
is the Grendon estate (S. Ex. 85) ; N. of it is Soussons Warren, the 
warren house, a solitary dwelling, being in view.* A path leads to it 
from below the gate, and there is another from Runnage Bridge. A 
path also leads from the house to Challacombe, m. from it (T. 47, 
Ex. 22, S. Ex. 85). S. of the road between Ephraim's Pinch and 



Lakehead Hill. 



Bear Down Longaford 
Tor. Tor. 




Pizwell. 
FROM SOUSSONS COMMON. LOOKING W. 

Runnage Bridge, W., is Grendon Common and Cator Common, over 
which we have made our way, and across the former a track runs from 
the corner of the plantation to Pizwell. N. of the road is Soussons 
Common, which extends nearly to the Warren House Inn. Not far 
from the road, on the N., and about midway between the " pinch " and 
the bridge, is a very perfect circle. It is 27 feet in diameter, and in all 
probability once enclosed a kist, though only a hollow is to be seen in 
the centre now. There are 22 stones, varying in height from 2 feet 

* Whether this is a corruption of an old name or of a comparatively 
modern one is not certain. South Sands has been suggested as one 
from which it may have been formed, but does not commend itself to 
us. Nearly forty years ago I heard the common spoken of as South Stone 
Common. I possess a map on which it is shown as South Shute Com- 
mon. The affluent of the Webburn draining by Scudely Bogs seems 
once to have been known as Shute Lake. Further south, and nearer 
the Walla Brook, are Langlake Mires. 



EXCURSION 44. SOUSSONS COMMON. 101 

downward ; a few being no more than one foot high. They are placed 
from one foot to 2\ feet apart, and only one appears to be missing. 
Runnage Bridge is a clapper, but like the one near Pizwell Cottage, is of 
comparatively modern date, and is furnished with parapets. There 
are three openings. At the W. end of the bridge a track runs S. by the 
Walla Brook to Pizwell, whence it goes on to Dury ; the lane leading to 



Birch Tor. 



Challacombe 
Down. 



Hameldon. 




FROM SOUSSONS COMMON. LOOKING N.E. 



these farms is a little further on. Close by is the entrance to Runnage, 
N. About midway between the bridge and the highway at Higher 
Meripit, a road branches L., or S.W. This goes to Post Bridge by way 
of Lower Meripit, reaching the highway at the Wesleyan Chapel.] 

Turning L,. from, the corner of the plantation into the Runnage 
road, which is on the line of the old Church Way (T. 76), we speedily 
come in sight of the circle just described, and if the visitor does not 
propose to return direct to Post Bridge he may strike northward from 
it over Soussons Common, which is in the parish of Manaton. On the 
L. is Runnage, which is named as an ancient tenement in conjunction 
with Warner. The latter, however, does not now exist, but some 
scanty ruins northward of the farm go by the name of Walna Buildings, 
and no doubt indicate its site. About m. N. of the circle are the 
tumuli referred to in R. 26, and a little beyond these, on the R., is the 
Golden Dagger Mine, and just here we enter upon the common lands 
of North Bovey.* Bearing L. we follow the Walla Brook upward to 
the point where it is crossed by a footpath corning from the mine. 
This we follow I/, to the footbridge over the leat, as directed in R. 26 
52, and speedily gain the road at the Warren House Inn. Thence our 
way to Post Bridge is by the road over Meripit Hill (R. 35), which is 
noticed in our next excursion. 

* These barrows were examined a few years ago, and the result 
communicated to the members of the Devonshire Association in a 
Report by Mr. Robert Burnard. In two of them various objects were 
found. These consisted of charcoal, burnt bones, including a small 
piece of a human skull, some fragments of bronze, a flint arrow-head, 
and a small sherd of pottery. 



POST BRIDGE DISTRICT. 



Ex. 45. Meripit Hill, Warren House Inn, Waters Down [Assa- 
combe, add i m.], White Ride, Lade Hill Bottom [Sandy Hole, add 
2 m.], The Sheepfold, Stannon, -j\ m - (With route from the Warren 
House Inn to Grim's Pound and Hameldon). 

From the bridge our way lies up the hill through the village 
Opposite to the church of St. Gabriel we shall notice the lodges at the 
entrance to Stannon, in one of which formerly dwelt an old woman 
who was known as the Witch of Dartmoor. A little further up a road 
branches R. by the Wesley an Chapel, and leads by Lower Meripit to 
the Runnage road (Ex. 44). This for-ms a part of the old Church Way. 
Lower Meripit is one of the ancient forest tenements, and appears on 
the Court Rolls of the time of Elizabeth as Merepitt. In a list of 
Dartmoor tenants in 1 344 is the name of William de Meriput. Higher 
Meripit is not one of those tenements, but it is, nevertheless, an ancient 
holding, there being in existence a lease of it from William French to 
Walter French and John French, dated the loth May, 1555. The old 
house was unfortunately burnt down in 1907. Meripit was one of the 
old dwellings in which a common entrance served alike for the inmates 
and the cattle. The former occupied one end of the house, while to 
the latter was apportioned the other. The parts were separated by a 
wall, though it has been said that in dwellings of this kind such was 
sometimes deemed superfluous. In some of the ancient houses in this 
neighbourhood it can be seen that a similar arrangement formerly 
existed. Cf. Collerewe, S. Ex. 56. Passing upward with this L. we 
gain the commons just above where a road branches R. to Runnage. 
(Ephraim's Pinch and Soussons Common, noticed in Ex. 44, are reached 
by this road, or by the one through Lower Meripit). 

Our road now passes over Meripit Hill, from the higher part of 

Princetown N. Hisworthy 
Church. Tor. 




FROM MERIPIT HIM,. BOOKING S.W. 

which we have a view of the forest between this point and Princetown; 
Descending the hill we reach Stats Bridge, whence a path runs across 
the common L. to Stannon, i m. W. This passes close to Coal Mires, 
in which name we probably see an allusion to the peat, which, as will 



EXCURSION 45. THE WARREN HOUSE INN. 103 

be noticed, is cut in this locality. Crossing Stats Brook, which is some- 
times regarded as being the Walla Brook instead of its tributary, and 
the Yitifer Mine leat (taken from the Dart near Sandy Hole, and which 
is elsewhere met with on our rambles, T. 79, R. lob), we ascend 
the hill towards the Warren House Inn. The ruins seen L. of the 

*<- O-*>v* 



road are the remains of Wheal Caroline. 

The Warren House Inn, which was formerly known as Newhouse, 
takes the place of a building that once stood on the other side of the 
road. On a tablet in the wall is the inscription : " I. Wills, Septr. 18, 
1845." The statement has been made that the house now non- 
existent was one of the oldest on the moor, but apparently with no 
better grounds than the opinion of a former tenant of Bear Down Farm, 
as related by the Rev. E. A. Bray. As the forest tenements are the 
most ancient buildings on Dartmoor this is, of course, incorrect. No 
house is shown as existing here in Owen's Britannia Depicta, 1720. 
The old house was generally regarded as being the scene of Mrs. Bray's 
story of the corpse which was " salted in " in order to preserve it until 
the disappearance of the snow that <_overed the moor permitted of its 
removal for burial. The late Mr. Richard Cleave, of Hexworthy, gave 
me several particulars respecting the story, for which there certainly 
seems to be some foundation, that he had obtained from his father 
[Crosses, Chap. XIV.] At one period of his life Jonas Coaker, long 
known as the Dartmoor poet, kept the inn at Newhouse, and once had 
a very exciting experience with a party of miners who invaded his 
premises. Jonas was compelled to seek safety on the moor while the 
men helped themselves to his liquor. From the road near the inn the 
small newtakes said to resemble the four aces on the cards are plainly 
seen eastward (Ex. 22, S. Ex. 87). King's Oven, which is quite near to 
the inn, is described in Ex. 21, and other objects in the vicinity are 
noticed in S. Ex. 58. 

4 m. distant, and R. of the Moreton road, is Bennet's Cross, 
described in Ex. 22, and from this the route to Grim's Pound, also 
described in that excursion is given. A more direct way from the inn 
is to strike E. across the common towards the gap in the ridge (Ex. 22), 
beyond which the pound can be seen. The distance is less than 2 m., 
or about 4 rn. from Post Bridge. The way to Hameldon Cross from 
the pound is described in S. Ex. 60, and the hill itself in the section 
devoted to it in the Bovey Tracey District. L. of the Moreton road is 
Bush Down and the Lakeland Valley, with Castle Hill, above Hurston 
Castle, Ex. 21.] 

Behind the Warren House Inn is Water Hill, or Waters Down, as 
it is more often called, and to this we shall now make our way. We 
pass upward by the E. side of the house, and striking N.W. shall reach 
the cairn mentioned in Ex. 21 in about \ m., not far from which is the 
stone row also noticed in that excursion. From this point we shall 
strike westward for i m. to the corner of Stannon Newtake, f- m. N. 
by W. of the summit of Meripit Hill. A short distance from this, and 
near the Vitifer Mine leat is a single row of stones running northward 
from the wall. 

[Assacombe is due N. from the corner of Stannon Newtake. 
This is described in Ex. 21, and is also noticed in the Tracks Section, 
T. 77. Should this be included in the ramble it will increase the dis- 
tance by about i m. Then on leaving the Assacombe row the visitor 



io 4 POST BRIDGE DISTRICT. 

will strike up the hill W. by S., and passing over the northern side of 
White Ridge (R. lob) will reach the upper end of Lade Hill Bottom 
near Beach Holt. The distance from one combe to the other is about 
i*jn.3 

Leaving the wall of Stannon Newtake we strike W. by N., and in 
about i m. shall reach the same point as will the rambler in coming 
from Assacombe. 

[If the excursion be extended to Sandy Hole, which will increase 
the distance by about 2 m., a S.W. course from the head of Lade Hill 
Bottom must be followed for i m., when the point where the Vitifer 
Mine leat is taken in will be reached (R. lob). Sandy Hole Pass is 
just above this. Here the Dart is confined within walls built of large 
granite blocks, apparently for the purpose of storing the water, a dam, 
or hatch, having probably been placed at the lower end. Northward 
of the pass is Winney's Down ; above the pass is Broad Marsh, where 
is an extensive stream- work, at the lower end of which is an old tinners' 
building. For Cut Hill the river should be crossed at the head of the 
pass, and followed up, R. bank, to where the Cut Hill stream comes 
into it, as described in Ex. 46. In the angle formed by the Dart and 
the stream named is a small tinners' hut. (The route by Drift Lane 
and Broad Down is the best for Cut Hill from P. B., Ex. 46). In 
returning from Sandy Hole the rambler should keep near the river. A 
short distance below the Hole is a fine waterfall, and in the gorge 
through which the river runs when it bends N. there is a cache on 
the R. bank. When it abruptly turns S. the rambler will find himself 
at the lower end of Lade Hill Bottom.] 

Turning southward from the head of Lade Hill Bottom we follow 
the little stream nearly to the Dart. Our course is then S.E. to the 
deserted building known as The Sheepfold, \ m. distant. This consists 
of a spacious courtyard, said to cover three quarters of an acre. It is 
oblong in shape, and the wall is of considerable height and thickness. 
Every 9 or 10 feet a large granite post is let into it. The entrance is at 
the N. end, and at the S. are the ruins of a dwelling-house, one gable 
still standing. In the yard are a number of small courts, or pens, which 
I learnt many years ago had once been roofed in, and were used as 
cattle shelters. The place was built by a Scotchman for the purpose of 
folding Scotch sheep, and was burned down between 1820 and 1830, 
when, it is said, a child perished in the fire. (I have never been able 
to ascertain the exact date). [Hundred Years, Chap. III.] 

Stannon Tor, 1,517 feet, rises close by the Sheepfold, and about 
f- m. S. is Hartland Tor, 1,368 feet, and either may be conveniently 
included in the excursion. Should the visitor decide upon ascending 
the latter he will afterwards make his way to Hartland Farm, one of 
the ancient forest tenements. In this locality are the vestiges of 
several pounds and hut circles. Near Hartland is Ringhill. In the 
former, in February, 1801, Jonas Coaker was born; in the latter, in 
February, 1 890, he died, and was buried at Widecombe. Not far from 
the farm, at Muck's Hole Gate, is a blowing- house with a mould-stone. 
The gate is between Ring Hill Newtake and Hartland Moor, and not 
a great way from the Stannon Brook. A path leads from the farms 
to Post Bridge. 

Stannon Tor is not much more than \ m. from the cottage to which 
it gives name. Making our way to the latter we shall there cross the 



EXCURSION 46. BROAD DOWN. 105 

Stannon Brook, and follow the road over Stannon Hill to the lodges 
in the village. The reverse of this is the best route to the Sheepfold 
from Post Bridge. 



Ex. 46. Drift Lane, Roundy Park, Broad Down [Sandy Hole, 
add i m.], Hollow Combe, The Cherry Brook, 6 m. 

In the section dealing with the old tracks on the moor we have 
spoken of Drift Lane (T. 78), a path which branches from the high road 
not far from the western end of the bridge, and runs up by the side 
of the Dart. This we shall now follow, having the Archerton enclosures 
L., and shall be led past Still Pool, and Hartland Farm on the opposite 
bank. The path then turns away from the river, and about m - 
beyond this point is an enclosure to the R. of it, the wall of which is 
built on the Ime of a much older one. This is known as Roundy Park. 
It contains a few hut circles, and close to the wall is a fine kistvaen. 
Some of the stones comprising it have been replaced. Two fragments 
of flint were found in it, and some bone charcoal, as well as a cooking- 
stone which had been used to trig one of the end stones. Still following 
the path, which passes up the hill towards Rowtor Gate, we cross a 
little stream, to which the name of Broad Down Brook has been given, 
and then the Powder Mills leat. Here on the slope of the hill R. is a 
large enclosure built, like the smaller one just noticed, on the site 
of an ancient pound. It contains a number of hut circles. These 
were noticed by the Rev. Samuel Rowe, in 1827-8, and were spoken 
of by him later as being in Hamlyn's Newtake. Not far from this 
group is a small pound, which bears the name of Broad Down Ring, 
locally Broad'n Ring, the down being not infrequently spoken of as 
Broad'n Down. This arises from the moorman's habit of duplication. 
Mr. Rowe noticed this enclosure also, which, he says, was situated in 
Templer's Newtake. Below it, and close to the Dart, is another 
pound with hut circles. 

[Sandy Hole (T. 79, R. lob) is i m. N.W. by W. of Broad Down 
Ring, the way lying over the side of Broad Down. In going from Post 
Bridge direct to Sandy Hole the large enclosure with the hut circles 
must be kept R , and the track followed up the hill to Rowtor Gate, 
when a course about N.W. by N. is struck. The route to Cut Hill 
from Sandy Hole will take the rambler along the bank of the Dart 
through the pass above it, and thence by the great stream work at 
Broad Marsh to Kit Steps, near which crossing place the river bends, 
and flows from the N. Here it receives two small tributaries, one 
from the W., the other from N.W. Between these is good hard ground, 
forming the approach to Cut Lane (T. 79). The summit of the hill 
must be kept L. in ascending, so as to reach the ridge to the N. of it.] 

Hollow Combe, to which we shall make our way from Broad Down 
Ring, is i m. S. of Sandy Hole. If the excursion be extended to the 
latter it will increase the distance by about i m. 

Prom Broad Down Ring we shall strike W.S.W. for i m. towards 
Lower White Tor with Rowtor Wall R., to the Cherry Brook, 
which here runs down through the deep and narrow gully bearing 



io6 



POST BRIDGE DISTRICT. 



the name of Hollow Combe, and which seems also to have been known 
as Gawlers Hole. Not far below the head of this the brook is crossed 
by the great reave which is by some regarded as a road, and to which 
we have elsewhere alluded (see Reave in Terms Section). It runs up 
the steep western side of the combe to Lower White Tor, where it 
terminates. In the other direction it can be plainly traced over part 
of Chittaford Down running towards the Dart, which it crosses at 
Still Pool, and thence goes through Webbs' Marsh towards the 
Wesleyan Chapel, to be seen again on the moor beyond the village. 
Mr. Robert Burnard has given some interesting particulars concerning 
it in a paper read before the members of the Devonshire Association. 

Nearly i m. S. of Lower White Tor is Higher White Tor, called 
in the neighbourhood Whitten Tor (Ex. 5), and not far from this, and 
running S. from it, is a double stone row. It is over a hundred yards 
in length, but has been much despoiled, no doubt by the builders of 
the newtake walls near by. Still further S. is Longaford Tor, con- 
spicuously placed on the ridge that forms the eastern side of the valley 
in which the oaks of Wistman hide themselves (Ex. 5). Westward of 
the Powder Mills are a couple of ruined kistvaens. 

At the lower end of the combe we shall take leave of the Cherry 
Brook, which we have met on so many of our excursions, and strike S.E. 
over Chittaford Down towards Arch Tor, near which we cross the 
Powder Mills leat. Below this is Gawler Bottom, where the roots of 
trees and bushes of various kinds have been found by peat cutters. 
In 1892 an object of antiquarian interest came to light here. This was 
a bronze ferrule, which was buried some four feet beneath the surface. 
(Cf. Ex. 5). Crossing this shallow valley, down which Gaw Lake, or 
Gawler Brook, runs to fall into the Dart, we reach the Princetown and 




Powder Mills. 
FROM ROAD AT I.AKEHEAD HIM,. LOOKING W. TO N.W. 

Moreton road, and turn L-, having Lakehead Hill R. Soon we arrive 
at the enclosures of Archerton, in the midst of which is an ancient 
pound, now planted with trees, and also a ruined kistvaen. When 
these are passed we find ourselves once more at the spot whence we 
started, and close to the ancient clapper that gives name to the village 
around which we have been rambling. 



POST BRIDGE TO CRANMERE. 



107 



ROUTES TO CRANMERE. 

C. R. 15. From the WARREN HOUSE INN, 6 m. N.W. over 
the side of Waters Down to the head of Assacombe, i m. Thence 
over White Ridge to the Grey Wethers, i4- m., the course being the 
same. Follow the wall of the Teign Head enclosures northward for 
i m. to White Horse Gate. It is well to enter the enclosures at the 
Grey Wethers, keeping the wall L., the ground being better there than 
outside. From White Horse Gate as in C. R. 13. 

The return to White Horse Gate is shown in C. R. 13. Thence by 
the wall to the Grey Wethers ; S.E. over White Ridge to the head of 
Assacombe, and onward to Waters Down. 

C. R. 1 6. From POST BRIDGE via Stannon, 6 m. By this 
route it is possible to drive to White Horse Gate, i4 m. from the pool. 
By the road leading from the lodges, over Stannon Hill with Stannon 
Bottom L-. i m. Thence by the newtake wall to White Ridge and 
on to the Grey Wethers, if m., the direction being N.W. by N. Turn 
L. inside the gate as in C. R. 15 (see T. 77). 

The return route to the Grey Wethers is shown in C. R. 13, 15, 
Although Stats Brook rises over 2 m. from the Grey Wethers the name 
is found in this locality in the ruin known as Stats House. From the 
circles strike S.E. by S. over the shoulder of White Ridge to Stannon. 
To the village bv the road. 



Sittaford 
Tor. 



Hartland 
Tor. 



White 
Ridge. 



Stannon 
Tor. 




-- -^ " -^-^<^^v^=. = 





FROM NEAR ARCHERTON. LOOKING N.N.E. 



io8 POST BRIDGE TO CRANMERE. 

C. R. 17. From POST BRIDGE via the East Dart valley, 6 m. 
In Ex. 46 the route to Sandy Hole, and the stream-work above it, has 
been described. At the head of the latter the Dart bends, coming 
from the N., and from this point the route to the pool is shown in 
C. R. i a. About \ m. above the bend are two remarkable miners' 
buildings on the L.'bank of the stream. They are placed side by side 
on a sort of plateau amongst fairly tall heather. In one the door 
jambs are still erect. Further up the Dart, and on the same bank, 
are the remains of two other little buildings of the same character, 
one close to a tiny feeder. 

The return from Cranmere is shown in C. R. 13, which will bring 
the rambler to the head of the Dart. This he will trace downward to 
Sandy Hole, and thence strike S.E. to Drift Lane. 

On one part of White Ridge hi the vicinity of the Grey Wethers 
some guide stones may be seen. These were erected many years ago 
to mark the track over which a miner, who lived at Stannon, used to 
pass to his work at Knock Mine on the Taw. (Ex. 17, Part II., and 
T. 38, Part V.) The path from the Grey Wethers lay along by the 
newtake wall past White Horse Gate, and thence over the ridge to 
Taw Head, and down the stream to the mine. Other stones may be 
seen in this central part of the moor marking places where a way has 
been cut through the peat. These crossing-places were formed by the 
late Mr. Prank Phillpotts for hunting purposes. (See end of Tracks 
Section, Part V.) 



Index. 



Abbots' Way, The 36, 68, 76 

Arch Tor 93 

Archerton 105, 106 

Arrishes, The 91 

Assacombe Row, The . . 103 
Arrow Head Field . . . . 44 
Aune Head, 42, 77, 92, 93 ; 
Mire, 91. 



Babeny 85, 99 

Bachelor's Hall . . . . 46 
Barracks, The . . . . . . 96 

Beach Holt 104 

Bear Down, 54, 55 ; Clapper, 

55 ; Man, 53, 54, 55, 56; 

Tors, 55, 56. 

Beara House 93 

Beetor Cross 52 

Bel Pool Island, 85 ; Little, 85 
Bel Tor Corner .. . . 85 
Bellaford Bridge, 98 ; Combe 

Lake, 99 ; Tor, 97, 98. 

Bellamy, J. C 55, 61 

Bench Tor 84 

Bennet's Cross 103 

Black Dunghill . . . . 70, 80 

Black Furzes 90 

Black Hole 61 

Black Hole (N.) . . . . 80 

Black Lane 75 

Black Pool 84 

Black Ridge Water . . . . 80 
Black Tor (Walkhampton), 34, 

67 ; Fall, 34. 
Blackabrook, The, 44, 54, 66 ; 

Clapper, 62. 

Blackall's Drive, Dr 85 

Board'u House 48 

Bray, Rev. E. A., 55, 56, 64, 89 

Brim Brook 71 

Brimpts, 83, 84, 85 ; Wood, 99 

Brisworthy 77 

Broad Amicombe Hole . . 71 



Broad Down 105 

Broad Hole 54 

Broad Marsh . . . . 79, 105 

Broad Rock 76 

Broad Stones 85 

Bronze Ferrule 106 

Broom Park 90 

Brownberry 89 

Brown's House 72 

Bull Park 43 

Buller, Sir Francis . . . . 64 

Byes, The 83 

C 
Cadaford Bridge . . 77, 78 

Castle Hill 103 

Castle Road 38 

Cater's Beam . . . . 45, 92 

Cator Common 100 

Cattle, Scotch 6, 7 

Challacombe 100 

Cherry Brook, 89, 105 ; Head, 50 
Childe's Tomb .. 40, 41, 42 
Chittaford Down . . . . 106 

Cholake, The 46 

Church Lane 74 

Church Rock 63 

Church Way 101 

Clay Works, Red Lake . . 76 

Cleave Brake 93 

Cleave Combe 84 

Cleave Wood 85 

Coaker, Jonas . . 44, 103, 104 

Coal Mires 102 

Cocks' Lake, 88 ; Menhir.. 88 

Coffin Stone 87 

Combeshead Tor . . . . 33 
Combestone Farm, 84 ; Island, 

84 ; Wood, 84. 
Conies' Down, 53, 70 ; Row, 53, 

54; Tor, 71. 

Corn Down 99 

Corndon Tor 86 

Corndonford 99 

Countess Amicia 60 



HO 



INDEX. 



Cramber Tor 

Cranery Bottom 

Cranmere 

Crazy Well Bridge, 

Pool, 31, 32 
Crip Tor Farm 
Crock of Gold 
Crockern Farm, 

63, 64. 

Crovenor Steps 
Crow Tor . . 
Cut Hill 



D 

Dart, Gorge of . . 
Dart Hole . . 
Dartmeet, 84 ; Hill 
Davy Town 
Dead Lake 
Dean Combe 
De Redvers, The 
Devil's Bridge . . 
Devil's Frying-pan 
Devil's Tor 
Devonport Leat . . 
Dinger Tor 
Ditsworthy Warren 
Dolly's Cot 
Double Waters . . 
Down Ridge 
Down Tor, 33 ; Rows 
Drift Lane . . 
Drivage Bottom 
Dry Lakes . . 
Duchy Hotel 
Ducks' Pool 
Dunnabridge Farm, 89 

at, 64. 
Dunnabridge Poi 

Dolmen at, 
Dunstone Down 
Dury 



Eagle Rock 

East Combe 

East Tor . . 

East Ockment Farm 

Ephr aim's Pinch 

Evlesburrow 



Rocks in, 5 5 


F 


. . . . 30 


Fairy Bridge 46 


. . . . 98 


Feather Bed 4 


79, 80 


Fish Lake Mire . . . . 92 


;e, 31- 34; 


Fitz, John 62 




Fitz's Well .. 61, 62, 66 


. . . . 24 


Flat Tor 53 


- 43. 46 


Ford Newtake 85 


8 ; Tor, 5 1 , 


Forest Inn, The . . . . 83 




Fowler, G. W 45 


.. .. 71 


Fox Tor, 42 ; Combe, 91 ; Farm, 


48, 50, 51 


42, 43 ; Gert, 75 ; Gulf, 91 ; 


80, 104, 105 


Head, 75 ; Mire, 39 ; Cross 




in, 40 ; Newtake, 91. 




Foxholes 50 




Frenchmen's Road .. .. 21 


. . . . 84 


Fur Tor Wood 80 


. . . . 50 




84, 87 


G 


.. .. 25 


Gaveston, Piers . . 31, 32 


.. .. 61 


Gawler Bottom . . 93, 106 


33 


Goad's Stone . . . . 24, 78 


.. .. 60 


Gobbet Plain . . . . go, gi 


21 


Golden Dagger 101 


. . . . 60 


Gore Hill 73 


53 


Granite Quarries . . 24, 29 


35, 38, 43 


Great Gnats' Head . . . . 75 


.. .. 71 


Green Hill 75 


.. .. 77 


Greena Ball 61 


.- .. 85 


Grendon Common, 100 ; Circle 


21 


near, 99 ; Cot, 100. 


. . 92 


Grey Wethers . . . . 107, 1 08 


ffS . . 67 


Grim's Pound . . . . 96, 103 


. . 105 


Guide Stones 28 


35 


Gullet, Mr 64 


. . . . 92 




. . . . 68 


H 


. . . . 75 


Hameldon 103 


, 89 ; Stone 


Hamlyn's Newtake . . . . 105 




Hand Hill 45 


, 64, 65, 88 ; 


Hanging Rock 61 


Farm, 89. 


Hangman's Pit 74 


- .- 73 


Hannaford, John . . . . 56 


. . 101 


Hannaford Stickles . . . . 85 




Hart Hole Lane . . . . 84 




Hart Tor (Walkhampton), 30 ; 




Row at, 30 ; Brook, 34 ; 


. . . . 84 


Huts, 67. 


. . . . 84 


Hartland Farm, 104, 105 ; 


. . . . 24 


Tor, 104. 


n 71 


Hemsworthy Gate . . . . 73 


. . IOO, IO2 


Henroost 92 


.. .. 75 


Herne Hole 



INDEX. 



Hexworthy, 82, 83, 87 ; 

Bridge, 84. 

Kingston Hill Rows . . 33 
Hisworthy, North, 16, 36, 66 ; 

South, 35 ; Mound near, 38 
Hockinston Marsh, 85 ; Tor, 85 
Hollow Combe . . 52, 105, 106 
Hollow Tor . . . . 20, 29 
Helming Beam . . . . 54, 66 

Holne Moor 83 

Holne Wood 85 

Hooteu Wheals . . . . 92 

Horn Hill 93 

Horn's Cross 93 

Horse Ford 92 

Horse Hole 52 

Horsey Park 70 

Huccaby Cleave, 84, 9^ ; Farm, 

83 ; Tor, 88. 
Hurston Castle 103 



Inga Tor, 24 ; Kist near 24 

Iron Bridge 34 

Isabella de Fortibus.. 59, 60 
Ivy bridge Lane . . . . 35 

Jan Coo 87 

Joan Ford's Newtake . . 43 

Jolly Lane Cot 83 

Jordan Ball 73 

Judge's Chair . . 64, 88, 89 

Judge's Corner 65 

Jumbo, The Terrier . . 48 



King Tor 24 

King's Oven 103 

Kingsett 32, 33 

Kit Steps 79, 105 

Kneeset Foot, Nose . . 71 
Kraps Ring 97 



Lade Hill Bottom . . . . 104 
Lakehead Hill . . . . 96, 97 

Lakeland 103 

Langlake Mires . . . . 100 

Langamarsh Pit . . . . 84 

Langcombe Brook . . . . 77 

Langstone Circle . . . . 59 

Lanson Brook 46 



Laskey, John 64 

Leedon Tor 24 

Lether Tor Bridge, 32, 33, 67 

Lich Path, The . . . . 98 

Lints Tor 71 

Littaf ord Tors . . . . 51,52 

Little Newtake Plantation 99 

Lock's Gate Cross . . . . 99 

Long Ash Clapper . . . . 26 

Long Island 86 

Long Newtake 91 

Longaford Tor, 52, 106 ; New- 
take, 50, 51. 

Look-out Tor 36 

Lough Tor Hole, 88, 96 ; 

Pound, 88. 

Lower Watern Newtake . . 44 

Luckcombe Stone . . . . 92 

Lug Tor 84 

Lydford Tor 56 

M 

Maiden Hill 53 

Marsh, The 84 

May's Newtake . . . . 91 

Meripit, Higher, 101 ; Lower, 

101, 102 ; Hill, 72, 102. 
Merivale, 26, 63 ; Antiquities, 

27, 28, 66 ; Mining Huts 

at, 26. 
Methern Brook, 50; Hill.. 53 

Middle Brook 51 

Middle Mires 75 

Mil Tor, 85 ; Wood . . . . 85 

Mill, The 93 

Mill Hill 85 

Mining Huts, Fox Tor . . 42 

Mires 4 

Mis Tor, Great, 58, 59, 66 ; 

Little, 55 ; Moor, 58. 

Money Pit 86 

Moorland Hotel . . . . 74 

Moorlands 45, 74 

Mount Misery 91 

Mount View . . . . 29, 58 
Muck's Hole Gate . . . . 104 
Muddy Lakes -Brook, 89 ; 

Newtake, 45. 

N 

Nakers Hill 92 

Narrator Brook . . . . 77 

New Forest, 54 ; Corner, 70, 80 



INDEX. 



New London . . . . 43, 44 

Newhouse 72, 103 

Newleycom.be Lake . . . . 33 

Newtakes 98 

Nos worthy Bridge . . . . 67 
Nun's Cross, 37, 67 ; Farm, 75 

O 

Ockery, The 44 

Okel Tor 25 

Older Bridge 35 

Otter Pool 93 

Ouldsbroom, 74, 8"! ; Cross, 86 

Over Tor 26, 63 



Parson's Cottage .. 51, 56 
Peak Hill, 67 ; Pond on . . 22 
Peat Cot . . . . 36, 38, 67 
Petre's Boundstone . . . . 92 

Pigs' House 91 

Piskies' Holt 84 

Pizwell, 99 ; Bridge . . . . 99 

Plague Market 26 

Plym Ford, 75 ; Steps . . 77 

Portland Lane 77 

Post Bridge . . 94, 95, 96 
Pottery Found . . . . 34, 56 
Powder Mills, 106 ; Leat 105 
Prince Hall, 45 ; Bridge . . 45 
Princetown, 15 ; Church, 68 ; 

Railway, 13, 14. 
Prison Leat 70 



Q 

Queen Victoria's Cross . . 93 
Quickbeam Hill . . . . 77 



R 

Raddick Hill, 34 ; Lane . . 33 

Raven Rock 84 

Red Cottages . . 25, 29, 66 
Red Lake Clay Works, 76 ; 

Ford, 75.' 
Riddon, 99 ; Ridge . . . . 85 

Riddy Pit 32 

Ring Hill, 104 ; Newtake, 104 
Ringleshutts Mine . . . . 74 
Ringmoor Cot, 77 ; Down 77 
Roads on Moor .. u, 12 



Round Hill, 44 ; Farm . . 38 

Roundy Farm 32 

Roundy Park Kist . . . . 105 

Routrendle 24 

Row Tor 51, 53 

Rowbrook . . . . 84, 86, 87 

Rowden Down 73 

Rowtor Gate, 51, 93, 105 ; 

Marsh, 5 1 . 

Royal Hill 43 

Royal Oak Level . . . . 24 
Rue Lake (Dart) . . . . 46 
Rundle Stone, 29, 55, 57 ; 

Tor, 17. 
Runnage Bridge . . 100, 101 

Rush Bottom 80 

Ryder's Hill 92 



Saddle Bridge 74 

St. Gabriel's Chapel . . 102 
St. Raphael's Chapel . . 84 
Sand Parks . . . . 39, 42 
Sandy Hole, 79, 93, 104, 105, 108 
Sandy Way . . . . 42, 74 

Scudely Bogs 100 

Settlements, Moorland . . 1 1 

Seven Sisters 85 

Shallow Ford 59 

Shallowford, West . . . . 99 
Sharp Tor (Walkhampton) 22 
Sharp Tor (Dart) . . . . 86 
Sharrah Pool Marsh . . 85 
Shavercombe Brook . . 77 

Sheepfold 104 

Sheepstor 77 

Sherberton Common . . . . 86 
Sher burton, 90 ; Firs . . 91 
Sherburton, Little . . . . 89 

Sherwill 85, 86 

Shnte Lake 100 

Simon's Lake . . . . 85, 87 

Siward, Earl 36 

Siward's Cross . . . . 36, 37 
Skir Ford, Gert, Hill . . 92 

Slade 93 

Smith Hill, 89 ; Brook . . 89 
Snails' House . . . . 98, 99 
Snider Park Plantation . . 88 

Snow Storms 29 

Soldiers' Pond 21 

Soussons Common . . 100, 102 
Spader's Cottage . . . . 65 



INDEX. 



Splatton Hill 76 

vSpriddle Combe, 70 ; Lake 53 

Stanlake 22, 34 

Stannon, 102 ; Brook, 105 ; 

Hill, 105 ; Newtake, 103. 
Stats Bridge, 102 ; Brook, 103, 

107. 

Still Pool 105, 106 

Stone Implements . . . . 57 

Stonechat, The 55 

Stony Bottom 77 

Stony Marsh 85 

Store, The 60 

Strane, The 39 

Stream Hill Ford . . . . 39 

Summer Hill 53 

Swincombe, The, 39, 42 ; Farm, 

46, 67, 91 ; Ford, 91 ; 

Xewtake, 89. 



Tavy Hole 71 

Templer's Newtake . . . . 105 

Ter Hill 91 

Thrushel Combe . . . . 67 

Timber Bridge 70 

Timber Pool 90 

Tor Royal Kists . . . . 43 

Travellers' Ford . . . . 54 

Trena Bridge 44 

Two Bridges 15 

Tyrwhitt, Sir T 85 



Vitifer Leat 103 

Vixen Tor 66 

W 

Wain Tor 58 

Walkham, The, Huts on, 63, 66 
Walkham Head . . . . 70 



Walkhampton Common, 21, 30, 

33 ; Cross on, 35. 
Walla, or Wella .. .. 60 
Walla Brook, 85 ; Clapper, 85, 

99- 

Walna Buildings . . . . 101 
Ward Bridge . . . . 25, 66 
Warren House Inn . . 100, 103 
Water Hill, Waters Down, 103 

Webb's Marsh 106 

Week Ford . . . . 84, 93 

Wellaby Gulf 92 

Wellsfoot Island .. .. 85 
Wennaford Brook . . . . 84 
Wheal Anne Bottom . . 39 

Wheal Caroline 103 

Wheal Emma Leat, 9 1 ; Weir, 39 
White Horse Gate . . . . 107 

White Ridge 107 

White Rock 14 

White Tor (Tavy), 69 ; Menhir, 

59- 
White Tor, Higher, 52, 106 ; 

I/ower, 52. 

White Wood 84 

White Works, 36, 38, 39, 67 
White's Babeny . . . . 86 
White's Slade . . . . 86, 98 

WhithUl 25 

Widecombe 72 

Wild Banks .. .. 50, 51 

Wind Tor 73 

Windy Post 68 

Winney's Down 104 

Wistman's Wood . . 47, 48 
Wo Brook, The, 92 ; Foot . . 84 



Yar Tor . . . . 84, 85, 86 
Yes Tor (Walkhampton), 24 ; 
Huts near, 66. 



Tviii. 



DARTMOOR GUIDE. 



BIBBINGS'S BURDOCK PELL. 

4O Years before the Public. 

The best HERBAL PURIFYING MEDICINE ever compounded for old or " 
composed of Burdock, Dandelion, Chamomile, Podophyllin, and the finest r i 
Rhubarb, combined with other gentle vegetable aperients. They cleanse the Blood i 
all impurities, give strength and tone to the stomach and digestive organs, and beak 
and energy to the whole system. A marvellous remedy for Eczema, Pimples, Blaci 
heads, Erysipelas, Bad Legs, and all skin diseases. A ready relief for Headflche, Bile. 
Wind, Spasms, and Constipation. A positive cure for Jaundice and Liver Complaint, 
Indigestion and Influenza. Their cleansing and solvent action prevents the formatior 
of stone in kidneys or bladder, and eradicates gall-stones and gravel by carrying off thi 
poisonous uric acid. A most valuable medicine for ladies (especially for change of life) 
being gently purgative with marvellous searching and purifying properties. Whe 
other remedies fail, try Bibbings's Burdock Pills. Don't wait start now. The first dos 
will convince any sufferer who wishes to FEEL well. LOOK well, and KEEP wel 
Sold in boxes at 1/1J and 2/9, or post free from J H. Bibbings, Pharmacist, Burdoc. 
Pill Factory, Newton Abbot. 




"The Ideal Beverage." 



Symons 

DEVONSHIRE 

Cyder 



SIMPLIFIES THE SUMMER 
DRINK DIFFICULTY. 



A mature and delicious liquor, the juice of 
the finest Devonshire Apples. It is supplied 
dry or sweet with a body and flavour due 
to expert blending of the fruit. The 
Champagne of Cyders ! 

Fruit Mills TOTNES, DEVON, 
and Ratcliff, London, ., etc. 

Or of all best Wine Merchants. 



.GUIDE -TO DARTMOOR: 

K Topographical Description 
of the Forest and Commons 



BY 

WILLIAM CROSSING, 

AUTHOR OF 

The Ancient Stone Crosses of Dartmoor and Its Borderland, Amid Devonia's Alps 

Tales of the Dartmoor Pixies, Gems in a Granite Setting, A Hundred 

Years on Dartmoor, Folk Rhymes of Devon, 

From a Dartmoor Cot, S-c. 



WITH MAPS AND SKETCHES. 

A NEW EDITION IN FIVE PARTS. 



PART IV. 

Ashburton, Brent, Ivybridge, and 
Cornwood Districts. 



" The gush of wild-winds as they spring 
Low mumuring round thy heathy side, 

A fresher incense seem to bring, 
A purer tone of joy provide." 



SOPHIE DIXON. 



JEieter : 

A. WHEATON & Co., Ltd., Booksellers and Stationers, 
223 High Street. 



OUT OF THE LAND OF GORSE AND HEATHER 

TO 

THE RIGHT WORSHIPFUL 

THE MAYOR AND MAYORESS OF PLYMOUTH, 
A. EDMUND SPENDER, B.A., 

AND 

HELEN FRANCES SPENDER, 
GREETING. 



PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION. 



THE favourable reception accorded to the former editions of this Guide 
has rendered a further issue necessary. In this some considerable 
alterations in the arrangement have been made. While a description 
of Dartmoor in one volume had much to recommend it, the plan was 
also not without its disadvantages. The ground covered being 
extensive it was impossible to produce such a book as the author 
considered the subject demanded without its becoming 'rather bulky, 
and this was inconvenient from the tourist's point of view. It is now 
divided into five parts, but there has been no abridgement of matter. 
The few alterations in the text are chiefly of the nature of additions 
which were needed in order to bring the book up to date. 

The author is much gratified at knowing that the Guide has been 
found helpful by the tourist in the past, and ventures to believe that 
in its present form it will prove of still greater value in the future. 

BI.ACK DOWN, DARTMOOR 
July, 1914. 



DARTMOOR GUIDE. 



EXETER. 



POPLE'S 

NEW LONDON HOTEL 

(Visited by their Majesties The King and Queen, King Edward VII. 
and Queen Victoria.) 

Officially appointed by the " Royal Automobile Club," 
and the "Automobile Association." 



A charming i8th Century Hotel, with every modern comfort 
and luxury. Beautiful covered Courtyard as Lounge. Near the 
Cathedral and Railway Stations. Electric Light. Night Porter. 

SPLENDID MOTOR GARAGE 

Adjoining the Hotel, with Lock-up Private Boxes and 
Inspection Pits. 

Telegrams: " Pople, Exeter." Telephone: 146, Exeter. 

R. POPLE, Proprietor. 



Houses 



Let 

Sold 

Built 

Repaired 

Painted 

Decorated. 



For anything to do 
with Houses or 
Building 
Land in 



The 



Communicate 
with 



/Vx Howard, 

Contractor 
and House Agent 

ROCKVALE, YELVERTON. 






PREFACE. 



DURING recent years the claims of Dartmoor as a holiday and health 
resort have become widely recognized. Those to whom an old world 
region is an attraction will find in it a field of surpassing interest. No 
district in England of similiar extent is so rich in pre-historic remains, 
and in none does Nature wear a wilder aspect. 

To this elevated tract of land no guide book, in the true sense of 
the term, has hitherto appeared. It has, of course, been noticed in 
county guides, and there are also topographical works and handbooks 
descriptive of it, but in the former the accounts are necessarily super- 
ficial, while in the latter the visitor is not given any directions for 
finding his way over those parts of the waste remote from roads. To 
enable him to learn what Dartmoor really is he needs something beyond 
notices of the more celebrated, because more readily accessible, places 
and objects of interest. He should be led from the beaten track, and 
wander among the hills where signs of man's occupancy are not, where 
silence broods over the sea of fen, and the pasture grounds of the 
cattle that range at will are as they were when the Norman herdsman 
drove his beasts there ; or he should stray into solitary combes 
encumbered with the ruined huts and fallen rock-pillars of the people 
who once made this wild land their home. As my acquaintance with 
Dartmoor is a life-long one, and as it has been with me a subject of 
study and of systematic investigation during many years, it is with 
some degree of confidence that I take upon myself the task of con- 
ducting the visitor over it, and leading him into its remoter parts. 

This book is the first to give a complete topographical description 
of Dartmoor, and the reader may depend upon its being correct. Its 
aim is to furnish the visitor with an account of all that is to be found 
on the moor worthy of note, and to acquaint him with the best means 
of reaching the various objects from any point. The districts into 
which the moor has been divided are described in the excursions, and 



viii. PREFACE. 

at the end of these are given routes to each of the other districts. By 
this arrangement the moor is crossed in every conceivable direction, 
so that it is not possible to find any part of it that is not noticed some- 
where in the book. For the sake of convenience the terms used in 
connection with the forest and commons are given, with their mean- 
ings, in glossarial form, some archaeological terms being also included. 

I desire to express my thanks to Mr. PHIIJP GUY STEVENS, of 
Princetown, for the series of pen-and-ink sketches he has been at such 
pains to furnish, and which were executed on the spot. It is hoped 
they will be found useful as a means of helping the visitor to identify 
the principal tors and hills. 

If I gain the confidence of the rambler who uses this book my 
satisfaction will be complete. There is some reason for me to hope 
that I shall do so, as I venture to believe that he will discover ere we 
have gone far on our wanderings together that I am really and truly a 
Dartmoor man. 




CONTENTS, 
PART IV. 

PAGE 

Road Distances to Ashburton I 

Brent and Ivybridge 36 

Important Points near Ashburton 2 

,, ,, Brent and Ivybridge 38 

,, ,, in Southern Dartmoor 76 

Excursion 26. Prom Ashburton 3 

27. ,, . . - 9 

28. 14 

Holne Chase and Buckland Woods 17 

Shorter Excursions from Ashburton, 88 to 98 22 

Ashburton to Ilsington 23 

,, ,, Widecombe 24 

Route 47. Ashburton to Brent and Ivybridge 31 

48. Plympton and Shaugh 31 

,, 49. ,, Princetown and Two Bridges 32 

50. Tavistock 33 

51. ,, Lydford 34 

52. ,, Okehampton 34 

53. ,, Chagford and Moreton 34 

54. ,, Bovey Tracey *. 35 

The Moors of Holne and Buckfastleigh 39 

Holne to Avon Head 33 

Excursion 29. From Brent 45 

30- .. - 5i 

31. ,, 61 

Shorter Excursions from Brent. 99 to 1 1 1 64 

,, Wrangaton, 112 73 



x. CONTENTS. PART IV. 

PAGE 
Golf Links near Wrangaton (from Brent) 74 

(Ivybridge) 96 

Brent to Avon Head and Hexworthy 106 

Holne Moor and Hexworthy 108 

Ivybridge 31 

Excursion 32. From Ivybridge 77 

33- ,. 85 

34- ,, 9i 

Shorter Excursions from Ivybridge, 113 to 119 96 

,, Cornwood, 120, 121 99 

Ivybridge to Brent 108 

,, Cornwood 98 

,, Avon Head and Hexworthy 105, 106 

(For Holne Moor the first point is Brent : See Brent to Holne Moor). 

Cornwood to White Hill Corner 101 

White Hill Corner to Cadaford Bridge 104 

Route 55. Brent and Ivybridge to Plympton 100 

56. Brent to Shaugh 100 

,, 57. Ivybridge to Shaugh 101 

58. Brent to Princetown 101 

,, 59. Ivybridge to Princetown 103 

(Another Route, via Cadaford Bridge, is shown in Part V., p. 19, 
vide supra, pp. 98. 101, 104). 

Route 60. Brent to Tavistock 104 

,, 61. Ivybridge to Tavistock 104 

62. Brent and Ivybridge to Lydford 104 

,, 63. ,, ,, ,, Okehampton 104 

,, 64. ,, ,, Chagford and Moreton . . 105 

65. ,, ,, Bovey Tracey 108 

,, 66. ,, ,, Ashburton 108 

Routes to Cranmere from Southern Dartmoor loS 



DARTMOOR GUIDE. 



MAPS. 

Sketch Map of the Moor facing page I 

Surroundings of Cranmere 106 

ONE INCH MAPS. 

12. Ashburton District 4 

13. Ashburton and Hex-worthy Districts 12 

14. Brent and Ivybridge District 36 

15- .- .. 46 

t6. 86 



The numbers of the Routes and Excursions as given in the first 
edition of the Guide are retained throughout. T. signifies Track ; 
Ex. or S. Ex., Excursion or Shorter Excursion ; R., Route ; and C. R., 
Cranmere Route. The entire length of each Excursion it given ; 
Route distances are given one way only. 



i. DARTMOOR GUIDE. 



SIDMOUTH (Devon) 

The 



Fortfield Hotel. 

Greatly Enlarged. New Wings. 
Electric Light Throughout. Lifts to all Floors. 



E of the most comfortable Hotels on 
the South Coast. Unequalled posi- 
tion. Situated in its own charming 
Grounds. Full South and facing sea; 
having two full-sized Croquet Lawns. 
Handsomely furnished by Maple & Co. 
Complete with every luxury and con- 
venience. Near to Brine Baths and 
convenient to Golf Links. Sanitary 
arrangements perfect. Large and com- 
modious bedrooms. Handsome private 
Suites of Apartments, either on ground 
floor, first or second floors, with Bath- 
rooms and Lavatories. Corridors carefully 
heated. Spacious Public Rooms. 
Billiards. High-class Cuisine. Selected 
Wines. Moderate and inclusive terms. 



Telephone -r -/r i- n 

NO. 39 A anfr on application to Proprietor. 



GUIDE TO DARTMOOR. 

IN FIVE PARTS. 



Part I. PRINCETOWN, Two BRIDGES, HEXWORTHY, AND POST BRIDGE 
DISTRICTS. 

Deals with the whole of the central part of the Moor, and 
contains notices of Crazy Well Pool, Siward's Cross, Childe's Tomb, 
the Merivale Antiquities, Mis Tor, Wistman's Wood, Dartmeet, etc. 

Excursions i to 6 ; 41 to 46. Shorter Exs. i to 14. Routes 
i to 8. Cranmere Routes i, 2, 15, 16, 17. 

Part II. TAVISTOCK, LYDFORD, OKEHAMPTON, AND STICKI,KPATH 
DISTRICTS. 

Describes Northern Dartmoor, extending from Sampford 
Spiney on the West to Throwleigh on the East : Notices Brent 
Tor, Lydford Gorge, Hill Bridge, Tavy Cleave, Fur Tor, the 
Island of Rocks, Yes Tor, the Belstone Range, Cosdon, etc. 

Excursions 7 to 18. S. Exs. 15 to 47. Routes 9 to 30. 
C.R. 3 to ii. 

Part III. CHAGFORD, MORETON, IAJSTI.EIGH, AND BOVEY TRACEY 
DISTRICTS. 

A Description of Eastern Dartmoor : This part contains a 
notice of Cranmere Pool, and among other places and objects 
included in the Excursions are the Scorhill and Kes Tor Antiquities, 
Teign Head, Fernworthy, Grim's Pound, Drewsteignton Dolmen, 
Fingle Bridge, Lustleigh Cleave, Hey Tor, etc. 

Excursions 19 to 25. S. Exs. 48 to 87. Routes 31 to 46. 
C. R. 12, 13, 14. 



xiv. DARTMOOR GUIDE. 

Part IV. ASHBURTON, BRENT, IVYBRIDGE, AND CORNWOOD 
DISTRICTS. 

The whole of Southern Dartmoor, so rich in antiquities and 
charming border scenery, is described in this part. Among other 
places noticed are Rippon Tor, Widecombe-in-the-Moor, the 
Buckland Woods, Holne Chase, Brent Moor, Shipley, the Valley 
of the Erme, Stowford Cleave, Hawns and Dendles, etc. 

Excursions 26 to 34. S. Exs. 88 to 121. Routes 47 to 66. 
Prom the southern part of the moor the starting points of the 
Cranmere Routes are Princetown, Two Bridges, and Post Bridge, 
C.R. i, 2, 1 6, 17. These are given in Part I. 

Part V. PI.YMPTON, SHAUGH, YELVERTON, AND DOTJSI,AND 
DISTRICTS. 

Describes Western Dartmoor from Cornwood to the Walkham : 
Shaugh Bridge, the Dewer Stone, the Plym Valley, Heavy, Sheeps 
Tor, and the Burrator Lake. This part also contains a brief 
description of the old pack-horse tracks on the Moor, to which 
reference is frequently made in the book, as well as a Dictionary 
of Terms used in connection with the Forest and Commons. 

Excursions 35 to 40. Routes 67 to 76. For Cranmere Routes 
see Princetown, Two Bridges, and Post Bridge, C.R. 1,2, 16, 17, in 
Parti. 



Each Part contains directions for reaching Cranmere Pool from 
the Districts described in it. 



DARTMOOR GUIDE. 



Where reference is made to other of the Author's 
books the titles are thus abbreviated. 

'A Hundred Years on Dartmoor" . . . . . . 100 Years. 

' Gems in a Granite Setting " .. .. .. Gems. 

' The Ancient Stone Crosses of Dartmoor and Its 

Borderland" .. .. .. .. .. Crosses. 

' Amid Devonia's Alps " .. .. .. .. Dev. Alps. 

' Tales of the Dartmoor Pixies" Pixies 



SKETCH MAP 



OKEM/^riPToN 




<s/e<>vr 



/V.YMfTO/V 
PLYMOUTH 



/VY^ 
"&&70GE 



OF DAPTMOOR 



GUIDE TO DARTMOOR. 



ASHBURTON DISTRICT. 

DISTANCES. BY ROAD : A USEWELL CROSS, 2 m. 
BECKY FALL, via Rewlea Cross, Halshanger Cross, and I,ud Gate, 
84- m. BICKINGTON, 3^ m. BOVEY TRACEY, 7$ m. BRENT, 
see South Brent. BUCKFASTLEIGH, 3 m. BUCKLAND-IN- 
THE-MOOR, 3| m. CHAGFORD, via Welstor Cross, Swine Down 
Gate, and Beetor Cross, I2f m. COCKINGFORD MILL, via Buck- 
land, 5 m. COLD EAST CROSS, via Welstor Cross, 3^ m. ; via 
Halshanger Cross, 3f m. CROSS FURZES, via Buckfastleigh, 6 m. 
DARTMEET, 8 m. DEAN, 4 m. DEAN BURN (Gate near Warn 
Bridge), 4^ m. DEAN PRIOR, 4f m. EXETER, 19 m. GREN- 
DON BRIDGE, via Cockingford and Bittleford Down, 8| m. GRIM'S 
POUND, via do., io m. HALSHANGER CROSS. 2\ m. HEM- 
BURY CASTLE, via Gallant le Bower, or via Dart Bridge, 4^- m. 
HEMSWORTHY GATE, via Welstor Cross, 4f m. HEXWORTHY, 
via Dartmeet, 9^ m. ; via Holne Moor Gate, 8-i- m. HEY TOR : The 
road runs within \ m. of the tor, and this point is the same distance 
from Ashburton, viz., 6J m., whether it is approached by way of 
Halshanger Cross and Lud Gate, or by Welstor Cross and Hemsworthy 
Gate. HOLNE BRIDGE, 2 m. HOLNE CHASE LODGE, 2\ m. 
HOLNE MOOR GATE, 5 m. (Reservoir m. further). HOLNE 
VILLAGE, 4^ m. ILSINGTON, via Halshanger Cross and Bag Tor 
Mill, 5 1 m. ; via Owlacombe Cross and Sigford, 5 m. IVYBRIDGE, 
13 m. LEUSDON, via Pound's Gate, 5f m. LID GATE (for Buck- 
fastleigh Moor), 7 m. LUD GATE, via Rewlea Cross, Halshanger 
Cross, Bag Tor Mill and Pinchaford, 5f m. LYDFORD, via Two 
Bridges, 27 m. MANATON, 9% m. MORETON, via Welstor Cross, 
Swine Down Gate, Langstone, and North Bovey, ii-| m. NEW 
BRIDGE, 3| m. NEWTON ABBOT, 8 m. OKEHAMPTON, via 
Dartmeet, Two Bridges, and Moor Shop, 35 m. ; via Chagford, 23 m. 
PLYMOUTH, via Ivybridge, 23^ m. PLYMPTON, via Ivybridge, 
194. m. POST BRIDGE, via Grendon, n| m. POUND'S GATE, 
via New Bridge, 4f m. PRINCETOWN, via Dartmeet, 14^ m. ; via 
Holne Moor, 16 m. SCORRITON, via Holne, 5 m. ; via Buckfastleigh, 
6 m. SOUTH BRENT, 8J- m. SWINE DOWN GATE, 7 m. 
TA VI STOCK, via Dartmeet and Two Bridges, 21 m. TOTNES, 8 m. 
TWO BRIDGES, via Dartmeet, 13 m. ; via Holne Moor, 14^ m. 
WELSTOR CROSS, 2 m. WIDECOMBE, via Buckland and Cocking- 
ford, 6f m. YELVERTON, via Princetown, 2<> m. ; via Cornwood, 
24 m. 

BY RAIL : ASHBURTON is the terminus of a branch line running 
from the main line of the G.W.R. at TOTNES, g% m. The inter- 
mediate stations are BUCKFASTLEIGH, 2\ m. from ASHBURTON, 
and STA VERTON, si m. NEWTON ABBOT, via TOTNES, i8J m. 
BRENT, do., i6 m., q.v. for stations W. 



ASHBURTON DISTRICT. 



Important Points and Landmarks. 

Cold East Cross Hemsworthy Gate Holne New Bridge Pound's 
Gate Welstor Cross Widecombe (Part III.) Places of Interest. The 
Coffin Stone (Part I.) Buckland Beacon Buckland Woods Dartmeet 
Gorge of the Dart Hembury Castle Holne Chase Leusdon 
Liswell Meet The Nutcracker (logan on Rippon Tor). Prehistoric 
Antiquities. Money Pit (Part I.): kistvaen near Yar Tor Saddle 
Bridge: old enclosuresSharp Tor Circles (Part I.) Torhill : huts 
and reaves Tunhill: kistvaen Yar Tor Hill: huts. 

As one of the four Stannary towns Ashburton had a connection 
with Dartmoor during several centuries. It was early the seat of the 
woollen industry, which is said to have been introduced into the town 
by the monks of Buckfast, which house was founded prior to the 
Conquest. Bishop Stapledon, who built the Chapel of St. Laurence, in 
1314, obtained for the town a charter for a market and two fairs. Being 
a royal manor the inhabitants were granted freedom from toll in all 
markets, by Henry IV. The church is said to replace a structure 
erected by Ethelward, son of William de Pomeroy, in 1 137. The town 
does not appear to have witnessed any very stirring events during the 
Civil War, but Fairfax arrived there with his army in 1646, on the day 
following the battle on Bovey Heathfield, the general staying the night 
at the Mermaid Inn. During the time prisoners of war were confined 
on Dartmoor, between 1809 and 1815, Ashburton was one of the towns 
round the moor in which officers on parole were permitted to reside. In 
the churchyard is a stone to the memory of one of these, a young 
frenchman. It is near the door of the tower, on a little knoll, which is 
Jknown as the Strangers' Hill. The inscription on it runs thus : 

ICI 

repose Fra^ois Guidon, 

natif de Cambrai en France, 

Sous Lieutenant au 46me. Regt. 

de Ligne. Decede le 18 /bre, 

1815, Age de 22 ans. 

Requiescat in pace. 

Two Devonians who became famous were natives of this town ; 
John Dunning, first Lord Ashburton, and William Gifford, founder and 
editor of the Quarterly Review. Another who belonged to the town 
was W. Mann, the author of Rural Employments in Spring, a poem 
published in 1825. 

The pleasing situation of Ashburton, which is surrounded by hills, 
renders it a favourite place of sojourn with the visitor. The main 
road from Exeter to Plymouth runs through it, and forms the 
thoroughfares called East Street and West Street, in the latter of which 
the church is situated. These streets are crossed at their junction by 
another thoroughfare, the southern part of which is called St. Laurence 
Lane, and leads to the railway station ; the other part is North Street. 
The moor is approached by way of the last-named. 



EXCURSION 26. RUSHLADE COMMON. 



Excursions from Ashburton. 

The area over which these excursions extend is bounded on the 
N. by a line drawn from Bag Tor Wood to Hemsworthy Gate, and 
thence to Blackslade and Dunstone, being that which forms the 
southern boundary of the Bovey District ; on the W. by the road 
running from Dunstone through Ponsworthy to Sherberton Common, 
thence to the Gorge of the Dart below Mil Tor, and down that river 
to New Bridge. The rambles also include Holne Chase and the Buck- 
land Woods, as well as Holne village, Hembury, and Buckfastleigh. 

[Tracks 49, 51, 52. See the Section in Part V.] 

Ex. 26. Valley of the Yeo, Rushlade Common, Halshanger Com- 
mon, The Nutcracker, Rippon Tor, Newhouse, Foale's Arrishes, Whita- 
burrow, Pudsham Down, Ruddycleave Water, Buckland Beacon, g\ m. 

Leaving Ashburton by way of North Street we soon reach Great 
Bridge, at the end of the town where the road to Buckland and Holne 
turns L. over the Yeo. We do not cross that stream here, but at 
Barnsey Bridge, a little further on, our course being northerly. Very 
soon we reach Pitt Farm, where our road bends R. to Rew Cross. 
We take the L. branch, and in less than J m. reach Rewlea Cross, 
where we keep straight on to Lurgecombe Mill, and again meet the 
Yeo. Our road now runs up a narrow valley, with very steep tree- 
covered sides, Boro Wood being on the L. and Whiddon Scrubbs on 
the R. Half-a-mile from the mill we cross Waterleat Bridge, and leaving 
the Yeo pass up the hill to Rushlade. We turn R. at the farm 
buildings into the road that runs on by Halshanger, but shall only 
follow it for about 150 yards. We then turn L. into an approach 
to the moor called Green Lanes, a kind of narrow stroll running 
between the enclosures and leading to Rushlade Common. On reach- 
ing the latter we strike the road coming up from Halshanger Cross R. 
(S. Ex. 88), and which is carried along the verge of the down close to 
the plantation known as The Belt, with the enclosures of Welstor L. 
This will lead us to Water Rushes, where the Yeo comes down from 
Halshanger Common. The road runs on to Cold East Cross (R. 42, 53), 
and thence by Pudsham Down and Dunstone Down to Blackaton 
and the forest (S. Ex. 86, 85), but we leave it on crossing the stream, 
and enter the gate R. Just within this is a mire, which, however, 
we shall avoid by striking northward. (The Summer House, 
described in S. Ex. 89, is situated on the further side of the Yeo, due 
E. of the gate). Passing up the slope, and bearing a little to the L-, 
i.e., W. of N., we at length reach a dilapidated wall, through one of 
the many breaks in which we shall make our way, and keeping 



4 ASHBURTON DISTRICT. 

it on the R. continue the ascent of the hill. This wall runs upward towards 
Rippon Tor, and it will shortly bring us to an outlying pile on which 
is a curiously-poised stone that once moved with very slight pressure, 
but has now nearly lost its logging power. It is about i m. from 
Water Rushes, and stands in a corner formed by the wall we have 
followed and another coming up from near Newhouse L,., which place 
it overlooks. (This second wall, which is carried over the hill in a 
direction from N.W. to S.E., separates the two commons of Halshanger 
and Horridge, and also marks the boundary between the parishes 
of Ashburton and Ilsington). The logan is known as the Nutcracker, 
and seems to be the one mentioned by Polwhele as existing between 
Widecombe Church and Rippon Tor.* He says: "It is called the 
Nutcrackers, having been the resort of the common people during the 
nut season, for the purpose of cracking their nuts." That the author 
in question should have believed that the country people took the trouble 
to bring nuts to Rippon Tor in order to crack them is certainly sur- 
prising, but that he did not tell us the Druids did likewise is much more 
so. But he may have suspected that these ancient seers preferred 
to crack jokes, and that the only nuts they cared anything about were 
chestnuts. A hundred yards S.E. of the pile, but on the other side 
of the wall, is a low cairn. 

In the corner formed by the two walls we shall notice a gate, and 
passing through this shall make our way to Rippon Tor, which we see 
just above us. This fine height attains an elevation of 1,563 feet, 
and is a conspicuous object from numberless points on the moor^ 
while its frontier situation renders it equally so from the lowlands. 
The view from it is similar to that gained from Hey Tor, but is more 
extensive towards the S.W. (Ex. 25), where Brent Hill and the Eastern 
Beacon, instead of being partly hidden, fully reveal themselves. 
(Brent District). Westward, towards Princetown, a great stretch of 
forest is seen, with North Hisworthy rising against the sky (Prince- 
town District), and extending from it towards the north a long range of 
dusky moor. To the S. and S.W. a considerable tract of cultivated 
country is seen, embracing much of the South Hams ; the estuary of 
the Teign forms a striking feature eastward ; while woodlands and 
fields roll away further east and to the north, till the moor again 
fills up the scene. At the foot of the hill, to the N., the long Hound 
Tor Combe is seen to great advantage, with Lustleigh Cleave at its 
further end, and the tors that rise on either side of it (Ex. 23, 24, 25). 
We are too far off to discern the pixies on Holwell Lawn, even should 
the hour be propitious for their gathering there, as gossip used to 
say was sometimes their wont, but we may possibly see a buzzard 
circling round Hey Tor. The late Prebendary Wolfe, who had a 
residence at Leighon (Ex. 24), once observed as many as thirteen of 
these birds settling down upon the rcoks near the house, and knew 
of several instances of their nesting in this valley. He was also able 
to speak of ravens breeding there. The golden eagle, it is said, was 

* Polwhele's Historical Views of Devonshire, 1793. The mention 
of Widecombe Church might be thought to point to the Ruggle Stone 
(S. Ex. 87), but equally so the mention of Rippon Tor points to the 
rock in question. Moreover, the name given by Polwhele is that by 
which this logan has long been known. 



6 ASHBURTON DISTRICT. 

seen in this part of the moor by two ramblers when on their way from 
Rippon Tor to Hey Tor in May, 1891. 

Rippon Tor consists of a number of scattered piles of rocks, though 
none of them are striking. But the visitor will, nevertheless, be well 
rewarded for making the ascent, for besides the magnificent view the 
spot is full of interest. Here the dwellers in the huts that stud the 
slopes in the vicinity of the hill brought their honoured dead for burial 
(as they did to other elevated situations on the moor), and here in a 
later day, but one, perhaps, remote from us, the stone-hewer came to 
fashion the symbol of Christianity. Three cairns may be seen here, 
one of them, which is formed among the rocks on the summit, being 
90 yards in circumference, and quite near to it, and almost covered 
with turf, is a kistvaen. A large reave runs from this cairn down the 
hill in a north-westerly direction towards Hemsworthy Gate, 270 feet 
below, and rather less than 4- m. away, and from thence is continued 
for some distance over the common. About 30 yards N.N.W. of the 
summit of the tor is one of the most curious of the stone crosses of 
Dartmoor. It is cut in relief on a block of granite only slightly raised 
above the ground, and it has been suggested that this was done in the 
belief that the holy symbol would free the spot from any heathen 
superstitions that may have attached to it. However this may be, 
it seems hardly probable that this cross was ever intended to be set 
up, seeing that it would have been an easier task to fashion one for such 
a purpose from a smaller and more shapely block. The length of this 
cross is 6 feet 8 inches. [Crosses, Chap. XVI.] Under the cairn, and 
about 30 yards from the cross, is an unfinished mill-stone, and another 
may be seen close to an overhanging rock on the great reave. The 
former is 4 feet in diameter, and the latter 5 feet. (cf. S. Ex. 56, 105 ; 
Ex. 29). 

Bidding adieu to this elevated spot, we descend the hill westward 
with the wall I,., and at the bottom shall reach a gate opening on the 
Ashburton and Chagford road (R. 53). On passing through it we 
shall notice by the side of the way a flat rock which forms a bond- 
mark of Ashburton parish. On its surface is the letter A with the date 
1793, the characters being rather large and deeply cut. Here we are 
close to the scanty remains of Newhouse. These consist only of a few 
low walls marking the site of a dwelling, and some enclosures near it 
with a dozen weather-beaten thorn bushes. Newhouse was formerly 
an inn, but did not suffer extinction, as will readily be imagined, in 
consequence of being kept open during prohibited hours ; it was burnt 
down. In the days when the woollen manufacture at Chagford was 
in a nourishing state wagons from the factory there often passed 
this way, while much lime was also formerly carried over the road 
from Ashburton to the neighbourhood of the former town. In the 
morning the farmers' men who came to fetch this would drive at a 
rapid pace over the down in order to reach the kilns as early in the day 
as possible, and thus avoid being kept waiting for their load. Then 
they would get on their way and waste at Newhouse the time they 
had saved by being early at Ashburton. It was quite a common 
thing, at certain times, to see a large number of carts drawn up in the 
road near this solitary hostelry while their drivers quenched their thirst 
within. 

The Ashburton boundary line crosses the road, and runs north- 



EXCURSION 26. FO ALE'S ARRISHES. 7 

westward from the flat rock to another mark about 1 50 yards distant, 
an upright stone called Grey Goose Nest, and one of a line running 
about S.W. and N.E. To this we now make our way, and on arriving 
find ourselves at the northernmost point of Ashburton, with Ilsington 
on our R. and Widecombe in front of us, the stone marking the meeting- 
place of the three parishes. Crossing the line (which runs S.W. to 
Blackslade Ford less than m. distant, and N.E. to Stittleford's 
Cross, m. away, and close to Hemsworthy Gate, S. Ex. 82, 90) we 
enter upon Blackslade Down, and leaving Blackslade Mire L., shall 
follow an old reave running up the slope N.W., and be led directly to 
the enclosures known as Foale's Arrishes. These have been already 
briefly noticed in S. Ex. 87. They are formed by a number of small 
reaves, much overgrown, which intersect each other at right angles, 
and in the spaces thus formed there are a few hut circles. These also 
occur on the outside of the low walls. It was at Foale's Arrishes that 
a certain villager once decided to settle, and though his neighbours 
tried to persuade him to remain where he was, set out one day with the 
avowed intention of erecting a shelter on the spot, and passing the 
remainder of his days there. But like Cyrus, who, as Persian legends 
say, having gone into retirement, suddenly disappeared, the labourer 
was never seen again. Whether he was spirited away by the pixies, 
or fell a prey to the Evil One, who is said to take an airing occasionally 
on Tor Hill, on the slope of which the Arrishes are situated, nobody 
could say ; all that was certain was that the neighbourhood knew him 
no more. 

About m. S.W. of these enclosures is the ancient grave near 
Blackslade, sometimes referred to as the Tunhill kistvaen. This is 
noticed in S. Ex. 87, as also are the tors in this part of the moor. We 
make our way to the kist, our line being very nearly the same as that 
described in R. 42 B, and on reaching it find ourselves on the old 
Tunhill Road (T. 51). 

[This road runs down the stroll W. and forks ; the R. branch 
going to Tunhill, the L. to Blackslade. From the latter a road runs 
to Chittleford and on to Dunstone. Vide R. 42 B.] 

From the kist we may either cross the road and strike southward 
to the fine cairn known as Whittaburrow, and then turn R. to a track 
running by the side of the enclosures, and so reach Pudsham Down, 
or we may follow the Tunhill road S.E. as far as Blackslade Ford, and then 
take the Blackslade Water for our guide. In either case Ruddycleave 
Bridge will be our next point. The former route will lead us by the 
track N. of Wittaburrow southward to the road that comes up R. 
from Chittleford and Widecombe, past the entrance to Scobitor 
(Scobitor Rocks are within an enclosure near the house). This we 
follow across Pudsham Down to a guide-post, where we join the road 
coming R. from Stone Cross and Cockingford (R. 5 A). Turning ~L,. 
we descend the hill with the enclosures of Ruddycleave R. to the bridge. 

If we follow the Tunhill road we reach Blackslade Ford in about 
m., close to which, on the R., is a small cairn. On the L. one of the 
walls belonging to the old enclosures of Newhouse comes down the 
hill. Just below the ford is a tiny rivulet on the R. called William's 
Well, and from this point the wall of the enclosure R. forms both the 
boundary of Blackslade Manor and of Widecombe parish. A few trees 
will be noticed at Burrow Corner, where the wall turns up westward. 



8 ASHBURTON DISTRICT. 

Choosing a path on the L. bank of the Ruddycleave (the Blackslade 
Water mentioned above is merely that part of the same stream nearer 
its source) we shall now follow it downward, and at the distance of ^ m. 
from the ford shall reach the bridge, which is of clapper construction. 

[The Tunhill road runs from the ford up the side of the common 
sometimes called Yarder,* in a south-easterly direction to the Chag- 
ford and Ashburton highway, which it strikes about \ m. S. of New- 
house (T. 51). If the rambler decides to return that way he will, on 
reaching the road, turn R., and passing over Dry Bridge, soon arrive 
at Cold East Cross. The latter point he may also gain from Ruddy- 
cleave Bridge by following the road up the hill E.S.E. for about \ m. 
A few hut circles will be seen close to the road soon after leaving the 
bridge. From Cold East Cross the return to Ashburton may be 
made by way of Green Lanes or Welstor Cross (R. 32). The former, 
which is the more direct, will be the reverse of the route by which we 
reached the commons. Take the I,, branch and follow the road, with 
the wall L. to The Belt (ante), and near the end of this strike R. through 
the stroll to Rushlade. Thence down the valley S., as in S. Ex. 81, 
reaching the Yeo at Waterleat Bridge. This stream will then become 
the rambler's companion to Lurgecombe Mill, whence he will continue 
S. past Rewlea Cross to the town. 

For Welstor Cross take the road R. at Cold East Cross, and follow 
it S., passing along the eastern verge of Buckland Common, with the 
enclosed land and Higher Plantation L. At Welstor Cross, where 
is a guide-post, bend L. and descend the hill to Rewdown Cross, 
marked also with a guide-post. Keep straight on to Rewlea Cross, 
and then turn R. to the town, or the corner may be cut by taking the 
footpath across the fields R. a few score yards beyond Rewdown 
Cross, and which reaches the road at Pitt Farm and Tucking Mill. 
Another way, from Welstor Cross, the distance being about the same, 
is by striking R. at that point to Ausewell Cross, which is close by, 
and then turning L., as the guide-post will show. The way runs 
down the hill past Druid (L) to Water Turn, where the road L. must 
be taken. Keep onward S.E. (there are guide-posts here) to Head- 
borough, m. beyond which is Great Bridge, on the outskirts of the 
town.] 

From Ruddycleave Bridge we shall strike southward over the 
common, gradually leaving the stream, which runs down the valley R., 
and make our way to Buckland Beacon, i m. from the bridge. This 
is noticed in S. Ex. 92, to which the visitor is referred. After having 
looked upon the fine view commanded from this rock, we strike east- 
ward to a gate in the wall, and crossing Welstor Common to another 
gate, reach the road and turn R. to Welstor Cross. The route to the 
town from this point has been described above. 

* So named from the remark of a visitor at Newhouse, who, on 
being shown the largest of the enclosures, observed that the individual 
who formed it had not been particular to a yard or two, but had helped 
himself freely to the common land, and wondered he had not taken in 
the piece of common in question. 



EXCURSION 27. BUCKLAND-IN-THE-MOOR. 



Ex. 27. Buckland-in-the-Moor, Cockingford, Bittleford, Pons- 
worthy, Leusdon, Lizwell Meet, Spitchwick, Pound's Gate, Leigh Tor, 
New Bridge, 13^ m. 

(The commons above Pound's Gate, described in Ex. 28, may also 
be included in this excursion by turning R. at the Upper Plantation 
after leaving Leusdon and passing through Uppacott to Bel Tor, or 
by striking into Dr. Blackall's Drive above Leigh Tor). 

We shall first make our way by North Street to Great Bridge, as 
in the preceding excursion, where we turn L. to Headborough. A 
little beyond this is Holne Turn (guide-post), where the Tavistock 
road runs L., one branch of it passing through Holne and Hexworthy, 
the other crossing New Bridge and going through Pound's Gate and 
Dartmeet. We continue straight on to Water Turn, where is another 
guide-post, and just before reaching it shall notice the road running 
R. to Druid. Keeping R. we pass up the hill between Highgrove and 
Higher Ausewell, the latter being on the L., and skirting the Druid 
Plantations R., shall soon reach Ausewell Cross. [If preferred the 
rambler may make his way to this point by Rewdown Cross, as in S. 
Ex. 92.] 

The guide-post at Ausewell Cross will show the visitor that he 
must continue straight on for Buckland that is, about N.W. The 
road here runs downhill, Ausewell Wood being on the L., and some 
enclosures bordering Welstor Common on the R. At the entrance to 
Ausewell Cottages L. the boundary line between the parishes of Ash- 
burton and Buckland crosses the road (S. Ex. 92), and on passing this 
we have Combe Wood L. and Buckland Common R. Rather over % m. 
further down is Southbrook, immediately below which the Ruddycleave 
Water (Ex. 26) issues from the moor between Birch Wood on its R. 
bank, and Bagley Wood on its L., and on reaching this we find 
ourselves in one of those delightful dells which make the Dartmoor 
borderland so beautiful. Crossing the stream, which comes white flashing 
from the green hollow above the bridge to lose itself amid the thick 
woods below, we pass up to the little village, if such a tiny place 
may be so described, of Buckland-in-the-Moor. 

This ancient border settlement occupies a pleasing situation on 
the higher part of a tongue of land peninsulated by the Webburn, the 
Dart, and the Ruddycleave Water, the steep hillsides to the E., W., 
and S. of it being clothed with woods, while a number of moor farms 
cover the rising ground to the N., extending in that direction to 
Pudsham Down. There is no doubt that it deserved its adjunct in 
early times, but much land has been won from the waste, and many 
bare slopes have been covered with trees, since it was first named, so 
that it can now hardly be said to be in the moor. The manor formerly 
belonged to Roger de Bockland, a man of great worth and wealth, one 
of whose successors, William de Bockland, was Sheriff of Devon, and also 
of Cornwall, during the first five years of the reign of Richard I. It 



io ASHBURTON DISTRICT. 

was given to Tor Abbey in the thirteenth century, afterwards coming! 1 ''^ 
to the Brcedeknes.* In the sixteenth century it was in the possession ()j*" 
of the Woodleys, one of whom, Ralph Woodley, died in 1593, and is r^ 
commemorated by a black marble tablet in the church, and later ^ 
became the property of the Bastards, to which family it now belongs. 

Raffe Carsleghe, of this parish, who died in 1547, left his body to 
" holy buriall within the churchyard of St. Peter, of Bucland-in-the 
More," and bequeathed " one yeo sheep " to the " head store within 
the said church," and another to " the store of Our Lady." It was by 
the discovery (by Mr. Charles Worthy, in 1888) of the contemporary 
copy of Carsleghe's will at the District Probate Registry, that the 
dedication of Buckland Church was ascertained, this being unknown 
previous to that year. It is a daughter church to Ashburton, and is a 
small structure with the low tower so characteristic of the moorland 
border churches, and has a stair turret on its southern face. The 
screen is elaborately carved and illuminated, and is said to have been 
brought from Buckfastleigh Church. The circular font is Norman, 
and exhibits the ziz-zag ornament and cable moulding, f Ruddycleave 
Farm, about i m. distant (Ex. 26), has pertained to the church from 
a very early period, the rental being devoted to its repair and the 
payment of the clerk and sexton. Outside the churchyard gate is the 
octagonal base of a cross, from the centre of which a sycamore is now 
growing, and on the wall close to the gate are the mutilated remains 
of the object which probably once surmounted it. Another cross may 
be seen built into the wall at Buckland Court opposite, between the 
higher gate and the entrance doors. [Crosses, Chap. XVI.] The 
ancient church, shaded by a grove of fine trees, the picturesque cot- 
tages, the sylvan surroundings, and the glimpses of distant hillsides 
where fields climb up to meet the moor, form a delightful picture, to 
which the tranquillity resting over all lends a further charm. 

[The road to Buckland Bridge and New Bridge is noticed in S. 
Ex. 92.] 

Turning into the Widecombe road with the church L., we take the 
L. branch at the fork close by and make our way to Higher Pudsham, 
with Great Lot Wood in the valley of the Webburn below us. From 
Higher Pudsham we pass on to Stone Cross, i m. from Buckland, 
and turn L. down the hill to Cockingford. (R. 42 A). The name of 
this place, which consists only of a farm and a mill and a smithy, is 
suggestive of the old-time punishment of the ducking-stool, and it is 
indeed not improbable that here viragos and scolding wives were once 
brought unpleasantly acquainted with the curative properties of the 
waters of the Webburn. Crossing Cockingford Bridge we pass up the 
hill to the road coming R. from Widecombe (R. 42 A), where is a guide- 
post. Turning L. we soon reach another guide-post, where we keep 
straight on and speedily arrive at Bittleford. Here two or three 

* In the early part of the fourteenth century, the forest having re- 
verted to the crown in the person of Edward II.' Thomas le Ercedekne 
was appointed Constable of Lydford Castle and Custos of Dartmoor. 

t The church was pulled to pieces in 1907 in order to be " restored," 
when the screen was removed to Ermington for renovation. 



EXCURSION 27. PONSWORTHY. LEUSDON. n 

cottages will be seen on the L. ; the farm being on the R. The house 
seems to have been rebuilt in 1706, which date may be seen on the 
porch. A short lane leads from it to Bittleford Down (S. Ex. 86), 
and here was probably the gate named in the Court Rolls of the time 
of Elizabeth, where an entry of the 4th May, 1587, has reference to 
the ruined state of Bittleford Yeat. 

Resuming our walk we soon cross the road coming R. from Jordan 
(S. Ex. 86), and running L. to Lizwell, and descend the hill to Pons- 
worthy, where we cross the West Webburn. The bridge which we 
may well imagine gave name to this little place was, in all probability, 
a clapper ; the present one is a small structure of one arch, and 
apparently can boast some antiquity, a stone at the eastern end of the 
northern parapet bearing the date 1666. The hamlet, consisting of a 
few farmhouses and cottages and a smithy, occupies a secluded 
situation in a narrow valley, but though so near to the moor betrays 
few signs of it. It is placed in the midst of very fine scenery, and a 
short walk in any direction will bring the visitor to some interesting 
point. Lizwell Meet, where the two Webburns unite their waters, one 
of the beauty spots of the Dartmoor borderland, is about i m. distant, 
and may be reached by a path branching from the road near the E. 
end of the bridge and running through Cleave Wood along the L. bank 
of the stream, or it may also be approached from Leusdon. [Gems, 
Chap. XIII.] In another direction the high land of Corn Down, 
which commands extensive views of the forest, may soon be gained. 
The road to it runs up westward by the smithy to Lock's Gate Cross 
(R. 42 A), where it enters upon Sherberton Common, above which the 
down is situated. This part of the moor is noticed in our excursions 
from Hexworthy (Ex. 41). 

Leaving this retired hamlet by the S. road we pass up by Sweaton 
Farm to Leusdon Common, and just beyond Sweaton Plantation take 
the L. fork at the branch. This will speedily bring us to the church of 
St. John the Baptist, built in 1863 by the late Mrs. Larpent, which 
serves the needs of the inhabitants of this part of the extensive parish 
of Widecombe. [100 Years, Chap. IV.] It takes the place of the 
Chapel of St. Leonard, which formerly existed at Spitchwick, near by. 
A cross is erected to the memory of the generous donor. The pulpit 
was placed in the church by Mrs. Stone in commemoration of her 
husband, Mr. John Stone, of Leusdon Lodge, who died in 1899. He 
took considerable interest in the welfare of the parish, and was a great 
lover of the moor. Passing onward with Leusdon Lodge R. we bear 
l). to Blackaton Down, which we reach immediately above the tor of 
the same name. The outlying pile below the enclosures L- is usually 
known as Logwell Rock. 

[The turning R., close to Leusdon Lodge, leads to Lower Town 
Farm, where an old cross that formerly stood on the common near 
Ouldsbroom (Ex. 41), now serves as a gate-post. Crosses, Chap. XVI.] 

From Blackadon Tor we look down upon the woods that conceal 
Lizwell Meet, which is only about 300 yards from the main pile, and 
upon the narrow valley of the East Webburn, through which the stream 
comes down from Cockingford. It flows between Lizwell Wood, W., 
and Great Lot Wood, E., and is spanned by a footbridge under Lizwell 
Farm. 

Returning from the down we again pass the church, and then 



12 ASHBURTON DISTRICT. 

bend L. to Leusdon Common, from which the view is exceedingly fine. 
We look across the Webburn valley upon the little church of Buckland, 
which is seen rising amid the trees that thickly clothe the sides of the 
hills, and beyond it to the Beacon lifting itself above them. More 
to the R. is the gorge which marks where the Dart pursues his devious 
course round the romantic Holne Chase, his waters being hidden by the 
dense woods. Half-a-mile further on, at the end of what is called the 
Upper Plantation, we reach the road coming down from Sherberton 
Common R. (R. 6 A), where we turn L., and a few score yards further 
on shall come upon the entrance to Spitchwick. In the Seventeenth 
century this manor belonged to the Bourchiers, Earls of Bath, and in the 
earlier part of the eighteenth century was in the possession of the Rev. 
John Wotton. Subsequently it became the property of Dr. Blackall, 
and was bought by its present holder, Mr. F. P. T. Struben, in 1901. 
Our road to Ashburton has already been sketched in R. 6 A. 
Just below the lodge it makes a bend, and here on the R. is a small 
oblong pound. Near to it is the entrance to Lake Farm, the date on 
which is 1 66 1, a very good example of an ancient moorland homestall. 
A little further on we reach the hamlet of Pound's Gate, where is a post 
office, and a wayside house of entertainment called the Tavistock Inn, 
from its situation on the road from Ashburton to that town (Ex. 28). 
Less than \ m. beyond this we enter again upon the commons at New- 
bridge Hill, with the rocky ridge of Leigh Tor, or, as it is sometimes 
called, Long Tor, on the L. The road branching R. at the corner of 
the enclosures was made by the late Dr. Blackall, and is usually known 
as Dr. Blackall's Drive (Ex. 28, S. Ex. 95). The view from Leigh 
Tor, or indeed from any point on this part of the down, is very fine, 
and embraces the greater part of Holne Chase and the Buckland Woods. 
One of the piles of the tor has had the fanciful name of the Batch 
Loaves bestowed upon it, and another is called the Ravens' Rock. 

[If it should be desired to return to Ashburton by way of Buckland 
the rambler will make his way down by the side of the tor to the road 
below it, and then turning L. will follow the directions given in the 
Holne Chase Section and in S. Ex. 93. This will increase the distance 
by i m.] 

Turning into a green path L-, which crosses the road here and again 
part way down the hill, we shall follow it to the foot of the steep descent, 
where we turn R., and skirting New Bridge Marsh, shall soon reach 
the .structure of that name on the Dart (Ex. 28 and Holne Chase Section). 
Crossing this and passing the Holne Chase Lodge L. we ascend the hill, 
with Kinghurst Down Wood R., and having reached the summit, 
507 feet, almost immediately commence the descent to Holne Bridge, 
about 300 feet below, and i m. distant. When this is reached we cross 
the Dart and follow the road to Holne Turn, i^ m. further on ; roads 
branch off at Horsehill and Hele Cross, but these points are marked 
with guide-posts. From the Turn we proceed as in Ex. 26. 



14 ASHBURTON DISTRICT. 



Ex. 28. Holne Bridge, Chase Hill, New Bridge, Pound's Gate, 
Sherberton Common, Bel Tor, Dr. Blackall's Drive, Mil Tor (Sharp Tor, 
Hexworthy District), Gorge of the Dart, 12 m. 

This excursion will take us over that part of the moor situated 
between Pound's Gate and the Dart below Mil Tor, at the southern 
end of Widecombe parish. We shall enter upon the commons at New 
Bridge, 3^ m. from the town, retracing our steps over the road described 
at the end of Ex. 27. 

[If preferred the rambler may make his way to the foot of New 
Bridge Hill by the Buckland road, as described in Ex. 27 and S. Ex. 92.] 

Our first points will be Great Bridge, Headborough, and Holne 
Turn, as in Ex. 27. We then branch L., and passing the turnings at 
Hele Cross and Horsehill (guide-posts), shall reach Holne Bridge, 
ij m. from the Turn. Hence we pass up Chase Hill, having North 
Park Wood, belonging to the Holne Park estate, L-, and the woods of 
Holne Chase R. Near the top of the hill, and again at its summit, 
a road branches L. (guide-posts), but these we pass and descend to New 
Bridge, a structure of three arches, and having pointed buttresses. 
In places it is covered with ivy, and like most of the bridges in the 
Dartmoor country, presents a picturesque appearance. Crossing this 
we have in front of us a wide level, on the side of the steep slope beyond 
which is New Bridge Hill Cottage. Hannaford, once the seat of 
Sir Robert Torrens, and now the property of Mr. Bolitho, is L. of this. 
Further L., on the other side of the Dart, is seen the hill on which the 
village of Holne is situated, with Holne Cot near the summit, and R. 
of it, and still higher, the Vicarage (S. Ex. 96). According to peasant 
tradition the level was formerly a favourite gathering- place of the pixies, 
and many stories concerning the little people were once related in the 
locality. [Pixies, Chap. II.] Turning R. we make our way along the 
edge of New Bridge Marsh L., and at the end of ib shall strike into the 
green path noticed in Ex. 27, which will lead us to the top of the hill 
above Leigh Tor, whence we follow the road to Pound's Gate. 

[If the rambler goes by way of Buckland he will turn R. shortly 
after passing the foot of Leigh Tor, and climbing the side of the com- 
mon with the rocks near him R. will soon reach the road, Ex. 27.] 

The Tavistock Inn at Pound's Gate figures in local legend. It 
was at this hostelry that the Evil One, in the form of a dark horseman, 
stopped for refreshment when on his way to Widecombe on the after- 
noon of the dreadful thunderstorm in 1638, and paid the hostess with 
money that afterwards turned into dried leaves. [See the section in 
the Bovey Tracey District on Hameldon and the Widecombe Valley, and 
Pixies, Chap. II.] 

Passing through the hamlet we shall notice the upping-stock, or 
mounting-block, near the post-office, and the pound on the L. of the 
way just beyond it, and which we have already mentioned (Ex. 27). 
Above this the road runs R. over the common to Leusdon and Pons- 
worthy (Ex. 27), but we shall keep straight up the hill, and passing 
the Wesleyan Chapel and Lower Uppacott, where is an approach L. 
to Lower Tor (post), shall soon reach a point where the road forks. 
The branch R. runs along the lower edge of Sherberton Common, and 
under Sherberton Farm to Lock's Gate Cross, but we continue to follow 



EXCURSION 28. BEL TOR. 15 

the Tavistock road I v ., which will speedily bring us also to Sherberton 
Common (Ex. 41). On this part of it, however, we shall find nothing 
to detain us. 

During o"ur progress from L,eusdon Common to the point we have 
now reached a grand view has gradually unfolded itself, though it has 
necessitated our turning to look back upon it. Its main features are 
the same as those we noticed on our way from Leusdon to Pound's 
Gate (Ex. 27), but it is much more extensive. The view of the tors 
on the commons eastward of the Widecombe valley is particularly fine, 
and a wider range of country westward is visible. 

The road we have hitherto followed forms part of R. 49 A. to 
which the reader is referred for a description of its continuation, as we 
now desert it. On the L., within a farm enclosure, is Bel Tor, which, 
although only a small pile, is sufficiently interesting to call for notice 
A gate in the wall will enable the rambler to reach it. On the surface 
of a logan, curiously poised and appearing as though it would topple 
over at any moment, is a rock basin measuring 38 inches by 32, with 
shelving sides, and to this a tradition attaches. It used to be said 
that good fortune would await anyone seeing the reflection of the 
rising sun in the water collected in it. As health is more to be valued 
than wealth, and as early rising is conducive to the former, there is 
perhaps more truth in this than might at first appear. Two other 
rocks forming part of the tor are very strangely shaped, and on a pile 



Combestone Tor. 



Sharp Tor. 




FROM BEI, TOR, LOOKING W. 

below them there are two other rock basins, one being 21 inches in 
diameter and 5 inches deep ; the other is smaller. In neither of these 
basins is there any appearance of the notch sometimes found on the 
edges of similar cavities. 

At Bel Tor Corner, 1,148 feet, quite near to the pile, a road runs 
southward. This is Dr. Blackall's Drive (Ex. 27, S. Ex. 95), and we 
shall follow it between the walls of the farm enclosures to the common 
from the steep side of which Mil Tor looks down upon the Dart. Here 
a track branches off on the L. to Lower Tor, another of the 
many good examples of moorland farms in this neighbourhood. The 
porch bears the date 1707. The view from the point we have now 
reached is exceedingly fine. Below us the Dart courses through a deep 



16 ASHBURTON DISTRICT. 

and narrow gorge, on the further side of which are the rocks of Bench 
Tor, 560 feet above the river, and beyond it the wide expanse of Holne 
Moor (Brent District), backed by the dusky slopes that hide the solitary 
parts of the south quarter of the forest. Near to us on' the R. is the 
bold pile of Sharp Tor, uplifting itself from the brow of the hill, and 
with its almost mountainous outline forming perhaps the most striking 
feature in the view. Below it is the winding gorge, and this we trace 
far downward to the L. This ravine is seen to great advantage from 
the road between Chase Gate and Holne village (S. Ex. 96), and is 
noticed in our excursions from Hexworthy. 

If proof were needed that the formation of rock basins is due to 
natural causes Mil Tor, or Mel Tor, as it is sometimes called, would 
supply it. The disintegration of the granite here in process strikes 
the visitor at once, and when he climbs to the uppermost rock and 
finds four of these basins on its surface he feels it is only what he might 
expect to see there. The largest is 32 inches by 20, and 6 inches deep, 
the next in size being 18 inches by 14, and 4 niches deep, and at the edge 
of each of them is a notch, or little channel, where the water has run 
off when falling ram has kept the basins full. The other two are smaller, 
and only one of them has a notch. Around them are a number of small 
hollows, the rock altogether being of a very friable nature. One large 
mass which has fallen from the tor is split in two parts. I first noticed 
this in 1878, when it had not long been on the ground. 

[Mil Tor Wood is below this fine pile. Some interesting remains 
east of the tor are noticed in the Hexworthy District, where also the 
gorge is more fully described. Sharp Tor, on the further side of the 
combe W., down which flows the little Simon's Lake, also falls within 
the limits of that district. Ex. 41. Part I.] 

Returning to Dr. Blackall's Drive we follow it S.E., with the 
farm enclosures on our L., passing on the way an ancient pound, the 
wall of which is in ruins. About m. from the tor is Brake Corner, 
where the road is carried round under Aish Tor, 922 feet, a small pile 
of no particular interest.* The visitor may now either follow the drive 
to the main road, which he will reach a short distance from Pound's 
Gate at the point noticed in Ex. 27, and make his way to New Bridge 
as there directed, which will shorten the excursion by about m. ; or 
he may leave the drive when it begins to bend to the L. and descend 
the steep side of the common nearly to the Dart, some 500 feet below. 
If he decide upon this he will strike about S., and noticing the enclosures 
of Hannaford will keep them close on the L. Some way down the walls 
form a sharp corner, below which, on the R., is a part of the river 
known as Hannaford Stickles. Still further down is Deadman's 
Corner, and passing close to this the visitor will bend L. and soon strike 
a track coming from Lower Hannaford, which he will follow to New 
Bridge, m. distant. 

Routes to the town from New Bridge are given in Ex. 27. New 
Bridge to Ashburton, 3^ m. ; New Bridge to Buckland village, 2 m. ; 
Buckland village to Ashburton, 3^ m. 

* Near by is Aish Farm, and another not far off is called Leigh 
Tor. But it is likely that in these instances the farms did not derive 
their names from the tors, but that the reverse was the case. 



COURSE OF THE DART. 17 



Holne Chase and the Buckland Woods. 

[Ashburton is the nearest point to Holne Chase and the Buckland 
Woods. The road leading to these is described in Ex. 28. Visitors 
from Newton Abbot, if by road, will reach the town via Half Way House ; 
if by rail via Totnes. If the visitor from Buckfastleigh desires to go 
direct to the Chase he will cross Dart Bridge, and when about i m. 
beyond it will turn into a road diverging from the highway on the L,. 
This must be followed for about i m., when, keeping I,., Holne Bridge 
will be reached (vide post). Brent and Ivybridge visitors may choose 
either of these ways. 

From Hexworthy the road over Holne Moor is followed, and on 
entering upon the enclosed lands the first turning L. must be taken. 
Leaving Holne village R. the road soon bears L. to the head of Holne 
Chase Hill (R. 6 B.) From this point the entrance to the chase at 
Holne Bridge is |- m. down the hill R., and to the lodge at New Bridge 
a little less than that L. 

From Dartmeet the route is by Ouldsbroom, Uppacott, and through 
Pound's Gate to the lodge at New Bridge. But the pedestrian will be 
well rewarded if he follows the river downward from Dartmeet Bridge. 
He will be led through the deep gorge, noticed ante, passing under the 
solitary Rowbrook Farm, in the vicinity of which is so much that is 
interesting (Ex. 28, and Part I. Ex. 41,) 

Widecombe visitors will take the road through Cockingford, turning 
R. at Stone Cross to Buckland- in- the-Moor and New Bridge, or make 
their way to the latter through Ponsworthy and Pound's Gate. For 
Holne Bridge the road through Venton to Ruddycleave Bridge and 
Cold East Cross must be followed ; there turn R. to Ausewell Cross 
(Ex. 27) ; thence L,. down the hill past Highgrove ; branch neither L. 
nor R. at Water Turn, but keep straight on to Hele Cross ; turn R. ; 
the road runs direct to the bridge. 

From Hey Tor the first point is Hemsworthy Gate ; turn L. to 
Cold East Cross and Ausewell Cross (vide supra). From Ilsington the 
road should be followed to Halshanger Cross, and then down the valley 
of the Yeo to Great Bridge, where turn R. to Holne Turn ; thence as 
in Ex. 28.] 

The course of the Dart through the gorge below Sharp Tor and Mil 
Tor, noticed in the preceding excursion, and also in the excursions 
from Hexworthy, is S. of S.E. At Wellsfoot Island, S. of the Hanna- 
ford enclosures, it turns towards the E., and about m. further on 
again turns, and runs northward under Cleave Wood to New Bridge, 
4- m. from the second bend. In this part of its course the river sweeps 
round the southern end of Widecombe parish, to which indeed it acts 
as a boundary from Walla Brook Foot below Babeny to its confluence 
with the Webburn. On passing under New Bridge it pursues a north- 
easterly course, afterwards turning on itself and flowing southward to 
Holne Bridge, the distance covered by its windings being 3^ m., although 
these bridges, as we have already seen, are only i| m. apart. The area 
enclosed within this great loop forms the wild tract of heather and 
wood known as Holne Chase, which has thus the Dart for its boundary 

cl 



18 THE MANOR OF HOLNE. 

on three sides and the road between the bridges on the fourth. Being 
thus partly surrounded by water the name has been thought to be a 
corruption of holm, an island, and that the parish of Holne, in which 
the chase is situated, was called after it, but early forms of the name 
do not seem to support this view. It sometimes appears as Hole, 
which is the local pronounciation to-day, though this is usually 
broadened into Hall.* The length of the chase from N. to S. is over 
a mile, its average breadth being about f m. Near its northern ex- 
tremity, where it is less than \ m. wide, is an ancient camp about 
550 yards in circumference. This is one of those to which we have 
elsewhere alluded (S. Ex. 64) as existing on the eastern confines of the 
moor, others in the immediate neighbourhood being Place Wood Camp, 
Boro Wood Castle, and Hembury Castle, noticed further on. But 
Holne Chase Castle, as this camp is called, though resembling the others 
in construction, differs from them is not being a hill camp. It is only 
about 1 50 feet above the river, and is surrounded by higher ground. 

The manor of Holne, which includes the chase, is said to have 
belonged to the Barony of Barnstaple, which was one of the posses- 
sions of Judhael of Totnes at the time of the Domesday Survey. It 
subsequently passed to the Audleys, and to the Bouchiers, Earls of 
Bath, from whom it descended to Sir Bouchier Wrey. Holne Park, 
south of the chase, and now separated from it by the road running 
up from Holne Bridge (R. 49 A), is mentioned in a suit, in 1631, as 
having been leased in the time of Henry VIII. to Thomas Prideaux, 
of Ashburton, for seventy years. This also came with the chase into 
the possession of Sir Bouchier Wrey. The properties are now owned 
by the Hon. Richard Dawson. O^ATM 

For about m. below New Bridge the Dart flows between Holne 
Chase and the common on which Leigh Tor is situated (Ex. 27). This 
then gives place to Park Wood, belonging to Spitchwick, soon after 
passing which the river receives the Webburn, here spanned by Buck- 
land Bridge. Prom this point onward the steep hillside rising from 
the L. bank is clothed with trees, Hardridge Wood, Greypark Wood, 
Combe Wood, and Ausewell Wood, following each other, the three 
former being in the parish of Buckland, and the latter in the parish of 
Ashburton. They are usually known collectively as the Buckland 
Woods, and between these and the chase the Dart runs from 
Buckland Bridge to Holne Bridge. 

We have already stated (Ex. 27) that the manor of Buckland 
became the property of the Bastards. In the early part of the nine- 
teenth century the representative of the family purchased the manor of 
Ausewell, which adjoined the property, and planted fir and other trees 
on the heathy land of which much of it consisted. In a note by the 
editor of the 1811 edition of Risdon's Survey of Devon the area thus 
covered is said to have been 700 acres. The present owner is the 

Rev. W. P. Bastard. 

, 



* Derivations have also been suggested from hoi, a hollow, cf . holt ; 
and from holline, holly the latter being the most probable. Accord- 
ing to a note in Carrington's Dartmoor, a tract near the chase was 
formerly known as Holly Chase, but I cannot find from any other 
source that this was so. 



HOLNE CHASE. 19 

By the courtesy of their owners Holne Chase and the Buckland 
Woods are open to the public on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, 
from May to October ; notices of the precise dates are posted at the 
entrances to the drives, and furnished to the principal hotels in the 
neighbourhood. To the chase both carriages and pedestrians are 
admitted, but carriages only may enter the drives. Two of these are 
carried along the wooded hillside, and a third runs near the river. It 
is the latter that the excursion coaches are permitted to use, and they 
enter at Buckland Lodge, which is reached from Buckland village by 
a steep descent (S. Ex. 92). But we propose first to visit Holne Chase 
and then crossing the Dart at New Bridge, make our way to the lodge 
by the road following the course of the river, and describe the coach 
run from that point. 

Before setting out, however, it will be well to notice briefly the 
higher Buckland Drives. These are reached by way of Ausewell Gate, 
the first point being Water Turn, the way to which has already been 
described (Ex. 27). Here the gate L. is entered. A short distance 
beyond this the way forks, when the R. branch is followed. Further 
on the way again forks, the two branches forming the drives. These 
run parallel for some distance under Ausewell Common, the lower of 
the two passing quite close to Raven Rock mentioned hereafter. 
Above this is the cluster bearing the name of the Ausewell Rocks, 
though often called in the locality Hazel Tor.* These rocks are scat- 
tered about a small open space covered with heather, on the highest 
part of which, 1,041 feet, are two cairns. The view from this part of 
the woods is exceedingly fine. The higher of these two drives goes 
onward to Ausewell Cottage ; the other, keeping at a lower level, runs 
across Combe Wood ; beyond this they unite and reach the public 
road at Southbrook, not far from the bridge over the Ruddycleave 
Water, noticed in Ex. 27. 

[Holne Bridge is 2 m. from Ashburton ; the length of the Holne 
Chase Drive from Holne Bridge to the New Bridge Lodge is 3 m. ; 
thence across New Bridge and down to Buckland Lodge, i m. ; the 
lower drive through the Buckland Woods from Buckland Lodge to 
Holne Bridge, 2 m. ; the circular drive is thus over 10 m.] 

We shall enter Holne Chase at the gate near Holne Bridge, the 
road to which has already been described (Ex. 28.) That there 
has long been such a means of crossing the Dart at this spot is shown 
by an entry in the registers of Bishop Stafford, dated August, 1413. 
A bridge that had previously existed here having been washed away, 
it was directed that the archdeacons should give notice of an indul- 
gence to all the faithful who should contribute to the re-building of it. 
Thus by enabling some people to get over certain little difficulties 
others would be helped to get over the river. The archdeacons were 
very appropriately chosen. Crossing this picturesque structure, 
which consists of four arches, we enter the gate on the R., and follow- 
ing the drive for about ^ m. shall reach the main one that comes L. 
from the lodge on Chase Hill. Here we turn R., and passing the grounds 
of Chase House soon reach the wilder part of this ancient domain. As 
already stated, Holne Chase is partly encircled by the Dart, and carried 
very near to this is the drive we are now following. As we progress 

* The name also appears as Awsewell and Hazwell. 



20 HOLNE CHASE. 

the objects on the Buckland side come into view, and are seen to con- 
siderable advantage, but are described as we reach them in returning. 

High up on the R., opposite Chase House, is Cleft Rock, and % m. 
further on Raven Rock, which presents a fine appearance from this 
part of the chase. A little further on our road runs quite near to the 
vallum of Holne Chase Castle, L. Some interesting relics were found 
in the chase in 1870. They consisted of about a dozen flat iron bars, 
and were discovered below the surface under a small heap of stones, 
placed on a large flat one. For long they were thought to be either 
unfinished swords, or pikes, but it has lately been suggested that 
they were " currency bars " of the Britons, notwithstanding that 
Csesar says this people used brass or iron rings as money. But we 
understand this difficulty has been removed by arguing that the 
reading of the passage in which this statement occurs is incorrect ; 
that instead of " rings " we should read " bars." Unfortunately, we 
are unable to appeal to Caesar to tell us what he really did write, 
but we read "rings" in our younger days, and that bars our 
reading anything else now. An account of the find by that well- 
known antiquary, the late Mr. P. F. S. Amery, of Druid, was read 
before the members of the Devonshire Association in 1906. 

On passing below the camp there is a good view of the rock 
known as the Lovers' Leap on the northern side of the Dart. A little 
further on, and immediately below us, is Eagle Rock, under which 
the Dart makes its great bend. Here our road bends, too, and presently 
again leads us quite near to the castle, on the western side of which 
we now find ourselves. Across the river we see the charming combe 
through which the Ruddycleave Water descends foaming to the Dart, 
and as we advance the meeting-place of the Dart and the Webburn 
comes into view. Continuing on our way we notice the Spitchwick 
Lower Lodge on the further side of the stream, with Park Wood, 
which stretches nearly up to Pound's Gate, covering the side of the 
hill above it. The highest point of Chase Wood, which, however, 
is not much over 600 feet, is on our L., and near this are some remains 
of Chase Mine. Adits are also found in other parts of the wood, and 
a leat will be seen that formerly belonged to it, but this is now used 
for the purpose of conveying water to some fish-rearing ponds. Pass- 
ing onward we soon reach the lodge near New Bridge, on the road 
described in Ex. 28. 

[The excursion coaches usually stop here for a short time when 
on the return journey from Buckland to Ashburton, to enable tourists 
to visit the chase. It is a good plan to walk through it and meet the 
coach, which goes by way of the public road, at the foot of Chase Hill. 
Should the visitor decide upon this he will pass the objects just noticed 
in the following order. About \ m. from the lodge, Spitchwick Lower 
Lodge across the Dart L. ; Chase Wood R. ; \ m. on confluence of the 
Dart and Webburn L. ; m. further, Ruddycleave Water L- ; Holne 
Chase Castle R. ; -| m. Eagle Rock close L., with bend of the Dart ; 
Lovers' Leap across the river L. ; i m., Raven Rock, high amid the 
trees L. ; \ m., Cleft Rock L. ; Holne Chase House R. ; straight on for 
the lodge on Chase Hill ; or turn L. for the gate at Holne Bridge.] 

Turning R. at the lodge a few steps bring us to New Bridge, which 
we cross and follow the road R., as in Ex. 28. Very soon we approach 
the river at a bend called New Bridge Hill Corner, where it suddenly 



THE BUCKLAND WOODS. 21 

turns towards the E., and again bends northward at Higher Corner 
Pool. Here on the L. is the steep road leading up to Pound's Gate, 
but we keep on past Deeper Marsh with the Dart R. We shall not 
have proceeded far before we notice an ancient circular enclosure on 
the R. of the way. This is sometimes referred to as Leigh Tor Pound, 
and also as Deeper Marsh Pound. Near this are several islands, and 
just below them another bend in the river, at what is known as the 
Lower Corner Pool, where there are more islands. Before reaching the 
latter we pass under Leigh Tor, a short distance beyond which is Spitch- 
wick Lower Lodge L. About m. further on we find ourselves at 
Buckland Bridge, in the midst of a charming scene. It is thrown 
over the Webburn immediately above the confluence of that stream 
and the Dart ; on one hand is seen the narrow valley through which 
the tributary comes down, and on the other the meeting- place of the 
waters, the last-named forming the subject of some lines by Keble. 
(The two Webburns are noticed in the Excursions from Widecombe, 
and in Ex. 27). Crossing the bridge we speedily arrive at Buckland 
Lodge, where we leave the road we have been following. This climbs 
up through the wood L. to the Higher Lodge at Buckland village, 
rather over m. distant, and 500 feet above us (Ex. 27, S. Ex. 93). 

As we have already stated it is the lowest of the three Buckland 
Drives over which the excursion coaches go, and they enter at the lodge 
we have now reached. For about m. the road runs along the edge of 
Hardridge Wood, with the Dart close on the R., and then Warren Bridge 
is crossed, where the Ruddycleave Water (Ex. 26, 27) comes down 
through a ferny hollow to fall into the larger stream. Now we are in 
Greypark Wood, from which we look across the chase to the steeps 
beyond it, where the Raven Rock, a mass of grey, thrusts itself out 
from its leafy environment. Ere we have gone far from the bridge we 
reach that part of the river where it changes its course. Hitherto it 
has been flowing towards the north ; we now see its waters running 
in a southerly direction. At the bend is the fine Eagle Rock, which 
we passed in the chase ; a fitting natural outwork to the ancient 
encampment on the slope above it. Here we see it draped with ivy 
and other plants, and the graceful quickbeam, to give the mountain 
ash its moorland name. 

When we begin to set our faces southward we approach the most 
striking rock mass in this winding valley. It is known as the Lovers' 
Leap, and the story attached to so many rocks of a similar character, 
not only in England, but in other countries, is related in connection 
with it. But whether this was formerly a spot to which despairing 
lovers in general made their way in order to throw themselves, Sappho- 
like, into the waters, or whether it was so named from a particular 
pair of lovers, we cannot say, since tradition is silent on the subject. 
This fine rock projects itself from the steep hillside, and the Dart makes 
a bold sweep round it. It rises almost perpendicularly from the waters 
to a considerable height. In places its sides are covered with creeping 
plants, and small trees and bushes grow from the clefts. The drive 
here deserts the river for a short distance, and is carried above the rock. 
In passing this an upright iron bar will be seen, which was placed here 
to mark the spot on which the Prince Consort stood when he visited 
the woods, by George Sparks, a former well-known whip of Ashburton, 
who drove his royal highness on that occasion. 



22 THE BUCKLAND WOODS. 

Leaving this striking scene we pass down the valley with the 
Dart again for our companion, and speedily come in sight of a great 
crag on the hillside some 400 feet above the river. This is the Raven 
Rock, but it is hardly seen to such advantage here as from the points 
from which we have already beheld it. One part of this mass used to be 
known as the Duke's Nose. Viewed from a certain spot the rock 
presents a rude resemblance to the human face in profile, and in this, 
as in the case of the Rock on Roborough Down (Yelverton Distr ict), 
imagination has been able to detect the features of the Duke of WePing- 
ton. This rocky pinnacle looks down upon a part of the Dart marked 
by the Long Island in its channel. 

During our progress along the bank of the river we have been able 
to obtain many good views of the chase, and shall have noticed that 
it is of a wilder character than the woods on the Buckland side, and 
this will again become evident as we pass on through Ausewell Wood. 
About m. from the Raven Rock, and when opposite to Holne Chase 
House, we pass the Cleft Rock, which is about 200 feet above the drive, 
and here near the river are the remains of a building that show that 
in days gone by men were attracted to this wood by something besides 
the scenery. Within the scanty vestiges of a blowing-house is a cavity 
about four feet deep, which seems to have been a furnace. It is oval 
in shape, and measures 4 feet by 2 feet 9 inches. Quite near to this 
are the ruined walls of another small building, and there are also the 
remains of a leat and a large heap of slag. These ruins were discovered 
buried beneath debris by Mr. P. F. S. Amery. 

In some far away time the channel of the Dart was here much 
higher than it is at present. This is shown by a bed of gravel above 
the left bank, a little below the point we have now reached. 

On leaving Ausewell Wood the drive passes across two fields to 
the gate opening on the public road near the northern end of Holne 
Bridge. The way to the town is described at the end of Ex. 27, the 
points passed being Holne Turn and Headborough. 

(Near the southern end of Holne Bridge, where Chase Hill makes 
a very sharp bend, is the lodge at the entrance to Holne Park). 



Shorter Excursions. 

[The route to Bag Tor Mill and Ilsington is described in S. Ex. 89, 
and this connects the Ashburton and Bovey Districts. S. Ex. 96 
shows the route to Holne Moor, and connects Ashburton with the 
Brent District. Other links between these districts are formed in the 
usual manner by the excursions and routes.] 

S. Ex. 88. Place Wood Camp, Halshanger, and Boro Wood Castle, 
5 m. Opposite to the Golden Lion Hotel a branch from East Street 
leads to Roborough Lane. This is crossed by the road coming L. 
from the Terrace Walk, formed in the earlier part of the last century 
b}>- Lord Clinton, and the point may also be gained from Great Bridge 
by following that delightful promenade, which commences there. 
Proceeding northward Langstone Cross is soon reached (guide-post), 
j- m. N. of this the road skirts Woodencliff Wood L. At a little 
distance on the R. is Place Wood, and between this and the road 



SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM ASHBURTON. 23 

are the remains of an ancient hill fort. These are not extensive, and 
when in a complete state the camp apparently was not more than 
300 yards in circumference. 

[The camp may be reached by a footpath from Great Bridge. 
This runs under the Terrace Walk, afterwards crossing the road close 
to Cuddyford Bridge, which spans the Yeo. The path then runs 
northward to the road at Woodencliff Wood. Cuddyford is suggestive 
of an ogre who was formerly said to haunt this part of the Yeo, one 
^u^tiJ^SS 1 ' the terror of children in the days of our grandfathers.] 

Following the road from the camp N. the visitor will be led between 
Higher and Lower Brownswell to Ashburton Down, a little over i m. 
from the town. The down, most of which is now enclosed, is on the R. 
Here is a guide-post, and another at Owlacombe Cross, a short distance 
further on. At the second the visitor will turn L., and in about 4- m. 
will reach Halshanger Cross. The road going straight up the hill soon 
enters on the common near the Belt (Ex. 26), but this must not be 
followed. Turn L. to Rushlade, and pass down the hill, as in Ex. 26, 
to Boro Wood R., which is reached soon after crossing Waterleat 
Bridge. At the lower end of the wood, not far from Lurgecombe Mill, 
there is a gate opening into it. A path runs from this very nearly 
up to the old camp which takes its name from the wood. It is altogether 
a much finer example than the other, and is nearly \ rn. in circum- 
ference. From Lurgecombe Mill the way to the town is described in 
the excursion just named. 

S. Ex. 89. The Commons of Horridge and Halshanger, S-\ m. 
With route to Ilsington, 5^ m. from Ashburton. The first point is 
Rushlade (Ex. 26). The visitor will then continue straight on N. past 
Halshanger Cross to Langworthy Bridge and Mountsland. Just beyond 
the latter is the hamlet of Horridge, where a gate L. gives access to 
Horridge Common. On entering we shall bear westward for a short 
distance, when we shall strike a group of hut circles, and about 300 
yards N. of these shall find another group. Bearing a little W. of N. 
we ascend the hill with Bag Tor Wood below us R., and when we have 
reached the western edge of this shall look down over Bag Tor Down N. 
(Ex. 25, S. Ex. 80). N.E. across the little valley is Bag Tor, and to 
the R. of it Mill Wood and Crownley Parks ; northward are seen Saddle 
Tor and Hey Tor. 

The road to Ilsington runs on from Horridge to Westabrook, and 
thence by the entrance to Bag Tor to Bag Tor Mill. Just beyond 
this is Burchanger Cross, from which the village is about i m. distant. 
The route is described the reverse way in S. Ex. 81, and the points 
named are noticed in the Ilsington District. 

[Bag Tor Down may be reached from the Ilsington road by fol- 
lowing it to Westabrook, instead of turning into the common at 
Horridge. A path which passes through Bag Tor Wood to the down 
runs from Westabrook courtyard, but as it is not a public one, it will be 
necessary to obtain permission to go that way.] 

Turning S., but bearing a little W., we shall pass down the hill to 
the source of the Yeo, | m. from Water Rushes (Ex. 26). This stream 
rises just within the confines of Horridge Common, and crossing the 
end of Mountsland Common, enters Halshanger Common, the boundary 
of which is here marked by a wall running S., and to this point we shall 
follow it. 



24 SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM ASHBURTON. 

[If it be desired to embrace Rippon Tor and the Nutcracker 
(Ex. 26) in this excursion the visitor will pass up to the former from the 
western corner of Bag Tor Wood, from which it is distant f- m. N.W. 
On leaving the tor turn S. to the gate close to the logan, and then passing 
through one of the gaps in the wall strike S.E. for about f m. to the 
Yeo, which will be reached near the point where it enters Halshanger 
Common.] 

Crossing the Yeo we strike due S., having for a short distance the 
wall on our L., and in ^ m. shall reach the small ruined building known 
as the Old Summer House. This is now a mere shell, circular in shape, 
and 9^ feet in interior diameter. There is a chimney, the remains of 
a window, and a doorway. The view from this old house is remarkably 
fine, for though it is not by any means on the highest part of Hals- 
hanger Common it is yet so happily placed that it commands many 
striking objects in the surrounding country. Haldon, with the distant 
farm lands beyond it, is seen north-eastward ; the estuary of the Teign, 
presenting all the appearance of a lake, E. by S. ; Torquay, Ashburton, 
Buckfastleigh, and Dean, from S.E. by E. to S. by W., with the South 
Hams extending from the valley of the Dart westward and to the sea ; 
Brent Hill and Ugborough Beacon Rocks rise up S.S.W. ; and thence 
northward stretches a tract of wooded and semi-wild country, backed 
in places by the moor. 

The gate at Water Rushes is a little over J m. due W. of the 
Summer House, but it will be better for the visitor to strike N. of 
that line, as the ground is boggy near the Yeo. By keeping higher he 
will reach that stream above the mire, and crossing will make his way 
down the R. bank to the gate. From this point the route to Ashburton 
As described in Ex. 26, the way lying by the Belt and through Green 
Lanes to Rushlade, and thence through the valley of the Yeo. 

S. Ex. 90. To Hemsworthy Gate, 4f m. from Ashburton. This 
point, which is named so frequently in the excursions in the Bovey 
District, is reached by way of Rushlade (Ex. 26) and Cold East Cross 
(R. 5), or by Welstor Cross (S. Ex. 92, R. 53). From the cross the Chag- 
ford road (R. 53) is followed northward to the gate, i m. distant. Here 
the boundary of Widecombe parish, marked by stones, comes up from 
the S.W. (Ex. 26) to a bondstone in the wall, known as Stittleford's 
Cross. A small incised cross will be seen on its face, together with the 
initials R.M. [Crosses, Chap. XVI.] The boundary line then runs N.W. 
by N., being marked by the wall, and a short distance beyond Seven 
Lords' Lands (S. Ex. 82) turns abruptly E. to Hawkeswell at the source 
of the Becky Brook (Ex. 25). The route to Widecombe from Hems- 
worthy Gate, which passes near the Ruggle Stone, is shown in S. Ex. 
82, 87. 

S. Ex. 91. To Widecombe, 6 m. from Ashburton. The route for 
Hameldon and Grim's Pound. The first point is Cold East Cross 
(See Ex. 26 ; guide-post). Then take the road N.W. down to Ruddy- 
cleave Bridge. At the guide-post on Pudsham Down just above this 
turn R. ; m. on the road bends L., and leaving Scobitor L. descends 
the hill to Chittleford ; pass through this to Venton (S. Ex. 87), a short 
distance beyond which is the Ruggle Stone Inn (the logan of that name 
is on the common R., and quite near) ; cross Venton Bridge to the village. 
For routes to Hameldon and Grim's Pound from Widecombe see 
S. Ex. 84. 



SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM ASHBURTON. 



S. Ex. 92. Buckland Beacon, Buckland-in-the-Moor, and New 
Bridge, 10 m. As the route to Ausewell Cross, which is close to Welstor 
Cross, our first point, has already been sketched in Ex. 27, we shall 
now make our way to the latter by way of Rewdown Cross, and for 
this purpose shall first proceed to Pitt Farm, a short distance N. of 
Great Bridge. Here a footpath L. will take us to the road a little E. of 
the cross, which is marked by a guide-post. Taking the R. branch we 
pass up the hill with Druid a short distance L-, and Boro Wood Castle 
in the wood above us R. (S. Ex. 88), and noticing the Druid Plantations 
Hi., in which is an old copper mine, shall shortly reach Welstor Cross. 
The road runs L. to Ausewell Cross, but we shall keep R., or northward, 
and speedily reach the commons, which are here enclosed by a 
wall L. In this, there are three gates, and on reaching the first we 
enter and pass up the slope W T ., with the Rifle Range R., to Welstor 
Rock. In front of us is another wall, in which there is also a gate, 
and on passing through this we shall find ourselves close to Buckland 
Beacon. This small group of rocks attains an elevation of 1,282 feet, 
and though presenting nothing striking in itself, should by all means 
be visited on account of the particularly fine view commanded from it. 
The wooded valley of the Dart to the S.W., with the meanderings of 
the river, at once arrests attention. On the L. of this part of the picture, 
nearly due S. and only i m. distant, the Ausewell Rocks are seen 
rising amidst the trees (Buckland Woods Section) ; due W., and the 
same distance from us, is the tower of Buckland Church, with 
Leusdon Church on the further side of the valley (Ex. 27). Beyond 
the Ausewell Rocks, and over 3 m. from them, is Buckfastleigh Church 
(S. Ex. 98), and still further away to the S.S.W. the conspicuous Brent 
Hill (Brent District). Rising against the sky to the L. of Buckland 
Church is the dull sweep of Holne Moor, "W.S.W. (The Moors of 
Holne and Buckfastleigh : post ), with North Hisworthy above 
Princetown (Princetown District) far away to the R. of it, and almost 
due W. Thence the eye ranges northward until it rests on lonely 
Cut Hill, N.W T . by W., io m. away as the crow flies (Ex. n) ; the 
low mound of turf on its summit, which is seen from so many parts 
of the moor, can readily be distinguished. N. by W. Hameldon lifts 
up his great rounded form (Hameldon and the Widecombe Valley : 
S. Ex. 84) ; north-eastward is the high land of Haldon, seen away to 
the R. of Rippon Tor (Ex. 26), which rises N.E. by N. less than 2 m. 
from us. Further to the R. is the Channel, with the coast line from 
Beer Head, near the mouth of the Axe, to the estuary of the Exe. 
From Exmouth we trace the coast downward to the Bolt Head and 
Bigbury Bay, when intervening hills hide it from view. Lying snugly 
in the valley S.E. by S. is the town of Ashburton. 

The wall to the E. of the Beacon forms the boundary between the 
parishes of Ashburton and Buckland-in-the-Moor. This line descends 
the steep hillside to the Dart, which it reaches immediately above the 
Lovers' Leap. Early in the reign of James I. these two commons 
were the subject of a suit in the Exchequer, the dispute having reference 
to this part of them. We keep the wall L. on leaving the Beacon, and 
passing a bondstone in it called the Grey Mare, and a spring known as 
Stidwell, which forms another mark, descend the steep pinch, with 
some small enclosures L., to a gate opening on the road from Ausewell 



26 SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM ASHBURTON. 

Cross to Buckland. Here we turn R. and make our way to the village 
as in Ex. 27. 

[Should the visitor not desire to include Buckland in his walk 
he will turn I,, on reaching the road, and follow it to Ausewell Cross, 
^ m. Thence the return to the town is as given at the end of Ex. 26. 
This will shorten the distance by 4 m.] 

Buckland has already been noticed in Ex. 27, and it only remains- 
to speak of the road running from it down to the Webburn and onward 
to New Bridge. This leaves the church on the R., and descends a very 
steep hill, with Hardridge Wood L. Great Lot Wood (Ex. 27) covers 
the side of the valley R., and through this there was formerly a drive 
to which the public were admitted. It was closed in consequence of 
the road being greatly damaged by a flood. At the bottom of the hill 
is Buckland Lodge, and near it R. the bridge over the Webburn, noticed 
in the Holne Chase Section. Crossing this our road will lead us by the 
river past Spitchwick Lower Lodge R., and under Leigh Tor (Ex. 27). 
A little further on the Dartmeet road turns up the hill R. (Ex. 28), but 
we pass onward, keeping the river L., and soon reach New Bridge. 

We may now retrace our steps, and return via Buckland, as in 
the Holne Chase Section and S. Ex. 93, or proceed direct to the town 
by way of Chase Hill, as in 6 A and Ex. 27. The former will be the 
longer route ; see end of Ex. 28. 

S. Ex. 93. Round Holne Chase and the Buckland Woods by the 
Public Road, 9 m. Fine views of the chase and woods are obtained 
from the public roads that encircle them. The visitor will first make 
his way to Holne Bridge and over Chase Hill to New Bridge, as in 
Ex. 28. From this point he will proceed to Buckland Lodge, following 
the directions given in the Holne Chase Section. He will then ascend 
the hill between Hardridge Wood R. and Great Lot Wood L. (S. Ex. 92) 
to Buckland village, noticed in Ex. 27. From the church the visitor 
will follow the road running S.E., and crossing the Ruddy cleave Water 
and passing Southbrook will reach Ausewell Cross in about il m., the 
way being the reverse of that described in Ex. 27. It was on the 
commons near here that a hearse and four horses were seen moving 
slowly over the snow on the night that Colonel Bastard died. People 
said that the steeds were spectral ones, and indeed there were a certain 
few who could vouch for it that spirits were at the bottom of the matter, 
These latter were jovial fellows who had some acquaintance with the 
coast as well as with the moor. 

The route to the town from Ausewell Cross is described in Ex. 26. 
Part way down the hill Higher Ausewell is passed R., and further from 
the road is Ausewell Down (Holne Chase Section), Just below, but 
on the L., is Highgrove, and a little further removed, Druid, the 
residence of Mr. John S. Amery, to which place we have already referred. 

S. Ex. 94. Dartmeet, 8 m. from Ashburton. The way lies by 
Holne Bridge and New Bridge, through Pound's Gate to Sherberton 
Common, the route given in Ex. 28 being followed to Bel Tor Corner. 
From that point R. 49 A will show the way. (It is noticed in the 
Hexworthy District). 

S. Ex. 95. The Gorge of the Dart and Dr. Dlackall' s Drive, g% m. 
These have already been noticed (Ex. 28). The directions given in 
that excursion will be followed until the visitor reaches New Bridge. 
He will then turn L. and make his way past the fish pond (where the 



HOLNE VILLAGE. 27 

road runs up R. to Hannaford) to the common near Wellsfoot Island, 
at the second bend of the Dart. Turning northward, with the enclo- 
sures R. and the river L., he will enter the gorge, and make his way 
past Hannaford Stickles to a part of the river in which there are several 
islands. (These are noticed in our description of the gorge in the 
Hexworthy District in Part, I. to which the visitor is referred should 
he desire to make his way further up this fine ravine). Turning from 
the Dart the rambler will climb the steep hillside R. to Dr. Blackall's 
Drive, which he will strike where it winds below the little pile of Aish 
Tor. Here he will turn R. and either follow the drive to the road, or 
make a short cut to the latter down the hill R., leaving the Hannaford 
enclosures on that side. The return route via New Bridge is given in 
Ex. 27 and R. 6 A. See also end of Ex. 28. 

S. Ex. 96. Holne and Holne Moor Gate, 10^ m. The visitor will 
follow the road to Holne Bridge as described in Ex. 28 and ascend 
Chase Hill, passing the lodge R., to the fork, where is a guide-post, 
J m. from the bridge. Here he will branch L., and just beyond a second 
guide-post will reach Chase Gate. 300 yards further on is a third 
guide-post, where the R. branch must be chosen, and passing Green 
Down L. the visitor will shortly reach a fourth post, where the road 
turns L. to Holne village, which is close by. There is a fine view of the 
Dart gorge after passing Chase Gate. Holne is a small border village 
of very pleasing appearance. Most of the cottages have little gardens 
in front of them, and when the flowers are in bloom a charming picture 
greets the eye of the visitor. There is an old-fashioned inn the Church 
House with a wide porch and parvise room, and a large open space 
in front of it. The church, which belonged to Buckfast Abbey, is situated 
near it on rather higher ground, and is late Decorated. There is a 
particularly fine screen, and a good pulpit. In the lower panels of the 
former is a series of painted figures of saints, a list of which may be 
seen by the visitor. In the churchyard is a cross, which was restored 
some years ago, and also the grave-stone of Edward Collins, one time 
landlord of the Church House, who died in December, 1 780. The lines 
it bears have repeatedly appeared, but have evidently been copied by 
the various writers who have given them from a source other than the 
stone. At all events, I have never seen them given exactly as they 
appear upon it, and, indeed, it would now be difficult to decipher all 
the words. Many years ago, however, I was able to do this, and the 
rendering in my book on the stone crosses of Dartmoor (Chap. X.), and 
which is here reproduced, may be relied upon as being correct : 

Here lies Poor Old Ned, 

On his last Mattrass bed, 

During life he was honest and free ; 

He knew well the Chace 

But has now run his Race 

And his Name was COLLINS D'ye fee. 

Dec r> , 1780. Aged 77. 

The Ram Feast, or Holne Ram Roasting as it came to be termed, 
had several years ago degenerated into a mere meaningless feature in 
a village festival, being held in connection with steeplechases and 



28 HOLNE MOOR GATE. 

sports of a kindred nature. But many years ago we knew those who 
remembered when it was observed with something like its original 
simplicity. The feast took place on old Midsummer Day, when early 
in the morning a party would set off to the moor, and the first ram 
that could be caught was taken to a field called Play Park, close to 
the village, and in which it has been said a menhir used to stand. 
There the animal was killed and roasted. That this rude custom was 
a survival of a religious celebration there is little doubt, but those who 
observed it in later times were ignorant that it once had a meaning. 
Latterly the ram, which was provided beforehand, was roasted on Green 
Down. 

Instead of returning to the road where we left it at the guide-post 
we shall pass up N. of the church, and regain it a little further on. 
Here we find ourselves at the lodge at the entrance to Holne Cot, 
which is pleasantly situated on the hillside a short distance below. 
The road to the house also leads to a fisherman's path by the river 
which runs up through the gorge to Dartmeet, and is open on Mondays, 
Wednesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays, from the ist March to 3Oth 
September. Turning L. we pass onward to where our road is joined 
by another coming up L. from Langaford Hill (post), and here is the 
entrance to Holne Vicarage R. This will always possess a peculiar 
interest as being the spot where Charles Kingsley was born, though 
the present is not the actual house. That was taken down and rebuilt 
in 1832, thirteen years after Kingsley's birth, which event took place 
while his father had temporary charge of the parish. 

Passing up the hill the visitor will reach Holne Moor Gate in J m. 
Just before he comes to it he will notice a gate R., belonging to Stoke 
Farm, where he should pause for awhile to look upon the view com- 
manded from it. Certainly there is no finer one throughout the Dart- 
moor borderland. All the prominent heights over which our rambles 
from Ashburton have extended are seen, together with Hameldon and 
the rocky crests on the eastern side of the Widecombe valley, while 
the picture of the Buckland Woods and Holne Chase is superb. 

(The Ashburton visitor has been brought to this point in case he 
should desire to include Holne Moor in his rambles. This is described, 
together with Buckfastleigh Moor, in a section included in the Brent 
and Ivybridge District. See also R. 49 B. and C). 

From Holne Moor Gate the visitor may return to Ashburton by 
retracing his steps over the Holne Bridge road, following the instruc- 
,tions given in R. 6 B, or he may go by way of Buckfast as shown in 
ij^R. 6 C. The latter route will take him first to Play Cross, and down 
.V Langaford Hill, thence past Hawson Farm L., near the gate of which 
is a cross built into the wall (Crosses, Chap. X.) Just beyond this is 
Brook R., and Hawson Court L. The way then runs down the hill 
to Burchetts Lodge, soon afterwards climbing up to the cross-roads 
known as Hockmoor Head, rather less than m. further on, where is 
a guide-post. Here the rambler will turn L., and at the distance of 
about % m. will turn R., almost immediately afterwards again turning 
L. At this point, which is called Fritz's Grave, there is a guide- 
post. The way then runs up past the Grange, just beyond which a road 
branches R. Pass this and take the next turning R. through Buckfast 
to Dart Bridge. Cross this and follow the high road to Ashburton, 
as in R. 66. This will add about ij m. to the ramble. (For Buck- 



SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM ASHBURTON. 29 

fastleigh keep straight on from Hockmoor Head. At the next fork 
the I,, branch leads to the church and the town ; the R. branch direct 
to the town). 

The visitor may vary the route from Ashburton to Holne by 
following the road to New Bridge, but this must not be crossed. Just 
before it is reached a path will be seen L. leading up through Cleave 
Wood (R. 33), which will bring him to the fields close to Holne Cot. 
On the way he will obtain some good glimpses of the Dart, passing 
Salters Pool and the Horseshoe Falls. Above the Cot he will reach 
the road near Holne village. 

S. Ex. 97. Hembury Castle and Buckfast, g m. As in the preceding 
route the visitor will first make his way to the fork near the top of 
Chase Hill, and pass on by Chase Gate. At the fork, 300 yards beyond 
this he will strike L,. over a little open space bearing the name of Gallant 
le Bower, where there is a remarkably fine view of the Widecombe 
valley N. There is a guide-post where it is entered, and another a 
little further on. At the second one follow the road S.E., and in about 
i m. Hembury Castle, 4^ m. from Ashburton, will be seen L. This 
ancient hill fort is situated on high ground between the valley of the 
Dart E., and the Holy Brook, a tributary of the former. On the E. 
side the ground is very steep, and covered with the coppice known as 
Hembury Woods, and this also clothes the sides of the camp. In the 
Dart, at the foot of the hill, is Black Pool Island, and just below this 
the river changes its southerly course to an easterly one. Lysons 
computed the area of Hembury to be about seven acres. There is a 
very strong rampart, with wide and deep ditches, and an inner mound 
on its western side. Tradition speaks of it as a Danish camp. It has 
been remarked by Mr. R. J. King that there is scarcely an earthwork 
throughout the country to which the Danes have not been linked, and 
this he regards as a proof of the strong impression made by their attacks. 
On the other hand Mr. Thomas Wright, in a paper on the History of 
the English Language, considers that much more has been ascribed to the 
Danes than they have any claim to. The story goes that this fort was 
taken from them by a stratagem. Some women of the neighbourhood 
allowed themselves to be captured and conveyed to the camp, and 
rising in the night when the occupants were sunk in a deep sleep 
induced by the fumes of wine, slew them, and admitted their com- 
patriots. Some oval stones and a bronze celt were discovered here 
many years ago. 

On leaving Hembury the visitor will descend the steep road to 
Holy Brook, and crossing this will speedily reach Fritz's Grave, where 
he will turn L. to Buckfast. 

Very few remains of the Abbey of Buckfast now exist. Just before 
reaching the hamlet the visitor will pass the Grange, where the abbey 
barn may be seen, and a part of the abbots' lodgings, consisting of a 
tower, is also standing. It is said to have been founded by Cynewulf 
King of Wessex, in 760, but while there is no satisfactory evidence of 
this there is some that it was founded prior to the time of Alfred. It 
was established for Benedictine monks, and afterwards re-founded for 
Cistercians, in 1137, or in 1148. The Cistercians, as we have before 
remarked, were great traders, and those of Buckfast (early forms of 
which name were Bucfestre and Bulfestra) were dealers in wool (T. i). 
In 1236 they were admitted to the Guild Merchants of Totnes. The 



30 BUCKFASTLEIGH. 

last abbot prior tothe Dissolution was Gilbert, or Gabriel Donne, who was 
appointed in 1535, and three years later, on the 24th February, 1538, 
surrendered the abbey to the Commissioners of Henry VIII. For 365 
years the abbey had no existence, and then, on the 24th February, 1903, 
the first abbot of a revived order of Benedictines was installed. 

It was in 1882 that the site of the old abbey was purchased on 
behalf of the community of monks now resideng there. The foundations 
of the old buildings were unearthed, and a new abbey erected upon 
them, so that the modern structure is similar in design, as far as it 
possibly can be, to the older one. 

There is a tradition that the apparition of a certain Sir William 
Kingdon, who had been a benefactor to the abbey, used to appear on 
the night of the 3rd July in the church, on the spot where he had been 
buried, and that the monks came to believe that he had been guilty 
of a crime that troubled his soul. 

Buckfast Abbey had a close connection with Dartmoor, for Holne 
Moor, or perhaps it might be more correct to say a part of it, as well as 
Buckfastleigh Moor and Brent Moor, belonged to it. (Brent District). 

On leaving Buckfast the visitor will make his way to Dart Bridge, 
and return to Ashburton by the high road as in R. 66. 

S. Ex. 98. Buckfastleigh, 7 m. The way to this town is shown 
in R. 47. Buckfastleigh has long been celebrated for its manufacture 
of serge, the woollen industry having probably existed here since the 
days of the Cistercians at Buckfast (T. i, S. Ex. 97). A market was 
granted to the abbot in 1352, and a fair, to continue for three days, 
in 1459. A market and a fair were also granted to " the Abbot and 
Convent of the house and Church of the Blessed Mary of Buckfast," 
to be held in the manor of Kingsbridge, which belonged to the abbey. 
The church is situated on a hill, apart from the town, and is approached 
on one side by a road and on another by a flight of steps, 195 in number. 
The tower is surmounted with a spire, the only example in the 
Dartmoor country. Tradition states that it was intended to erect the 
building on a site nearer to the town, but that the Evil One removed 
the stones as fast as they were placed in position to the hill on which 
it now stands, (cf. Brent Tor and Plympton). In the churchyard are 
the remains of an ancient building, and an old cross said to have been 
brought from Dartmoor. [Crosses, Chap. X.] The hill on the side 
nearest Buckfast has been extensively quarried. 

If the visitor ascends to the church by the steps he must look for 
them shortly after entering the town. They will be seen on the R. of 
the road. On leaving the church he will follow the road W., and taking 
care not to turn R., will be led directly to the higher part of the town. 
The return to Ashburton will be as in the preceding excursion. 

The route to Buckfastleigh from Holne Moor Gate has been given 
in S. Ex. 96. In going to that gate the visitor will leave the town at 
its northern end, and make his way up by Bilberry Hill to Hockmoor 
Head. Thence keep straight on with Hawson Court R., and Brook L. 
The ascent of the steep L,angaford Hill has next to be made ; at Play 
Cross the village of Holne is close by R. Keep straight up the road 
to the gate. Carriages should either turn I,, just after passing 
Hawson Farm and go through Scorriton, or R. at the foot of Langa- 
ford Hill. 



ROUTE 47. ASHBURTON TO BRENT. 31 



Routes from Ashburton. 

R. 47. To Brent and Ivybridge, S.W. Dart Bridge, Buckfast- 
leigh, Dean (old road to Brent through Harbournford), Whiteoxen, 
Palstone (branch R. for Brent), Brent Bridge, Wrangaton, Bittaford 
Bridge. Brent, 8J m. ; Ivybridge, 13 m. Reverse, R. 66. 

[Objects : Ex. 32, seen from near Wrangaton.] 

This is a road route, and few directions are needed. The visitor 
will leave the town by way of West Street and Pear Tree Cross. The 
road then runs southward to the Dart, which is crossed at Dart Bridge 
(S. Ex. 96, 97). Passing through Buckfastleigh (S. Ex. 98) the visitor 
will soon reach the little village of Dean, where the old coach road, 
which runs through Brent, branches off. (This is a rather nearer 
way to that village than the new road, and is much more interesting. 
The rambler will pass up the long, but not steep, hill to Clampit's 
Stile, and shortly after passing this will descend upon the hamlet of 
Harbournford, where the Harbourn is crossed by a footbridge. Brent 
is 2 m. further on. This road is noticed in our description of the Brent 
District). 

The new road runs about S. from Dean, and for the first mile is 
quite level. Dean Prior Church (S. Ex. 100) is then passed, and shortly 
afterwards the road runs under Whiteoxen Arch. Beyond this it 
passes the grounds of Marley, and when these are left behind the 
country becomes more open, and Brent Hill is seen not far to the R. 
About i m. further on a farm will be noticed close to the road I/. 
This is Palstone, and m. beyond it is a cross-road, where the visitor 
bound to Brent will turn R. The road to Ivybridge shortly afterwards 
passes through Brent Mill and over Brent Bridge, and i\ m. further 
on reaches Wrangaton. i m. beyond this is Bittaford Bridge, where 
the Lud Brook is crossed, and from which Ivybridge is 2 m. distant. 

R. 48. To Plympton and Shaugh, S.W. by W. For points on 
the road to Plympton, 19^ m., see R. 47, 55 ; on the way to Shaugh, 
17 V m., the following are the points from Dean onward : Warn Bridge, 
Gigley Bridge, Yolland, Shipley Bridge, Zeal Bridge, Hifkley Plain, 
Three Barrows, Stall Moor, High-house Waste, Pen Beacon, Emmett's 
Post, Shaugh Moor. Reverse, R. 73. 

[Objects: Exs. 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36.] 

The route to Plympton consists of R. 47 and R. 55, q.v. 

Routes to Shaugh are given from Brent and from Ivybridge, 
R. 56, 57 ; the former is the more convenient for the rambler from 
Ashburton. But in case a route going deeper into the moorlands 
should be desired the following is furnished. It will be well, however, 
not to choose it if the streams are likely to be in flood, as the Erme 
and the Yealm have to be crossed. 

The rambler will branch R. from the Ivybridge road at Dean, as 
in the preceding route, but instead of following the wide road that 
leads to Brent, will strike into a lane R. close by some cottages, and in 
about \ m. will be led into another lane, when he will turn L. Passing 
over Warn Bridge at the lower end of the valley of Dean Burn 



32 ROUTE 49. ASHBURTON TO PRINCETOWN. 

(S. Ex. 100) he will pass up the hill W. by S., leaving the hamlet of Dean. 
Combe L. Turning neither to the R. nor to the L. he will, at the 
distance of ii m. from the bridge, reach a lane running at right angles 
to the one he is following (see R. 33, and S. Ex. 103). Here he will 
turn L., and proceed for a few score yards, when he will turn R., and 
descend to Gigley Bridge. At the top of the lane beyond the bridge 
is a small green, with a gate opening upon a stroll, R. This he will 
pass through, and descend the stroll, at the further end of which is 
Dockwell Gate. He will not go quite so far as this, however, but will 
enter a gate L-, and follow the track (T. 59) to Yolland Farm. Passing 
the fine grove of trees and through the yard the further entrance 
gate will soon be reached. Just beyond this the rambler must turn R. 
at Yolland Cross, and in f m. will pass through a moor gate, and find 
himself at Shipley Bridge (S. Ex. 106). This he will cross, and turning 
L. will once more enter upon a lane at Shipley Gate, with Zeal Farm R. 
Just beyond the farmyard he will cross Zeal Bridge, and enter a gate 
R., and passing through two fields will reach a hunting-gate, and gain 
the moor. His course will now be up the steep side of Hickley Ridge 
to Hickley Plain and Red Brook, due W. He will only follow up the 
stream for a short distance, his course still being W., and his mark the 
lofty Three Barrows. This he will reach soon after crossing the Bala 
Brook Head track (T. 61). From Three Barrows the frontier height 
of Pen Beacon is plainly seen W., but though this is on his route the 
rambler must not make for it direct. He will steer W. by N., and cross- 
ing the Blackwood Path (T. 63) descend the steep side of the hill to 
the Erme. His mark should be a gully on the further bank, and 
about m. above the wall of Piles Newtake (Ex. 32, 33). Down this 
runs a small stream, and near where it falls into the Erme that river 
can generally be crossed. On climbing the west bank of the river he 
must steer due W. across Stall Moor, with Pen Beacon in full view. 
He will cross the track running out to Erme Pound (T. 66, Ex. 33) 
and the branch leading towards Yealm Head. The Yealm (i% m. 
from the Erme) should be crossed a short distance above Dendles 
Wood. Then the rambler will pass over Dendles Waste and Hawns 
to Broadall Lake (T. 67). The way then lies over High-house Waste, 
which is bounded on the west by a small stream. Pen Beacon (R. 7, 
59 ; Ex. 34) is just above this, and on reaching it, or the slope below 
it, the course must be changed to W. by N. This will bring the rambler 
to the Lee Moor Clay Works leat, the left bank of which he will follow 
upwards to the head of the storage reservoir belonging to the works. 
Passing to the other side of this he will strike S. by W. and speedily 
reach the Corn wood (L.) and Dousland (R.) road. Crossing this to 
Emmett's Post he will steer due W. for i m. over Shaugh Moor to 
Brag Lane End, close to Shaugh village. 

R. 49. To Princetown and Two Bridges, W. by N. (A) Holne 
Bridge, New Bridge, Pound's Gate, Ouldsbroom, Dartmeet, Dunnabridge 
Pound. T. B., 13 m. ; P. T., 14! m. (To P. T. via Hexworthy and 
Swincombe, 13^ m.) (B) Holne Bridge, Holne Village, Saddle Bridge, 
Hexworthy. P. T., via Swincombe, 12^ m. ; T. B., 13^ m. (C) Holne 
Village, as before, Ringleshutts , Aune Head, Sand Parks, White Works. 
P. T., 13^ m. ; T. B., 14 m. Reverse, R. 6. 

[Objects: Exs. 27, 28, 41, 42, 43, 3, 4.] 



ROUTE 49. ASHBURTON TO PRINCETOWN. 33 

A is a road route ; the others are over the moor for a part of the 
way, C passing through some of its wilder parts. If the start be made 
from Buckfastleigh B or C should be chosen, and the way will lie first 
to Holne Moor Gate, as described in S. Ex. 96. 

(A) Holne Bridge is the first point, whence the rambler will make 
his way up Holne Chase Hill, and then, keeping R. down to New Bridge, 
as in Ex. 28. Crossing this he will follow the road up the hill with 
Leigh Tor R. (a narrow path cuts off some of its windings), and in I m. 
will reach Pound's Gate. Passing through the hamlet he will keep I/, 
to Uppacott, and soon gain the commons, whence is a magnificent 
view (Ex. 28). The moor farm close to which he will pass is Oulds- 
broom, and just beyond this he will strike another road coming from 
Ponsworthy R., at Ouldsbroom Cross. Here he will turn L. and 
descend the long hill to Dartmeet. Directions from this point onwards 
will be found in R. 42 A. 

(B) To Home Moor Gate as in S. Ex. 96, or if from Buckfastleigh 
as at end of S. Ex. 98. Thence the rambler will follow the road past 
the new reservoir, and on by Hangman's Pit (Holne Moor Section) to 
Combestone Tor Hill, at the foot of which he will cross the Wo Brook 
and enter the forest. About i m. on he will reach Hexworthy, and is 
referred to R. 42 A for a description of the way from that place. 

(C) Holne Moor Gate is the first point, vide supra. A few score 
yards beyond this a disused road branches I/., the spot being marked 
by an upright stone. Striking into this the rambler will be led to the 
long deserted Ringleshutts Mine. The termination of the road is 
reached soon after the springs of the Wennaford Brook are crossed, 
and here a deep gully named Ringleshutts Gert (Holne Moor Section) 
runs up the hill, its direction being E. and W. This must be followed 
to its head, when the rambler must bear S.W. This will soon bring 
him to Sandy Way (T. 56), here only a green track, which he will 
follow westward to Aune Head Mire. (This bears W. by S. from the 
head of the gert). Leaving this swampy spot L,. he will strike N.W. 
for about $ m., following the track if he can discover it (but it soon 
grows indistinct) and then strike W. This course will speedily 
bring him to a branch of the Swincombe river, which he will trace 
downwards to the enclosures of Pox Tor Farm (Ex. 3), where he will 
cross, and make his way down the side of Sand Parks, with Childe's 
Tomb L. and the stream R. Near the confluence of this branch with 
another that flows eastward is a ford, and here he will cross the latter 
stream. From this point, if his destination be Two Bridges, he will 
pass through the hunting-gate as described in Ex. 3, and make his 
way due N. over Tor Royal Newtake to Moorlands, 1-4- m. distant. 
Turning R. he will pass this, and then turn L. to Prince Hall Bridge, 
as in R. 63 (see also Ex. 4), making his way past the house to the lodge. 
Here he will turn L. to Two Bridges, to which a walk of i m. will 
bring him. Should the rambler be bound to Princetown he will pass 
up the valley from the ford under Fox Tor, with the stream L. and 
the newtake wall R., to White Works, whence he will cross the hill to 
Peat Cot and make his way to his destination by Castle Road (T. 7), 
or by the South Hisworthy Tor path (Ex. 3). 

R. 50. To Tavistock, W. by N. R. 49, Ashburton to Princetown, 
and R. i, Princetown to Tavistock, form this route. Via Dartmeet 



34 ROUTE 51. ASHBURTON TO LYDFORD. 

and Two Bridges, 21 m. ; via Holne, Hexworthy, Swincombe, and 
Princetown, 20 m. ; via Holne, Aune Head, and Princetown, 21 m. 
Reverse, R. 12. 

R. 51. To Lydford via Two Bridges, N.W. by W. Holne Bridge. 
New Bridge, Pound's Gate, Ouldsbroom Cross, Dartmeet, Hexworthy, 
Gobbet Plain, Swincombe, Prince Hall, Two Bridges, Cowsic Valley, 
Lich Path, White Barrow, Hill Bridge, Down Lane, 24 ni. Reverse, 
R. 19. 

[Objects: Exs. 27, 28, 41, 42, 5, 10.] 

The first part of this route, i.e., from Ashburton to Two Bridges, 
is described in R. 49 A. From Two Bridges the way lies up the Cowsic 
valley for about 2 m., when the rambler must bear N.W. by N., and 
in about \ m. will strike the Lich Path (T. 18). This he will follow 
westward, crossing the Prison I,eat and the Walkham at Sandy Ford, 
from which point the way to Lydford is shown in R. 44. Another way 
from Two Bridges is described in R. 2 B. 

The road route from Dartmeet to Two Bridges is noticed at the 
beginning of the Princetown Section, and in Ex. 42. 

For the route from Buckfastleigh to Holne Moor Gate see end of 
S. Ex. 98. 

R. 52. To Okehampton, N.W. by N. With branches to Belstone 
and Sticklepath. Buckland-in-the-Moor, Cockingford, Bittleford Down, 
Grendon Bridge, Warren House Inn, South Teign, Teign Clapper, White 
Moor Stone, Taw Plain, 22% m. Reverse, R. 26. 

[Objects : Exs. 26, 44,"and 22 to 17.] 

The road must be followed to Buckland Church as in Ex. 27, 3^ m. 
Thence the way lies for i m. to Cockingford, turning I,, at the second 
cross-road. (The first turning L. is merely an entrance to a farm). 
From Cockingford ascend the hill W. and turn L. into the road leading 
from Widecombe to Ponsworthy. A few hundred yards on is a road R. 
Into this the rambler must also turn, when he will shortly reach Bittle- 
ford Down, and take the N.W. road over it. |- m. on, after passing 
a road leading to Jordan Mill L., this runs due N. Then another 
turning is passed L., leading to Cator, and about i m. further on the 
Broadford Brook is crossed at Lower Blackaton. Passing up the 
road W. the rambler will reach Hill Head, whence he will descend to 
Grendon Bridge, where he will cross the West Webburn, and follow 
the road to Ephraim's Pinch (Ex. 44). Mounting the short hill he will 
leave the road and strike due N. for i m., passing over Soussons 
Common. He will then cross the Walla Brook and mine leat to the 
Warren House Inn (Ex. 21, 45). Behind the inn is Water Hill, and 
N. of that Hurston Ridge. The way lies over these, the course being 
a little W. of N. to the head of the Metheral Bogs, about ij m. distant. 
From this point the route is the same as in R. 45. 

R. 53. To Chagford, N.N.W., and Moreton, N. Welstor Cross, 
Cold East Cross, Hemsworthy Gate, Swine Down Gate. (To Moreton : 
Hayne Down, Langstone, North Bovey). Heytree Cross, Barramore 
Bridge, Beetor Cross. To Chagford, i2|- m. ; to Moreton, n m. 
Reverse, R. 32. 

[Objects : Exs. 26, 24 ; S. Exs. 61, 77.] 



ROUTE 54. ASHBURTON TO BOVEY TRACEY. 35 

This is a road route throughout, but passes over much of the moor. 
The first point will be Welstor Cro5te, to which the rambler will make 
his way as in S. Ex. 92. He will then take the road N. At 
the distance of about i m. Cold East Cross is passed (this point 
may also be reached by way of Rushlade, see Ex. 26), and i m. further 
on, Hemsworthy Gate (S. Ex. 90). Rippon Tor rises on the R., between 
these two points, and the scanty remains of Newhouse are seen close 
to the road L. Just beyond Hemsworthy Gate a green track runs 
over the common R., which will bring the rambler to the road again. 
Prom this point Swine Down Gate (R. 45), to which he must now make 
his way, is about i m. distant. Hound Tor rises on the R. Passing 
through the gate a road will be seen running R. This is the one the 
visitor bound for Moreton will follow. See post. Por Chagford we 
keep straight on, with the hedge L. and Swine Down R. Cripdon 
Down succeeds the latter, the hedge being still L. Then we leave the 
commons, and passing Fordgate Farm, shall reach Heytree Cross, 
i-J- m. from Swine Down Gate. We keep on northward, and \ m. from 
the cross road shall pass the turning L., where the lane leads to Vogwell. 
The next turning R. is the road running to Easdon Farm and Manaton ; 
then comes a road R. to Langdon Farm and North Bovey ; then a 
cross road R. to North Bovey and L. to Westcombe Down ; then a 
road R. to Gratnar ; then, just after crossing Barramore Bridge, another 
R. to Hele. A little further on the rambler turns L,. when Beetor 
Cross is reached. Chagford is 2- m. from this point, and the route 
thither is described in S. Ex. 61. 

To Moreton from Swine Down Gate. The road runs N. over 
Hayne Down, passing close to Bowerman's Nose, for i m. It then 
goes on to Langstone Cross, about \ m., where is a guide-post. Here 
the visitor turns R. to Langstone, \ m., where there is another post. 
North Bovey is about i m. distant. He turns L., and passing 
between Higher and Lower Luckdon will soon reach the village. The 
road to Moreton is described in S. Ex. 61. 

R. 54. To Bovey Tracey, N.E. Bickington, New Inn, Leverton, 
7\ m. Reverse, R. 39. 

A road route. The visitor will quit Ashburton by way of East 
Street. 3 m. from the town he will pass through Bickington, and i m. 
further on will reach the New Inn. Near here he will leave the high- 
way and turn L. to Leverton, i m. Just beyond this he turns R. to 
Brimley Corner, where he must take the second road R., and in about 
m. will reach Ashburton Bridge, m. S. of Bovey Station. 



36 DISTANCES TO BRENT AND IVYBRIDGE. 



BRENT AND IVYBRIDGE 
DISTRICT. 

(These places are five miles apart ; see R. 47, 66). 

DISTANCES. BY ROAD: AISH RIDGE, B., \\ m. ; I., via 
Wrangaton, Pennaton Bridge, and Aish, 6f m. ASHBURTON, B. ( 
8 m. ; I., 13 m. BOVEY TRACEY. B., 15! m. ; I., 2o| m. 
BUCKFASTLEIGH, B., 5$ m. ; I., 10 m. CADAFORD BRIDGE, 
via Cornwood, B., I2J m. ; I., / m. CHAGFORD, via Buckfastleigh, 
Welstor Cross, Swine Down Gate, and Beetor Cross, B., 2o|- m. ; I., 
25 m. CORNWOOD, B., 8 m. ; I., 3 m. CROSS FURZES, via 
Harbournford, Dean Combe, and Wallaford Down, B., 7 ; I., 12 ; 
via Skerraton Down (over turf), 2^ m. less. DEAN, new road, B., 
3f m. ; I., 8 m. ; old road, f m. less. DEAN BURN (gate near 
Warn Bridge) via Harbournford and Dean Combe, B., 3f m. ; I., 8f m. 
DOCKWELL GATE, B., 2f m. ; I., 7j m. EXETER, B., 26 m. ; 
I., 31. GIGLEY BRIDGE, B., 2| m. ; I., 7! m. HARBOURN- 
FORD, B., 2 m. ; I., 7 m. HARFORD CHURCH, B., 7 m. ; I., 2\ m. 
HEXWORTHY, via Buckfastleigh, B., 12^ m. ; I., 17^ m. HOLNE 
VILLAGE, via Buckfastleigh, 4 m. short of Hexworthy. LYD- 
FORD, via Cornwood, Cadaford Bridge, Dousland, Huckworthy 
Bridge, and Moor Shop, B., 29 m. ; I., 24 m. MORETON, via Buck- 
fastleigh, Welstor Cross, Swine Down Gate, Langstone, and North 
Bovey, B., 19 m. ; I., 24 m. OKEHAMPTON, as for Lydford, q.v., 
B., 36} m. ; I., 31^ ; via Chagford, q.v., B., 30 m. ; I., 35. OWLEY 
GATE, B., 2J- m. ; I., via Wrangaton, 5J m. PLYMOUTH, B., 
16 m. ; I., iof m. PLYMPTON, 5 m. short of Plymouth. POST 
BRIDGE, about 4 m. beyond Two Bridges, q.v. PRINCETOWN, 
via Dousland, B., 21 m. ; I., 16 m. ; via Hex-worthy, B., 2O\ m. ; 
I., 25! m. SHIPLEY BRIDGE, B., 2\ m. ; I., 7^ m., or via Wranga- 
ton, Pennaton Bridge, and Aish, about the same. TA VISTOCK, 
via Dousland, B., 2if m. ; I., i6|- m. TOLCH MOOR GATE, B., 
10 m. ; I., 5 m. TOTNES, B., 7 m. ; I., 12 m. TWO BRIDGES, 
via Dousland, B., 22^ m. ; I., 17^ m. ; via Hexworthy, B., 19 m. ; 
I., 24 m. WRANGATON STATION, B., 2 m. ; I., 3^ m. 'YEL- 
VERTON, via Cadaford Bridge and Greenwell Down, B., i6 m. ; 
I., n m. 

BY RAII, : Brent and Ivybridge Stations are on the G.W.R., and 
are 5 4- m. apart; WRANGATON (from which the Eastern Beacon 
is readily reached) is situated between the two. NEWTON, B., 14^ m. ; 
I., 20 m. PLYMOUTH, B., 17 m. ; I., n m. TOTNES, B., 6| m. ; 
I., 12^- m. The railway distances from these to other stations near 
the moor are shown in the table at the commencement of each District. 



38 SOUTHERN DARTMOOR. 



Important Points and Landmarks. 

Broad Rock Brent Hill Coryndon Ball Gate Harford Bridge 
Huntingdon Cross Owley Gate Pen Beacon Petre's Bound Stone 
Petre's Cross, and the Cross Ways Pupers Shipley Gate Three 
Barrows Ugborough Beacon Water combe Waste Gate Western 
Beacon. Places of Interest. The Abbots' Way Black Pool Cornwood 
Ernie Pound Harford Hawns and Dendles Knattleburrow Pool 
Piles Wood Red Brook Bottom Shipley Stowford Cleave 
Valley of the Avon Valley of Dean Burn Zeal Falls. Prehistoric 
Antiquities. Addicombe, and Butterdon and Weatherdon Hills, and 
Tor Rocks : hut circles, cairns, and stone row Biller's Pound 
Burford Down : stone row Broadall : hut circles Cholwich Town : 
stone row Erme Plains : hut circles Erme Pound Rings : enclosed 
hut settlements Glascombe Ring : enclosed hut settlement The 
Glazes : stone row Gripper's Pound : hut settlement Hickaton 
Hill : hut enclosures Red Brook Bottom : huts and enclosures 
The Rings : hut enclosure Stall Moor : stone circle, rows, cairns, 
kist, and hut enclosures Three Barrows : cairns and reave Ug- 
borough Moor : stone rows Yealm Head Ring : hut enclosure. 
Mining Remains. Brock Hill : stream works and miners' huts 
Erme Head : stream works and deep excavations The Erme, at 
Hook Lake and below : blowing houses and streaming remains 
Huntingdon : blowing house and streaming remains Stall Moor : 
stream works and miners' huts Yealm : blowing houses. 

The two chief streams of southern Dartmoor have already received 
mention in our routes, and are also named in the section descriptive of the 
old tracks on the moor (R. 7, 33 ; T. i, 54, 56, 65, 75). These are the 
Avon and the Erme, the one rising in the forest near Ryder's Hill, 
and the other on its border line under Green Hill. They both discharge 
their waters into Bigbury Bay, the former near Bantham, its em- 
bouchure being marked by the interesting Borough Island, and the 
latter at Mothecombe, about 4 m. below the village of Ermington. 
On leaving the moor the Avon runs through a narrow valley to the 
little market town of South Brent, while the course of the Erme after 
bidding adieu to the commons is through the romantic Stowford 
Cleave ^to Ivy bridge. From either of these places the visitor may 
conveniently explore the interesting south quarter of the forest and the 
extensive moors which here form its purlieus. 

The parish of Brent has always had a connection with the forest 
01 Dartmoor, although it does not appear among the foresters' accounts 
as one of the ancient vills, nor does any estate or hamlet within it. 
In the south bailiwick we find the ville of Helle (Holne) ; the hamlet 
of Stourton in the parish of Buckfastleigh (Scorriton) ; the vill of 
Shiridon, in the parish of Dean (Skerraton) ; and the vill of Vgbirough 
(Fgborough) ; but there is no mention of any others. Brent Moor, 
the verge of which is over two miles from the village, extends to the 
forest boundary, and the two are conterminous for some distance. 



HOLNE MOOR. 39 



The Moors of Holne and Buckfastleiffh. 

[As Holne Moor and the adjoining Buckfastleigh Moor may be con- 
veniently reached either from Ashburton, Brent, or Hexworthy, it 
has been thought well to describe them in a separate section. They 
are included in our Brent and Ivybridge District, as that compre- 
hends the commons extending from the Dart and the Wo Brook to the 
Pen Moor ridge, westward of the Yealm, and includes besides these 
two moors those of Dean, Brent, Ugborough, Harford, and Cornwood, 
as well as a part of the south quarter of the forest. Ashburton visitors 
will reach Holne Moor as described in S. Ex. 96 ; those from Hex- 
worthy will enter upon it at Saddle Bridge, following the instructions 
given in R. 6 B ; while from Brent and Ivybridge the way lies first to 
Skerraton Down, and thence to Water Oke Corner, as in S. Ex. 101 ; 
or to Cross Furzes and Lid Gate, as shown in S. Ex. 102 ; or R. 64 
may be followed to Play Cross, whence the road L. ascends to the 
moor gate (S. Ex. 98). Home Moor is also crossed by R. 6, C, Prince- 
town to Ashburton, and by T. 2, 55, and 56 ; T. 55 and 57 cross Buck- 
fastleigh Moor.] 

Commencing our brief survey at Home Moor Gate we make our 
way north-westward by the Hexworthy road over Sholedon, having 
some enclosures R. These comprise the four farms known respectively 
as Fore, Middle, Scale's, and West, Stoke, always called in the neigh- 
bourhood Stock. On the L. a little way removed from the road is the 
Shanty, a dwelling erected within recent years. We shall also notice 
on that side a road branching L. and marked by an old stone. This 
leads to the deserted Ringleshutts mine, just beyond which it connects 
with Sandy Way (T. 56). Soon after crossing Holne Moor leat for the 
second time we come in sight of the Paignton Reservoir, and here we 
desert the road and strike across the side of Ricketts Hill R. to Bench 
Tor. This consists of several piles, two of them being named in an old 
aeed North Bench Tor and South Bench Tor respectively, which 
overlook the Gorge of the Dart (Ex. 28, 41). Another is known as 
the Eagle Rock. Cf. Lug Tor, Ex. 41. Immediately below it is 
White Wood, and on the further side of the river Mil Tor Wood, which 
climbs the steep slope under the tor of that name. Sharp Tor is seen 
to the L. of the latter, with the solitary Rowbrook Farm below it. 
These or other prominent heights are in view from any part of the road 
between Holne Moor Gate and Hexworthy, and the rambler finds 
something to delight him throughout the whole of the way. When 
he begins to lose sight of the tors above the gorge the lands of the 
forest settlers disclose themselves, with Bellaford rising proudly from 
the midst of the long lines of grey walls that spread over the heath like 
a net-work. Descending from the tor we cross the dam at the lower 
end of the reservoir, and make our way up the hill to rejoin the old 
road, a great part of which is now far beneath the surface of this 
artificial lake. 

The Paignton Reservoir, which was opened in 1907, is formed in 
a valley usually known as Wennaford Bottom, and is supplied with 



HOLNE MOOR. 



water by the Wennaford Brook, which rises not far above it, and a 
short distance northward of Ringleshutts Mine. Near its head are 
some open workings now overgrown with vegetation, in the midst of 
which a few trees flourish. The road formerly crossed the stream at 
Wennaford Bridge, a small structure of one arch that stood a short 
distance above the present dam. It formed an interesting feature in 
what was altogether a charming scene, and though the construction 
of the reservoir has, like the formation of the one at Burrator (Ex. 39), 
given us an artificial lake to look upon, it has only substituted 
one attraction for another, and it is not at all certain that the moor 
has gained by the change. Wennaford Brook was formerly crossed 
by the track running from Horse Ford to Holne village, and Buckfast 
(T. 2) at Workmen's Ford, not far below its source. Many years ago, 
having reason to believe that a cross once existed near this passage 
on the stream, I made search for it. In this I was unsuccessful, but 
met with some reward by the discovery of a stone that may have formed 
the base of a cross, though I was rather disposed to regard it as a 
mould-stone. Another worked stone was once to be seen near the 
Dart under Bench Tor ; it had a circular hole in its centre, and appears 
to have been of the kind we have noticed on Rippon Tor and in other 
places on the moor (Ex. 26, S. Ex. 56). The Wennaford valley above 
the bridge has been extensively streamed, but the workings are now 
in great part hidden by the water. 



Yar 
Tor. 



Corndon 
Tor. 



Sharp 
Tor. 




Road to Rowbrook. 
FROM HOLNE ROAD, W. OF RESERVOIR, LOOKING N.N.E. 

On the W. side of the lake, and not far from the dam, are the 
vestiges of some farm enclosures which are apparently very old. But 
the visitor will pass much more ancient memorials as he makes his 
way onward, for hut circles are found on each side of the road, and on 
the I/, a number of long reaves. Below, on the R., but hidden from 
sight, is the pixy-haunted Langamarsh Pit, with the lonely farm of 
Rowbrook on the hillside above it, and, further up the stream, the 
pool known as Langawell. About \ m. from the dam a track branches 
R. near a tumulus. This runs to Combestone Farm, about i m. 
distant. In local parlance it is Cumston, and appears two hundred 
years ago as Comberstone. Continuing on the road we reach in about 
another m. a bend where the Wheal Emma leat runs quite close to 



HOLNE MOOR. 41 

us L., and here we shall notice a hollow running down to the Dart R. 
The work of the tin-seeker is abundantly evident, but grass and heather 
now cover the heaps he cast up, and the mountain ash grows in the 
sheltered nooks that these form. The spot is known as Hangman's 



Mil 
Tor. 



Top 
Tor. 



Pil 
Tor. 



Hey 
Tor. 



Rippon 
Tor. 



Buckland 
Beacon. 




N.E. 



Bench Tor. 
FROM HOLNE ROAD, W. OF RESERVOIR. 



E. 



Pit from an unfortunate circumstance that happened here over 
ninety years ago. A moorman who lived at Round Hill, near 
Two Bridges, w.as returning from Brent Fair, where he had changed 
his horse for another, and finding, it was supposed, that he had the 
worst of the bargain, was so troubled at what he had done that on 
arriving at the hollow he determined to take his life. He was found 
hanging from one of the trees amid the stone heaps, and on being cut 
down the body was taken to a barn at Hexworthy. Many years ago 
I heard a story in the neighbourhood to the effect that about the 
time when it was thought he must have committed the rash act his 
wife imagined she saw him approaching the door of their house.* 

Soon after passing the hollow we reach Combestone Tor R. 
(100 Years, Chap. X.) whence the track to Dockwell Gate runs south- 
ward (T. 55). Near this track are several low cairns. The remains 
of one are still to be seen close to the highway. I remember when it 
was nearly intact, but in 1878 it was broken up for road material. 
Just beyond the tor another track leads to Combestone Farm. 

Before us is Combestone Tor Hill, one of the steepest on the moor. 
At its foot is Saddle Bridge, which replaces an old structure taken 
down nearly forty-five years ago in consequence of becoming unsafe. 
It stood just above the present bridge, and being covered with ivy 
wore a very picturesque appearance. It used to be said, but with 
what truth we know not, that it was here the Prince Consort killed 
his first trout on Dartmoor, when on one of his visits to Princetown. 
The spot is a very romantic one. The Wo Brook, which here acts 
as the forest boundary, comes tumbling over the rocks, its banks 
overhung with the mountain ash. (This stream is also noticed in the 



* It was in Hangman's Pit Bottom that Lovey Lee hid the Malherb 
amphora as related in Eden Phillpotts 1 American Prisoner. 



HOLNE MOOR. 



excursions from Hexworthy). Haying descended the hill we shall 
pass, just before reaching the bridge, a rectangular enclosure L., 
and also some hut circles. Below these we turn up the valley, 
with the brook R., and the enclosures of Slade on its further bank. 



Bella- 
ford Lough Brimpts 
Tor. Tor. Plantation. 



White Ridge. 



Challa- 

Water combe 
Hill. Down. 



Yar 
Tor. 




Dartmeet 
Bridge. 

FROM COMBESTONE TOR, LOOKING N. 

At the distance of about -J- m. we reach Horse Ford, where the track 
corning from the W. over Down Ridge crosses the stream (T. 2). 
This runs E. up the side of Horn Hill to Horn's Cross, near to which 
it is intersected by the Dockwell track (T. 55). A short distance N. 
of this point, which was formerly known as Stascombe Telling- place, 
is a low cairn. [Crosses, Chap. X.] 

A little above Horse Ford, which is paved with flat stones, on one 
of which is the letter H., denoting Holne, the Holne Moor leat is taken 
in from the Wo Brook, and above this the Wheal Emma leat (Ex. 3) is 
carried over the stream. The latter, which is of much more recent 
construction than the other, was cut in 1859. About m. further up 
is Dry Lakes, a hollow on the L., in which are several old trees, and up 
this we shall make our way S., following in the steps of the Perambu- 
lators of 1240 and 1609, who draw the line from the Wo Brook to Ryder's 
Hill, or as they called it Battyshull, or Knattleburroughe.* On reaching 
Dry Lakes Head we still keep S., with Holne Ridge L-, and speedily 
cross Sandy Way (T. 56), the bound here being known to the inoormen 
as Fieldfare, or Filfer Head. Ryder's Hill, the ancient Knattlebur- 
rough, is less than \ m. from the track. The hollow seen L. just before 
we gain its summit is the head of the Mardle Combe, the extreme 
upper end of it being known as Bourne's Pit, and the part immediately 
below that as Rounder's Hole, and here are bond-stones called by 

* "Ascendendo usque ad la Dryeworke, et ita ascendendo usque ad 
la Dryfeld ford, et sic inde linealiter usque ad Battyshull." Peram- 
bulation of 1240. " Ascendinge to Drylake, al's Dryewoorke, and from 
thence ascendinge by Drylake unto Crefeild fiord or Dryefeild ford 
and from thence to Knattleburroughe, wch. they take to be the same 
that is called in the old records Gnatteshiil." Survey of 1609. Other 
forms of the names are Corfield Ford and Cattyshill. 



BUCKFASTLEIGH MOOR. 43 

those names. They mark the line between Holne Moor and Buck- 
fastleigh Moor, which is drawn from Bourne's Pit to Petre-on-the- 
Mount, a bond stone on the summit of Ryder, as the latter hill is 
always called by the moormen. Below Rounder's Hole the Mardle 
acts as the boundary between these two moors. 

Ryder's Hill attains an elevation of 1694 feet, and commands a 
wonderful view of South Devonshire and the Channel. On a clear 
day it is possible to see the Isle of Portland and the Lizard Point, the 
horizon of sea between these two points being broken only in one place. 
There is a small cairn on the summit, but it is very much dilapidated. 
On this are two stones, a rough one about two feet high having the 
letter H. cut on it, and another more carefully worked and about four 
feet high with the letter B graven upon it. These represent Petre- 
on-the-Mount and Petre's Bound Stone. 

The line between the forest and Buckfastleigh Moor runs S.E. to 
West Wella Brook Head, where is another bond-mark called Wella 
Brook Stone. Thence it is carried down through the deep workings 
of Wella Brook Gert past Higher Huntingdon Corner to Huntingdon 
Wall, whence it turns north-eastward up Gibby's Beam, a narrow 
trench cut through the hill from the Wella Brook to Snowdon Hole 
(T. 58, 55). But we shall leave the line at the bond-stone, and strike 
L. to Snowdon, which is quite near by. On this hill there are four 
cairns, the stones composing which are covered with moss. They are 
in a line running about N. and S. The southerly one is 80 yards in 
circumference ; the next 52 ; the third, 45 ; and the northern one only 
20 yards. Turning S. along the brow of the hill we cross Gibby's 
Beam, and make our way south-eastward to Pupers, the piles of which 
we see on the hill before us. There are three of these, known re- 
spectively as Inner Pupers, Pupers Rock, and Outer Pupers. The 
word is a corruption of Pipers, and the usual story of men being turned 
into rocks for playing and dancing on a Sunday is related of these 
masses. On Outer Pupers the letter B is cut on the face of the rock. 
Prom Inner Pupers two reaves branch off, one of them running S.S.E. 
down the side of Pupers Hill to Water Oke Corner, a distance of nearly 
ij m., and marking the limits of Buckfastleigh Moor.* 

We now turn down the hill N.W. by Black Bush to Snowdon Hole, 
m., and after passing this shall notice the vestiges of some ancient 
enclosures on the smooth turf close to the rocks. Below the hole the 
ground is very miry, and here is the source of the Snowdon Brook, as 
well as of another little stream that runs towards Lid Gate. As we 
make our way onward under Snowdon, our course being northerly, 
we have the Mardle below us R. At the head of Scea Wood, which 
is visible, is Chalk Ford, whence a track runs from the stream over 
Scorriton Down. Not far above this the Wheal Emma Leat falls 
precipitously down the side of the steep hill to empty its water into 
the Mardle. Eastward of the leat is the Holy Brook, which runs 
through Gibby's Combe to Michel Combe. A little further up stream, 
the round hill known as Nap will be noticed. On this are four cairns, 

* This reave is crossed by the Huntingdon track (T. 57), which is 
marked by a few stones, the one near the reave bearing the name of 
Kit's Stone. The rocks crowning the hill are sometimes known 
respectively as Higher, Middle, and Lower, Pupers. 



44 BUCKFASTLEIGH MOOR. 

one of them being very large, but the stones of which they are formed, 
and which are mixed with earth, are small, and much overgrown with 
vegetation. The ground around them is plain. 

On reaching Hapstead Ford a short distance below Mardle Head, 
we may either cross the stream and make our way N. to the head of 
Ringleshutts Gert, or pass down the R. bank for m. to Mardle Ring, 
an ancient enclosure with a hut circle in its higher part. In the former 
case the gert will be followed E. to the remains of the old mine house 
whence the road already alluded to will conduct the rambler to Holne 
Moor Gate. In the latter we shall, after examining the enclosure, 
which is in a rather ruinous state, cross the stream work through 
which the Mardle here runs, and make our way N.E. up the hill towards 
Holne Lee, noticing three cairns just after crossing Sandy Way. 
From these the summit of Ryder bears W. of W.S.W. On our right 
are Two Hills and Whit Hedges, the latter being near where Sandy 
Way enters between the enclosures at Lane Head, and runs down the 
hill above Gibby's Combe Wood to the hamlet of Michel Combe. 
(At the head of Gibby's Combe is a point on Scorriton Down known 
as Sitting Down End, where it is usual for refreshments to be served 
when the bounds of the Manors of Buckfastleigh and Holne Bozom 
are viewed). Passing over Holne Lee we notice a couple of cairns 
about m. E.N.E. of the three already referred to, and just beyond 
these shall reach the Ringleshutts road, where we turn R. to Holne 
Moor Gate. 

Among other remains on Holne Moor may be mentioned several 
long reaves which intersect each other, some cairns and a small pound. 
These are situated on Home Ridge, N. of the head of Ringleshutts 
Gert. On Buckfastleigh Moor there is a group of hut circles near the 
Snowdon Brook and Mardle. 

Holne and Buckfastleigh Moors were anciently claimed by the 
Abbot of Buckfast as part of his manors, but the men of Devon always 
contended that they were part of the Commons of Devonshire. One 
of the manors was given to the abbey by Richard Bauzan, whose name 
still survives in Holne Bozom. Henry III. granted the confirmation of 
this gift. It set forth that Richard Bauzan bestowed upon the abbey 
and convent of Bufestre (Buckfast), "for the souls of his father and 
mother, and his brother Stephen Bauzan," his land of Holne, "with all 
its appurtenances, as in demesnes, villenages, woods, turbaries, homages, 
and services of free men (to wit) Stephen Mugge, Michael Mugge, 
Wimund Sola, Osbert Corbyn, and Warin de Buddinton, and all other 
appurtenances." To hold of him and his heirs freely, quietly, &c., by 
hereditary right for ever in ways, paths, meadows, teedings, wastes, 
woods, plains, heriots, wardships, escheats, and all other issues apper- 
taining to the said land; doing to him and his heirs a thirtieth part of 
one knight's fee for all service, suit, &c." 



EXCURSION 29. DOCKWELL GATE. 45 



Excursions from Brent. 

Tracks in the vicinity Nos. i, 55 to 62, 75. 

Ex. zg. Dockwell Gate, The Longstone, Antiquities on Brook Hill 
and Hickaton Hill, Huntingdon Warren [Extension to Heng Lake, add 
24- m.] Huntingdon Cross, Remains on the Avon, Long-a-Traw, Shipley 
Tor, 13 m. 

Leaving the town by the western railway bridge we pass the 
entrance to the vicarage L., and ascending Splatton Hill shall soon 
reach Lutton Green. About i m. beyond this, northward, is Gingaford 
Cross, reached soon after a lane turns L. to Yolland, and about 300 
yards further on the spot by the roadside L. known as Bloody Pool. 
Here some bronze spear heads were found in 1854. [Crosses, Chap. II.] 
m. N. is a small open space (R. 48) from which a stroll, entered at the 
further end of it, leads to Dockwell Gate. We pass down this, and 
having gained the commons shall find ourself on the green path running 
to Combestone Tor (T. 55). Built into the wall on the R., not far from 
the gate, is a circular stone of the kind we have noticed in other parts 
of the moor (Ex. 2, S. Ex. 56, Ex. 26, S. Ex. 105), one of several to 
be found in this locality. It is 3 feet 10 inches in diameter, and about 
10 inches thick. The hole in its centre is 5 inches in diameter, and 
the same in depth, going only half way through the stone. Near it is 
another partly fashioned into a circular shape. 

We speedily desert the track and turn R., and keeping near the 
wall of the enclosures shall soon reach Dockwell Brake. Within this 
is a pound, forming part of a group of remains on the slopes of Dockwell 
Hole, the name of the hollow below us. In this pound is a circular 
stone similar to those we have just noticed. Having viewed this 
ancient enclosure we shall make our way to the Harbourn, which has 
one of its springs in the hollow and another just within the verge of 
Dean Moor, on the E. side of it. This stream, which is referred to by 
Leland, who says " Harbertoun water cummith out of a well spring," 
serves as the boundary between the parishes of Brent and Dean for 
about 3 m. from its source. Crossing the stream close to the brake 
in order to avoid the mire we shall proceed for a short distance up its 
eastern bank, and then re-cross it under Parnell's Hill. Here we shall 
find another pound, across which are two rows of stones, with the 
remains of hut circles in the south-west corner. A couple of hut circles 
will also be seen outside the wall. Above this is a third enclosure, but 
the wall is very imperfect, and the two hut circles within it in a very 
ruinous state. Not far from Harbourn Head is the menhir known as 
The Longstone. This is 3 feet g inches wide at its base, and tapers to 
i foot at the top, the thickness throughout being 1 3 inches. Its height 
is 8 feet, and it is leaning considerably out of the perpendicular. 

On Parnell's Hill, a short distance W. by N. of the menhir, and in 
view from it, are two cairns, and to these we now make our way. One 



46 BRENT DISTRICT. 

is 78 yards in circumference ; the other measures 5 yards less. They 
are 23 yards apart, of no great height, and covered with grass. N.N.W. 
of these, and on the further side of a slight depression, is another, of 
similar character, but smaller, measuring only 35 yards in circum- 
ference. The view from this point is exceedingly fine. S.S.W. are 
the Ugborough Beacon Rocks, with the cairn-crested ridge running 
northward from the pile ; N. of this rises the lofty Three Barrows, 
whence the eye ranges R. by Knattaburrow, Eastern and Western 
Whitaburrow, to Huntingdon Warren, and Ryder, the latter bearing 
N.W. Par away beyond this is Water Hill, above King's Oven (Ex. 21 ); 
to the R. of which is Hameldon and the Widecombe valley, with the 
tors that overlook it, and still further R. Rippon Tor. Much nearer 
to us in this direction is Yar Tor, above Dartmeet, Corn Down Tor, 
Sharp Tor, and the Buckland Woods. Eastward is a fine stretch of 
cultivated country backed by Haldon, and to the R. of that elevated 
land the estuary of the Teign. Beyond is the Channel, which bounds 
the view round towards the W., where the Ugborough Beacon Rocks 
rise against the sky. 

Striking westward we cross the grassy track running from Combe- 
stone Tor to Dockwell Gate (T. 55), having on our R. Water Oke 
Plain, and make our way over the northern part of Small Brook Plain 
to Grippers Hill. Descending the western side of this at Waterfoot 
Clatter, we reach the confluence of the Avon and the Brock Hill stream. 
We cross the latter, which here comes down through a rocky hollow 
where it forms a number of small cascades, and in which are a few 
dwarf trees, and passing up the slope, with the little stream below us 
R., shall presently come upon a group of remains of a very interesting 
character. A rectangular enclosure will be seen, the lower wall of which 
is about 100 yards from the Avon, and in this are several small courts 
together with the walls of buildings. These appear to be the erections 
of mediaeval tinners, but were evidently formed on the site of remains 
belonging to pre-historic days.* The upper wall of the main enclosure 
forms part of an ancient pound, containing several hut circles, one of 
a series on Hickaton Hill, this side of which is often spoken of as Brock 
Hill. In no part of the moor can pounds and hut circles be better 
studied than here. Some of the finest examples of primitive dwellings 
may be seen, and the remains being at some distance from modern 
enclosures they have not suffered at the hands of the spoilator. 

Passing up the hill we shortly come upon another pound through 
which passes the Abbots' Way (T. i ), as named in our section on the 
ancient tracks. This old path, which comes up from Brock Hill Ford 
R., is here very clearly defined. f A few score yards to the N. is another 
and much larger pound, the circuit of the wall being 825 yards. This 

* The Hickaton circles and other remains here noticed as existing 
on this hill were fully described by me in the Western Antiquary, 
Vols. VIII., IX. 

t The Abbots' Way is here carried along the side of the hill, des- 
cending to the West Wella Brook, which it crosses at Huntingdon 
Ford, and immediately after crosses the Avon at Avon Ford. The old 
posts of Huntingdon Gate will be seen not far from the cross, near the 
confluence of the two streams. Further up the Wella Brook is another 
ford where a track leads to the warren house, and also a rude bridge. 



15. BPE.MT*IVYBfclDGEDim?ICT. 




PART OF 
Ex 



4 8 



BRENT DISTRICT. 



is ten feet wide in some places, and from 3 feet to 4 feet high. The 
pound is divided into parts, and it is indeed possible to regard it as 
being several distinct pounds close together, and having portions 
of their walls in common. One of the entrances to the enclosures 
is very perfect, and in some of the hut circles the door jambs are still 
erect. 

The Brock Hill Water, which has been streamed throughout its 
whole length, comes down from Brock Hill Mires, and above the ford 
several tinners' buildings may be found, and are curious on account 
of their unusually small size. Near its head, where the Hayford leat 
is taken from it, the stream bends to the L. as we ascend, this higher 
part of the hollow bearing the name of Crad Hole. On the slope at 
the head of this is Crad Hole Ring, a pound 260 yards in circumference, 
and containing four hut circles. N. of it is Pupers Hill, with the rocks 
crowning its summit. If the stream be not followed up the rambler 
may reach this pound by striking over the hill N.W. by N. from the 
enclosures above Brock Hill Ford. 

Proceeding north-westward up the slope we soon come in sight of 
Huntingdon Warren House, on the further side of the West Wella 
Brook. A house and a newtake existed here before the close of the 
seventeenth century, but there is no mention of the place by the jury of 
survey who passed this way in 1609. W. of the house, and on the 
highest part of Huntingdon Hill, is a fine cairn 76 yards in circumference, 
which is usually known as Huntingdon Barrow, but is sometimes 
referred to as the Heap o' Sinners. Less than \ m. southward of this, 
on the slope overlooking the Avon, are three pounds, one of them, the 
easterly one, being very small. Little shelters, formerly used by the 
warreners, have been constructed in the walls. 



Eastern 
Whitaburrow. 



Western 
Whitaburrow. 




FROM HICKATON HII,!,, DEAN MOOR, BOOKING S.W. 

Extension to Heng Lake. Instead of descending to the Wella 
Brook and tracing it downward to Lower Huntingdon Corner, the 
rambler may extend his walk by keeping R. towards the long disused 
Huntingdon Mine, and crossing the track (T. 57) leading to a ford 
below, reach the little river higher up, the rocks on the summit of Pupers 
being R. Still further up the tiny T Gert Stream comes down L. 
and above this is Wella Brook Gert, where some very deep open 



EXCURSION 29. HUNTINGDON WARREN. 49 

workings will be seen. At the head of this is Higher Huntingdon 
Corner, whence the boundary of the warren runs over tie hill in a 
south-westerly direction. We shall not, however, proceed quite so 
far, but soon after reaching the workings shall strike off L. at a track 
leading to T Gert, and taking a wall which here runs parallel to the 
boundary, but S. of it, for our guide, shall follow it S.W. for about 
m. to the Avon. Here, looking up stream, we have a good view of 
Cater's Beam ; its rounded form is clearly denned against the sky to 
the L., or W., of Aune Head. We turn L. and make our way down 
the river to Heng Lake, which flows out of the gully of that name on 
the R. (R. 33). Below this is Broad Palls, where the Avon enters 
Higher Bottom, and passing downward on the L,. bank we shall find 
in this hollow a good example of a blowing-house, with a mortar-stone 
lying on the turf near it. The ruin is 24^ feet in length, and nearly 
1 5 feet in width, on the outside ; at one end the wall is about 6 feet 
high. On the brow of the hill above it is a little shelter, which was 
built by a former warrener, and not far from this is the spring called 
Broady Well. Below the hollow on the R. bank is Stony Gert,* and 
still further down Huntingdon Clapper, which, although not boasting 
of any antiquity, is yet more than ordinarily interesting on account 
of its remote situation. It consists of two openings, but unfortunately 
the stone over the western one was displaced by a flood some years 
ago, arid now lies in the bed of the stream. The late warrener, Pearse, 
used to cross by means of a plank. On the R. is Pernside, and part 
way up this slope, a little further down than the bridge, is a small 
stone circle, apparently of the kind usually found enclosing kistvaens, 
but its real nature cannot very well be determined, as the stones are 
much overgrown. Below this the Avon bends L,., and here the Buck- 
land Ford Water, which is crossed by the Abbots' Way, falls into it 
(T. i). This old path is carried up the hill by the side of Piper's Beam, 
whence it goes on to the Cross Ways (R. 7). Below the bend the Avon 
runs under Bush Meads to Huntingdon Cross, and here we meet the 
Wella Brook, which, coming down from the great gert it gives name 
to, and flowing below the warren house, forms throughout its length a 
boundary of the forest. 

Although we know that Huntingdon Cross was standing in 1557 
(see Ex. 31), there is no mention of it in the survey of 1609, which, 
however, is hardly to be wondered at seeing that the Wella Brook 
marked the forest limits, and that the point given by the perambu- 
lators of 1240 was the confluence of that stream with the Avon. This 
was followed by the jury of survey of nearly four hundred years later. 
But the jurors who presented the forest bounds at Lydford Castle in 
1786, though naming the same line, make mention of the cross also. 
It is likewise named in a certificate respecting some tin bounds at 
Huntingdon, dated 1759. It is about 4^ feet in height, and stands 
just wjthin the limits of the forest. On the slope eastward is Biller's 
Pound 280 yards in circumference, but the wall is very low. This 
adds another to the number of similar objects existing on the hill 
rising between the Brock Hill stream, the Avon, and the Wella Brook. 
Below it are nine hut circles. 

* In this locality was formerly a mine called Wheal Dorothy. It 
is not improbable that the workings seen here represent it. 

E4 



So BRENT DISTRICT. 

Making our way down the L. bank of the Avon, and noticing as 
we proceed abundant evidence of the former presence here of the tin 
streamer, we shortly come upon the ruins of a building. It is situated 
about 40 yards from the stream, from which a water-course can be 
traced. It was probably a tin-mill, or place where the ore was crushed. 
Below this, and quite near to the bank, are some upright stones, called 
the Three Brothers, which have something of the appearance of a 
portion of a stone row, but they more probably formed part of a reave 
which runs from the lowest of the enclosures we have already noticed 
on the Brock Hill Stream. Very soon this little feeder is reached, and 
we shall observe that where it pours its waters into the Avon it is 
confined within banks roughly faced with stones. (On the R. bank 
of the Avon, and rather over m. below the cross, is a pound divided 
by interior walls into three, in a manner similar to the one on Brock 
Hill. Within it are several hut circles). 

Proceeding down the Avon, with Gripper's Hill, L,., and I/eaman's 
Mead R., we shortly reach Pall Rocks, where a cascade is formed, and 
here the L. bank is very steep. Not far below this point we come upon 
Gripper's Pound, a small enclosure in the midst of a clatter. In shape 
it is not unlike a horse-shoe, and the wall, which is about three feet high, 
is 1 60 yards in circuit. There are the remains of two or three hut circles 
within it, and others, connected by low reaves, are to be seen between 
it and the river. A small erection, which is evidently comparatively 
modern and formed out of one of these primitive dwellings, bears the 
name of the Blackman's Holt. Both pound and huts are in a ruinous 
condition, but their situation lends an interest to them. They stand in 
what is certainly the most charming spot on the moorland Avon. The 
side of the hill is strewn with rocks, amid which the heather grows and 
tall ferns nourish, while a few thorn bushes also find shelter here.* 

At the foot of the hill the river makes a couple of bends, and 
below the second enters a miniature canyon, where it is pent up between 
walls of solid rock. It was over this that the daring John Dill leapt 
his horse when pursued by the farmers, from one of whom he had 
" borrowed " the animal without going through the form of asking 
whether he might have it, for the purpose of conveying certain goods 
that had been quietly landed by night from a village near the coast 
into the interior. It will be seen that the valley in which this is 
situated is apparently closed in at its upper and lower ends. This 
formation has given to it its name of Long-a-traw, literally " long 
trough," which object it may be said to resemble. But the canyon is 
a " long trough," too, and it is therefore not unlikely that the name 
originated from this, but it is the valley that is generally understood by 
the name in the neighbourhood. 

Below the canyon Small Brook falls into the Avon, and close to 
the confluence is one of the bond stones marking the line between 

* The valley of the Avon is probably the " A vena " of the fourteenth 
century. In an account of the Bailiff of Dartmoor temp Edward III., 
there is an entry of " 6s. nd. received of 83 beasts agisted at Avena, 
outside the forest, this year (1354) at id. a head, of divers tenants of 
the lord of venville, there being at night only for having that easement." 
Those who were not tenants of the lord also used to agist there, and 
paid iM. per head. 



EXCURSION 29. VALLEY OF THE AVON. 51 

Dean Moor and Brent Moor, and which is carried over the hill to Dock- 
well Hole. On passing this we gradually leave the river, our course 
being S.S.E., and make our way up the steep to the western edge of 
Dockwell Ridge, which is noticed in S. Ex. 105. Looking across the 
valley W. we have a good view of the fine hut settlement on Ryder's 
Plain known as The Rings, and also of Black Tor, on the hill at the 
southern end of Long-a-Traw. As we proceed we shall notice some 
small enclosures and several hut circles on the common. Presently 
we come in sight of Brent Moor House in the defile R., and soon after 
reach Shipley Tor (S. Ex. 105). Here we enter the hunting-gate near 
the rocks, and descend to the road coming L. from Yolland Cross 
(R. 48), and turning R. speedily find ourselves at the moor gate near 
Shipley Cottage. Our nearest way to Brent is by the path through 
Didworthy, as in S. Ex. 105. If we cross Shipley Bridge and take the 
road past Zeal we must follow the instructions given in R. 7. 

Ex. 30. Shipley, The Rings, Eastern and Western Whitaburrow, 
Petre's Cross. [EXTENSION over Green Hill : Red Lake Ford, Stone 
Row, Black Lane, Ducks' Pool, Brown Heath, add 5 m.] Knattaburrow , 
Hill, Old Hill, Red Brook, Zeal Bridge, 12 m. 

[When this Guide first appeared Clay Works had just been established 
at Red Lake, in the south quarter of the forest, as mentioned in Part I. 
of the present edition (R. 7). These works are situated within the area 
covered by the Excursions in the Brznt and Ivybridge District. The 
face of the little valley of the Red Lake has been materially changed 
since operations commenced. The spot no longer exhibits that repose 
that appeals so strongly to every true lover of the moor. For centuries 
after the Perambulators of 1 240 passed that way, it was unvisited save 
by an occasional party of monks, the forest men, or the tin seeker. 
In times nearer to our own only the moorman and the chance rambler 
broke in upon its solitude. Now this has been rudely disturbed, and 
its primeval aspect defaced. The clay is brought to the Western 
Beacon above Ivybridge by means of a light railway, and, it has been 
stated, that in planning this care was taken that no damage should be 
done to the antiquities. This declaration is more likely to appeal to 
those who know the locality only by report than to the observer on the 
spot. Probably he will fail to be impressed by it. If not damaged, in 
the sense of being disturbed, the stone remains have suffered, neverthe- 
less. They have lost not a little of their interest, since they undoubtedly 
owed a part of that to their surroundings. But the antiquities of 
Dartmoor are a small part only of its attractions. Its greatest charm 
is its wildness and solitude ; where this is lost it is ruined. One consola- 
tion always remains. We noted it when describing the Meldon valley 
{Okehampton District). The scratching of the back of Dartmoor means 
employment.] 

Our present excursion will embrace that part of Brent Moor 
bounded by the Avon on the E. and Red Brook on the S., and, if the 
extension be included, a part of the south quarter of the forest. The 
first point will be the moor gate at Shipley (S. Ex. 106), and to this we 
have the choice of two routes ; we may go by way of Aish, or through 
Lutton and Didworthy. In either case we cross the western railway 
bridge, and follow the lane past the vicarage gates to the foot of Splatton 
Hill. Here, if we choose the Aish route, we keep L. to Lydia Bridge, 



52 BRENT DISTRICT. 

and crossing the Avon climb the hill to the hamlet, taking care not to 
turn L again. (Soon after passing over the bridge, and a little way up the 
hill, a gate opening on a footpath will be seen R. The visitor may enter 
here, and crossing some fields regain the road on the side of the hill 
above Penstave Copse). From Aish the road must be followed to the 
river, on the bank of which it runs for some little distance. The 
Didworthy Sanatorium is seen on the further side of it. Leaving 
Badworthy L. and Didworthy Bridge R., we keep straight on, and 
soon after passing the foot of Diamond Lane L. (S. Ex. 108), shall 
cross Red Brook, or Bala Brook as this part of the stream is sometimes 
called, at Zeal Bridge, and noticing Zeal Farm I/, shall speedily reach 
the moor gate. 

Should we decide upon the Didworthy route, we make our way up 
to Lutton Green as in Ex. 29, but instead of crossing it shall pass down 
the road I,, to Wash Gate, and follow a narrow bridle-path up to a 
field. We cross the lower side of this, and also another, with Shipley 
Tor in full view in advance, and making our way through the yard at 
the back of the Sanatorium, gain a lane which will lead us to Didworthy 
Bridge, L. On crossing this we turn R. and follow the road to the 
moor gate as just described. 

Entering upon the moor we turn up by the wall L., but gradually 
leaving it, make our way northward across the side of Zeal Hill, with 
the old naphtha works about 200 yards below us R., and here we have 
a fine view of the valley above Shipley Bridge, with the tor of that 
name on the opposite steep. [Gems, Chap. XVI.] By following this 
course we shall be led to an ancient enclosure, 360 yards in circum- 
ference, the wall of which is composed of very large blocks of granite, 
though in one place these are much scattered. Within this pound 
there are fourteen hut circles, the whole of them being placed across 
the upper portion of it. There is one lower down, but that is situated 
on the outside of the wall. Above this pound is a second, and near by 
vestiges of three others. The visitor must not mistake the mounds 
on this part of the hill for barrows. They are really old rabbit shelters, 
and are known as Zeal Burrows or " burys," as the moor people call 
them and mark the site of a former warren. 

Northward of this group of remains Black Tor, over 1,100 feet, 
rises above the defile E., in which Brent Moor House is situated. To 
this we make our way, and on reaching the rocks shall look down upon 
Long-a-Traw, a name which we shall be ready to acknowledge is 
appropriately borne by the valley through which the Avon here comes 
down, for seen from this point it may certainly be likened to a long 
trough (Ex. 29). Keeping along the brow of the hill we shall, at the 
distance of rather less than ^ m. from the tor, come upon two more 
enclosures, and a few hut circles, but they are very small. They are 
plainly to be seen, when the sun is shining upon them, from the summit 
of Brent Hill. Close to them N. is a little stream, on which may be 
noticed a few specimens of the mountain ash, and on crossing this we 
shall find ourselves close to what is certainly one of the most interest- 
ing of the pounds to be found on Dartmoor. This ruined settlement, 
which occupies a commanding situation on Ryder's Plain, is known as 
The Rings. It is of considerable length, measuring no less than 380 
yards from end to end. Its southern portion, where is its greatest 
breadth, is 120 yards across, and its northern 105 yards. It is nar- 



EXCURSION 30. THE RINGS. RYDER'S PLAIN. S3 

rowest near its centre, where it measures 76 yards across. The circuit 
of the wall is 975 yards, and although this, as in similar enclosures on 
the moor, has fallen, its lower courses can in places be seen, and these 
show it to have been about ten feet thick. Extending across the 
whole length of this enclosure, and immediately within the upper wall, 
is a row of small courts, and a few are also to be seen in the lower 
part of it. These are about thirty in number, and some of them 
appear to be of later date than the pound itself. One of them is 
obviously so. This, which will be found towards the N.E. end, is 
similar hi plan to the tinners' houses near the streams. It measures 
19 feet by 8 feet on the inside. One of the courts is 42 feet by 36 ; 
another 33 feet by 28 ; while a detached one, which is roughly circular 
in shape, is about 38 feet in diameter ; all internal measurements. 
It is these courts that render the pound so interesting, for although 
one or two are sometimes to be seen within the enclosing wall, as, for 
instance, at Grim's Pound, they are not to be found in such numbers 
in any other part of the moor. Something similar, but on a much 
smaller scale, occurs in the Half Ring, on Red Brook, in this locality, 
and is noticed in Ex. 31. There are a number of hut circles within 
The Rings, one of them adjoining a corner of the building we have 
spoken of as resembling a tinner's house. A particularly striking 
example will be found near the centre of the pound ; in this the wall 
is composed of two concentric rows of stones. It seems probable that 
this enclosure after being vacated by its original builders was again 
occupied, perhaps at a much later period, and that some of the courts 
at least were then added. It is certain that the " tinners' house " 
formed no part of the early settlement. There are three entrances 
to the pound ; one at each end, and one in the upper wall towards the 
north. 

(N. of The Rings, or Brent Rings as they are often called, and 
close to the wall, are Ryder's Rocks, an extensive clatter covering 
much of the hillside, and N. of this is the steep Zeal Gully, through 
which a little stream runs down to Apton's Marsh and into the Avon. 
This it joins just above Viger's Corner, the higher bend on the river 
under Gripper's Pound (Ex. 29), close to which is Ryder's Ford. At 
Long-a-Traw Corner, the next bend downward, there is another 
crossing- place). 

On leaving The Rings we shall proceed N.W. over Zeal Plains, 
keeping along the brow of the hill, and at the distance of i m. shall 
reach Eastern Whitaburrow, 1,539 feet.* To this fine cairn, accord- 
ing to the perambulators of 1240, and the jurors of 1609 and 1786, the 
forest boundary came up from the confluence of the Avon and Wella 
Brook. But it is now regarded as being altogether outside the forest, 
the boundary being carried up the Avon to the Buckland Ford Water, 
and thence up the hill to Western Whitaburrow, which was indeed 
claimed as the line between Brent Moor and the forest so early as 
1557. (See Perambulation in the Terms Section). Eastern Whitaburrow 
is a very fine example of an ancient burial heap. It consists entirely 
of stones, and is 90 yards in circumference at its base, and 1 2 yards in 
height. Huntingdon Warren and Hickaton Hill (Ex. 29) are com- 
manded from it, while there is a good distant view. North-eastward 

Pronounced White-a-burrow, and often without the a. 



54 



BRENT DISTRICT. 



the Buckland Woods are seen, with the lofty Rippon Tor beyond, and 
still further away the heights of Haldon. The Channel bounds the 
prospect southward until it is lost behind the Beacon Rocks, on Ug- 
borough Moor. In the opposite direction Great Mis Tor is seen about 
N.W., and to the R. of it, beyond the dusky ridge extending westward 
from Aune Head, the hills of the north quarter of the forest. S.E. by 
S. is the town of Brent, and this great stone heap can readily be dis- 
cerned from the eastern railway bridge there. The hillside N. of 
Eastern Whitaburrow, at the foot of which the Avon runs, is known 
as Bush Meads, which there is evidence to show is a corruption, or 
contraction, of Bishop's Meads. In a sixteenth century document this 
tract is referred to as " Bishop's Mead, otherwise Busshe Mead," so- 
that we not only learn from this the true name, but also that over 
three hundred and fifty years ago bishop became bushop (pronounced 
booshup) in the Devon vernacular as it does to-day. 

From this lofty burial heap we shall direct our steps westward to 
Western Whitaburrow, noticing Bush Pits, the remains of former 
mining operations which extend along the brow of the hill, as we 
proceed. The ground is sometimes rather marshy near the object we 
are approaching, and it may therefore be necessary to keep a little to 
the R., at the same time taking care not to descend the hill. 



N. His- 

Staple Roose worthy Mis 
Tor. Tor. Tor. Tor. 



Gt. 

Links Maiden Balrdown 
Tor. Hill. Tor. 




FROM PETRE'S CROSS. LOOKING N.W. 

Western Whitaburrow forms the extreme southern bondmark of 
the forest, according to the limits now recognized. In our Cosdon 
section we have mentioned this cairn as being visible from that hill 
the northernmost point of the forest boundary line. If the visitor to 
Whitaburrow looks in a northerly direction he will see a small mound 
on the ridge about 2\ m. distant. This marks the situation of Aune 
Head, the morass at the source of the river being also distinguishable. 
Beyond this the openings between the hills through which the East 
Dart and the North Teign flow, permit him to see the rounded form 
of Cosdon, 1 6 m. distant. It bears a little W. of N. from this point. 
Looking in the opposite direction Three Barrows will be seen, 2 m. S. 
(Ex. 31 j ; Pen Beacon, with Shell Top overlooking it, about 4 m. W.S.W. 
(Ex. 34) ; nearer to us, and extending from S.S.W. to W., the long 



EXCURSION 30. WESTERN WHITABURROW. 55 

range of Stall Moor (Ex. 33) ; F,rme Head, 2 m. W.N.W., and nearly 
6 m. beyond it, North Hisworthy, N.W. (Princetown District and 
R. 58), with Great Mis Tor to the R., and still further away (Ex. 6) ; 
from this fine tor a distant range extends R. to Cut Hill, 1 1 m. N.N.W. 
(Ex. 1 1), to the R. of which, N. by W., is seen Siddaford Tor (Ex. 20) ; 
further R. is White Ridge, 10 m. N. (Ex. 45), over the western slope 
of which is seen the far-away Cosdon. Quite near to us is Huntingdon 
Warren (Ex. 29), and looking across this in a north-easterly direction 
we have a view of Rippon Tor and Hey Tor. Western Whitaburrow 
is generally referred to as Petre's Cross from the former existence on 
the cairn of a cross forming a bondmark of Sir William Petre's manor 
of Brent, where it abutted on the forest (Ex. 31).* This was partly 
destroyed about 1847 by the workmen employed at the turf ties at 
Red Lake Mires, but a portion of the shaft may still be seen. 
[Crosses, Chap. II.] The men, who mostly lived at or near Brent, 
built a house on the cairn, the foundations of which are still observable, 
and here they remained during the week. Dried heather and straw 
formed their bedding, and when their supplies of food were running 
short, or they desired a change of diet, they made incursions into 
Huntingdon Warren. Men who worked there have told me of the 
large number of rabbits they have seen prepared for dinner or supper. 
In view of this fact we can quite understand the necessity of the 
little watch-house of the warrener above Higher Bottom, of which 
we have already spoken (Ex. 29). The Whitaburrow house was slated, 
but when work at the ties at Red Lake Head ceased and the place 
was deserted, the roof was taken off by the late Mr. Meynell, the 
owner of the manorial rights of Brent Moor, and the materials removed. 
Whitaburrow is 63 yards in circumference, but its original height cannot 
be determined, as the stones were cleared from the centre where the 
house stood, but this does not appear to have been very great. 
The altitude of this hill is given as 1,575 f eet , but that of the bench 
mark on the shaft of the cross, which stands on the cairn, is 1,580 
feet. 

North-eastward of the cairn is a bondstone on the brow of the 
hill, sometimes called Little Petre. From this the forest line descends 
nearly to Buckland Ford (T. i), and thence to the Avon. 

[EXTENSION over Green Hill to Ducks' Pool, add 5 m. Close to 
Whitaburrow is the old Zeal Tor tram-road, elsewhere noticed (T. 60), 
and over which the peat from the ties m. N.W. was conveyed to the 
works at Shipley. From the former there is a stiff ascent to this point, 
but on passing the cairn there is a level for some distance, and then 
for a greater distance a descent to its termination. If we extend our 

* Sir William died in 1571. He left one son, John, who was 
advanced to the dignity of a Baron of England by the title of Lord 
Petre of Writtle in Essex, in 1603. It was Robert, seventh Lord 
Petre, who provided Pope with the idea of The Rape of the Lock, by 
stealing a lock of hair from the head of his beautiful cousin, Arabella 
Fermor. The famous Father Petre, who acted as confessor to James 
II., belonged to a branch of this family. The late Lord Petre died in 
December, 1908 ; his elder brother had been domestic prelate to the 
Vatican. 



56 BRENT DISTRICT. 

ramble to Green Hill this old tram-road will become our path for a 
little way, as in R. 58, which route we shall follow to Dark Lake. 
m. from the cairn we reach the Crossways, just beyond which, at the 
bottom of the descent, and on the R. of the road, a great wooden press 
formerly stood, and near this the wagons were loaded. At the Cross- 
ways we turn L. into the Abbots' Way (T. i ), and follow it to Red Lake 
Ford, having as we proceed the mire below us R., and Brown Heath L. 
It is this part of the old monks' road that the moormen generally refer 
to when they speak of Jobbers' Path (See T. i, 61). On nearing Red. 
Lake a bondstone, sometimes called the Outer U Stone, will be noticed 
on its bank, and one or two others will be seen on the slope of Brown 
Heath, L. These form the end of the line running out from the dip 
between Three Barrows and Sharp Tor (Ex. 32), and mark the 
boundary between Ugborough and Harford Moors. If the clay works 
now formed in this retired part of the moor do not interfere with 
the purity of its waters, the rambler will acknowledge that Red Lake 
is most suitably named. It certainly appears to be of that hue, 
though unlike the river of Adonis, in Phoenicia, which the marl of 
Lebanon stained red at the time of the spring floods, it is not really 
so. The water is perfectly clear ; it is only the pebbles in its bed 
that are coloured. Heaps of stones thrown up by the tinners here 
line the banks of the stream ; the large rock standing in the midst of 
the workings, some little distance below the crossing-place, is called 
the Cracker Stone. (See commencement of Route). 



Three 
Barrows. 



Sharp 
Tor. 




FROM GREEN HILI,. LOOKING S.S.E. 



r Prom Red Lake Ford we follow a north-westerly course across 
Green Hill, and in a little over m. shall reach a grass-covered gully, 
known as Middle Mires, though except in winter it is dry, In that 
season a rivulet rises in the lower part of it, and there it has been 
streamed ; below this are Dry Lake Rocks. The ruins of a small 
rectangular miners' hut may be seen on its bank, not far above 
where it joins the Erme. This little feeder has been not in- 
appropriately called Dry Lake, though it is occasionally referred 
to as Middle Brook, but its true name is Hux Lake (Ock ?). Carried 
across the upper end of the gully is the stone row noticed in Ex. 33. 



EXCURSION 30. DUCKS' POOL. THE WOLLAKE. 57 

which runs out from Stall Moor to the higher part of Green Hill, i,SS3 
feet, 4^ m. R., where it terminates in a ruined kistvaen. This hill 
affords the best pasturage in this part of the moor, and is probably 
identical with the " preda de Irm " named in an account of John 
D'Abernon, Constable of Lydford Castle and Custos of Dartmoor in 
the reign of Edward III. 

Still proceeding N.W. we shall in less than 4- m. reach Stony Hole, 
the extensive stream work on Dark Lake, and from which Black Lane 
runs N. (T. 75). As mentioned in our description of this track a 
rivulet flows into Dark Lake, or the Wollake, to give the stream its 
old name, at the head of the working. It comes in from the L. in 
ascending, and near here are the remains of a miners' building, to 
which the name of Ducks' Pool House has been given. This is of the 
usual type, but of small size, being only 8 feet 9 inches long by 5 feet 
6 inches wide on the inside. A fire-place and the ruins of a chimney 
are to be seen. Following the rivulet upward L., we shall be led direct 
to Ducks' Pool (T. 75), now emptied of water either by the stream 
having worn its channel down to the level of the bottom of the tarn, 
or by artificial means. This hollow bears a resemblance to Cranmere 
in more ways than one. It is still called a pool, though containing no 
water ; it is in a remote situation in the midst of the fen ; and has been 
associated with the heron, or crane. The latter appears in the name 
of the more northern hollow, and in the present case in Crane Hill, 
above the head of the Plym, which source is only a short distance to 
the N.W. But whether the name is derived from the bird is open to 
question ; it may possibly be a corruption of a word meaning something 
quite different, (cf. Cranmere Section in Part III). The name which 
this hollow now bears may have reference to wild ducks ; at all events, 
the valley of the Erme near Stony Bottom, about 2 m. distant, was 
once much frequented by those birds. 

We shall now return to the stream work, from which we have a 
view of the hills above the Erme valley, the principal being Three 
Barrows and Sharp Tor, with Butterdon Hill and the Western Beacon 
"beyond (Ex. 32), and on its western side the great mass of Stalldon 
Barrow (Ex. 33). Making our way down the workings we notice that 
the piles of stones are in many instances faced with a dry wall. Near 
the lower end we shall come upon two tinners' houses similar to the one 
already described, but larger. One measures 19 feet by 8 feet, on the 
inside ; the other 1 3 feet by 7 feet. Below the site of the streaming 
operations the Wollake enters a glen, on the eastern side of which are 
some masses of granite called Black Rocks, and having traced its 
course partly through this, we shall find on the R. bank the remains of 
what there is documentary evidence to show was once a tin mill, or 
place for crushing the ore, even were signs wanting that such was the 
case. In a forester's account of the time of Henry VIII. there is an 
entry of 3d. having been received as rent from " Richard Coole and 
Thomas Hele, for a mill called Wallack Mill, and two acres adjoining in 
the Forest of Dartmoor." Behind this little building is a ruined wall, 
which makes a semi-circular sweep on the hillside, and is continued on 
the L. bank of the stream. This, it will be seen, encloses a space of 
about two acres, which there can be little doubt is the parcel of land 
named by the forester. That the building was a mill is shown by the 
remains of a water-course leading to it. On the inside it measures 



58 BRENT DISTRICT. 

1 7 feet by 7 feet. Within the wall, on the L. bank, s another erection,. 

1 8 feet by 8 feet, but no doorway is to be seen.* 

Below these remains the Wollake runs on through the rocky 
hollow to the Erme, flowing past what is now generally referred to as 
Erme Pits Hill, R., but which is probably the same that was known 
in the seventeenth century by the name borne by the stream, and on 
which there are several deep excavations. John Webster, the author of 
Metalographia (1672), obtained some information about the mining 
in this locality from one Thomas Creber, a tinner, of Plympton. He 
learnt that " the hills where they get tin ore, near that place where he 
lived, are called Yelsbarrow and Woolack." The former, though now 
spelt Eylesbarrow, which is a near approach to its ancient form, is 
always pronounced as Webster spell's- it.f The working just described, 
as well as those at Erme Head near by, give a good idea of the different 
means employed by the tinners in their search for ore. Streaming was 
the earlier mode ; the sinking of pits a more modern practice. Erme 
Head is noticed in Ex. 33. 

A short distance from the confluence of the Wollake and the 
Erme (the tributary is here the larger stream), the former is crossed 
by the Abbots' Way (T. i ), at Black Lane Brook Pord. This old track 
runs along the foot of Green Hill, close to the Erme, and is seen again, 
at Dry Lake Ford, less than m. further E. As we make our way 
over it we have Horton's Combe across the river, R., and on passing 
the last-named ford shall notice another combe also on that side, 
which the moormen call Knocking Mill. These are described in Ex. 33. 
Here the valley of the Erme is seen extending southward, between 
Stall Moor R., and Brown Heath and Quickbeam Hill, L. Keeping 
near the Erme we soon reach Red Lake Rushes, below which we shall 
find a little fording-place close to the confluence of the two streams. 
We cross here, and strike up over Brown Heath E.S.E. to Western 
Whitaburrow, i m. distant. 

[Should the visitor desire to include Erme Pound and the anti- 
quities near it (Ex. 32) in this ramble he may do so without increasing 
the distance very much. In such a case he will keep near the Erme 
on crossing Red Lake, his course being S. The pound is only about 
\ m. down the valley. Western Whitaburrow, which, however, is not 
in sight, bears E. from it, and E.N.E. from the lower end of Stony 
Bottom. But it will be the better plan not to return thither, but to- 
follow the bottom to its head, and leaving Whitaburrow m. L- strike 
E.S.E. to Knattaburrow Pool.] 

Turning from the cairn from which we have had such an extensive 
view of the moor, we make our way S. along the Zeal Tor tramroad, 
and at the distance of 4r m. shall notice that it is crossed by a reave 
running N. and S. This, which is sometimes referred to as Meynell's. 
Bank, was thrown up some years ago when an attempt was made to- 
enclose Brent Moor, but which was resisted by the commoners. Should 
the rambler desire to return direct to Shipley he will follow the tramroad 

* A more detailed account of this old mill was given by me in the 
Western Antiquary, in 1889, and also of the stream works in this part 
of the moor. 

f The name has also been spelt Ailsborough, and there are several 
other renderings. 



EXCURSION 30. BALA BROOK. KNATTABURROW. $9 

as in R. 7, walking on the edge of it when he reaches that part 
upon which the bog has encroached. This will take him by the pits 
of the deserted Brent Moor Clay Works R., an undertaking started 
about 1872, but which had a very short existence. These, which will be 
seen at the head of a Streamwork, are sometimes referred to as Petre's 
Pits, but this merely on account of their being in the vicinity of Petre's 
Cross. One of the pits is named Hill's Pit, and another Hall's Pit, 
from two of the adventurers, who may consequently be said to have 
left something besides their money on the moor. Further down, 
where the tramroad bends R., is Broad Rushes I,., which extends to 
Ryder's Plain, and with that tract separates Zeal Plains from Zeal Hill. 
On the R. of the rambler is Bala Brook Heath, and here, on rather 
miry ground, are a number of hut circles within enclosures. Bala 
Brook, which rises at the workings referred to above, is one of three 
streams that run, when united, under Zeal Bridge, and fall into the 
Avon. The others are Middle Brook and Red Brook. Between 
Bala Brook and Middle Brook is Knattaburrow Hill, and between 
Middle Brook and Red Brook is Old Hill ; southward of the last-named 
stream is Hickley Ridge and Plain. The banks of all have been worked 
for tin, and the name of the principal one, Bala Brook, there is very 
little doubt has reference to this, bal, signifying a mine, and being in 
use among miners in the West at the present day. On the I/, bank of 
this brook, and near its confluence with the middle stream, are the 
remains of one of those little buildings which seem not inappropriately 
to have been named caches (see Terms Section). Near Broad Rushes 
a mile-stone will be seen by the side of the tramroad, and further on 
another marked " J." Here the rambler may leave the path and 
strike L. over Zeal Hill to Shipley. 

If we decide to return by way of Knattaburrow and Red Brook 
we shall, on reaching Meynell's Bank (from which a distant view 
of Plymouth is obtained) follow it across Whitey Mead, the depression 
between the head of Stony Bottom, R., and the source of 
Bala Brook, I,. On reaching its termination we shall notice that the 
Brent Moor boundary is marked by upright posts. This line extends 
nearly to Three Barrows, and runs roughly parallel to the one we have 
already noticed on Brown Heath. The area between these lines forms 
a part of Ugborough Moor, which is here very narrow ; the tract to the 
west of the latter is in Harford parish. We shall follow the boundary 
line S. for ^ m., when we shall find ourselves close to Knattaburrow 
Pool, L. This is probably an old clay pit, but its irregular shape conceals 
its true character, and gives it the appearance of a natural tarn. 
In this respect it is certainly more interesting than the better-known 
Crazy Well Pool, which is clearly artificial.* Knattaburrow, 
which is a fine cairn and well placed, will be seen a short distance off 
S.E., and to this we now make our way. Here we strike the track 
leading from Ball Gate to Bala Brook Head, and which, as we have 
already stated (T. 61), is sometimes called Jobbers' Path (in fact, 
it is so named on the Ordnance Map), but incorrectly. Jobbers' 
Path is really the Abbots' Way, and elsewhere I have brought forward 
evidence to show that the name is found upon that path at several 

* Knattaburrow Pool is sometimes spoken of as Petre's Pits Pool 
the name being taken from the cross in the vicinity. 



<5o BRENT DISTRICT. 

points between the Avon and the western side of the moor (Crosses, 
Chap. IX.)* The track is question runs to the Zeal Tor tramroad, 
which in turn touches the Abbots' Way at the Crossways, as we have 
seen, and it is this connection which has probably led to the name 
having been given to it. Much confusion has arisen from the loose 
manner in which names have sometimes been applied to places and 
objects on Dartmoor. Lakehead Hill, near Post Bridge, has been 
turned into Naked Hill, and I have before me an account of a run 
with the fox hounds hi which the ruined building bearing the name of 
Snails' House (derived from a story attaching to it) is referred to as 
Mr. Snell's house (Ex. 44). I could give a number of similar instances. 
Following the track S.W., we soon reach the head of the combe 
down which Middle Brook runs, and which is known as Petre's Pits 
Bottom. In this are the ruins of a building, in which it used to be 
said that the horses employed at the Red Lake Peat Works were stabled. 
It now goes by the name of Petre's Pits House, and sometimes as 
Uncle Ab's House. Below the higher part of the hollow Middle Brook 
bends a little to the L., and flows between high banks covered with the 
debris of old mining operations, as well as of more recent ones, as a 
comparatively modern building and wheel pit will show. Passing the 
combe the track goes on over Red Brook Ball, as the higher part of 
Old Hill is called, to Red Brook Mires, \ m. S., which it crosses at 
Higher Ford, but we shall now leave it and bear L., our course being 
S.E. by S., for i m. This will bring us to Lower Ford, which is situated 
on Red Brook, about the middle of its course, and at a point where 
the stream turns rather abruptly to the L. Among the mining remains 
on Red Brook are a few small buildings, and near the ford is a shallow 
granite trough. (Further N., on the other side of Old Hill, is another 
crossing-place, also known as Lower Ford. This is on Middle Brook, 
and just beyond it is Bala Brook Ford ; they are both near the con- 
fluence of the two streams named). 

Tracing Red Brook downward we shall speedily be led to one of 
those little beauty spots that are found occasionally in some out-of-the- 
way corner of the moor. This is Henchertraw, where the stream is shut 
in between high banks, approaching closely to each other, and covered 
in places with moss. Heather grows on their edges, and from their 
sides mountain-ash trees spring, the tremulous leaves hanging over 
the tiny cascades formed by the brook as it forces its way through 
this miniature canyon. [Gems, Chap. XVI.] Below this the waters 
run into the united Bala Brook and Middle Brook, and here on the R. 
bank is the interesting hut enclosure called the Half Ring, to which 
we have already referred. The wall, which is 204 yards from end to 
end, and about 4^ feet in height, describes the greater part of a circle, 
but does not appear ever to have formed a complete one, the river being 
probably deemed a sufficient protection on one side. Within it are four 
hut circles in a fairly good state of preservation, and vestiges of 
others. In the higher part of the enclosure there are several small 
courts, similar to those we have already noticed at The Rings, on 

* In a proclamation naming the bounds of Erme Plains the boun- 
dary is said to run from " Petre's Cross, and so on to Abbots' Way, 
otherwise Jobbers' Path, and from thence to Red Lake Head." See 
Ex. 32. 



EXCURSION 31. DIAMOND LANE. THREE BARROWS. 61 

Ryder's Plain. Close to the stream on the opposite bank is another 
enclosure, in which there are also hut circles. 

Passing downward we soon reach a small plantation, close to which 
is a hunting-gate. From this a path running near to the Bala Brook 
will lead us across two fields to the road at Zeal Bridge (T. 73). Here 
we turn R. to Didworthy, or Aish. 

[For the direct route to Western Whitaburrow from Shipley see 
R. 58 and S. Ex. 107.] 

Ex. 31. Diamond Lane, Hickley Plain, Three Barrows, Hobajmt's 
Cross [EXTENSION to Erme Pound, add 5 m.], The Rowe Rew, The 
West Glaze, Stone Rows, Fallen Dolmen, Ball Gate, Coryndon Ball, Aish 
Ridge, 8 m. 

Our first point will be the Shipley road, near Didworthy Bridge, 
which we may reach either by way of Lutton or Aish, as in Ex. 30. 
Thence we proceed towards the moor, and in m. shall find ourselves 
at the foot of Diamond Lane, which runs up to the commons L. This 
bridle track, of which we have already spoken (T. 59), will now become 
our path, and though it is steep and rugged, it is probable that we shall 
make better progress than did the coach and four which, according 
to local tradition, was once driven up here [Crosses, Chap. XVI.] 
Near the head of the lane the rambler will notice a granite trough, 
apparently an unfinished one ; objects such as this were usually cut 
on the spot where a stone suitable for the purpose was found, and 
for certain reasons were sometimes never completed. The ancient track 
goes on between two newtakes, when the common is reached, but we 
shall strike up the slope R., and on gaining the head of the short stroll, 
turn L,. and make our way over Hickley Plain, our course being a little 
N. of W. In i^ m. from the newtake corner we shall reach the summit 
of the hill known as Three Barrows, which rises to a height of 1,521 
feet, and forms an important landmark in this part of the moor. It 
derives its name from a group of three large cairns, the centre one of 
which stands on the crest of the eminence. These are on the great 
reave which we have already noticed in the Terms Section. The 
centre cairn is in the line of it, though some of the stones have been 
removed during the past seventy years ; the southernmost is 
close to it ; and the northernmost only a few yards removed from it. 
This reave, which is referred to in the sixteenth century as " a long 
conger of stones called L,e Rowe Rew," comes up the hill S. from above 
East Glaze Head, where it presents the usual appearance of a bank of 
turf. North of the cairns its character is different. Here it may be 
likened to a causeway, though it is difficult to see how it could ever have 
served the purpose of a road, as has been suggested, since it is only 
continued for a short distance. 

In 1871 the late Mr. Spence Bate, while engaged in some anti- 
quarian investigations here, found the mutilated head of a cross. 
This in all probability was the remains of one of four set up in 1557 by 
Sir Thomas Dennys and others who had been appointed to survey the 
bounds of Brent Moor, which was then in the possession of Sir William 
Petre. The commissioners certified that they had erected these as 
follows : One on the middle cairn at Three Barrows ; another at 
Western Whitaburrow, which we have already noticed (Ex. 30) ; a 
third at Buckland Ford, of which I have never been able to discover 



62 BRENT DISTRICT. 

any traces ; and a fourth at Wella Brook Foot, at the corner of 
Huntingdon Warren, which is still standing (Ex. 29). On the old 
map of Dartmoor now in the Albert Memorial Museum at Exeter, and 
which it seems probable was prepared in connection with this inquisi- 
tion on the Brent Moor boundary, a cross is shown southward of Three 
Barrows, standing on a calvary, and bearing the name of Hobajon's 
Cross. As no cross is now to be found on the spot indicated, it is 
possible that it was removed by the commissioners to Three Barrows. 
[Crosses, Chap. II.] But the name is now attached to an object about 
J m. N. by W. of the centre cairn a small pile of stones on the boundary 
between the parishes of Brent and Ugborough. This is also a bond- 
mark of that tract of moor known as Erme Plains, which, though 
partly in the parish of Ugborough and partly in Harford, is within the 
manor of Ermington. But I do not find that in the proclamation 
read at the time of perambulating the bounds of Erme Plains any 
mention of Hobajon's Cross is made. The point in question is there 
referred to as "a small heap of stones near Left Lake Head, at the 
end of the ridge of stones which proceeds north-west from the middle 
borough of Three Boroughs." (See Ex. 32, 33).* 

[EXTENSION to Erme Pound and the Brown Heath Antiquities, add 
5 m. Erme Pound may readily be reached from Three Barrows, 
from which it is distant 2^- m. The rambler will proceed down the 
" ridge of stones " to the " small heap," whence the boundary of Brent 
Moor is marked by a row of posts running N., the same which we 
saw at Meynell's Bank (Ex. 30). This, however, must not be followed. 
Instead, the rambler will strike down the hill L. towards the row 
erected on the line between Ugborough Moor and Harford Moor, and 
at the distance of a few hundred yards will strike the Blackwood 
Path (T. 63), into which he will turn R. This will lead him to a ford 
immediately below Left Lake Mires, and shortly afterwards to the 
U Stone, where he will cross the boundary line. The path runs on 
W. of the latter, and nearly parallel to it, to a ford on Hook Lake in 
Stony Bottom, and not far from the hut enclosures referred to in 
Ex. 30, and described in Ex. 32. These will be found L. soon after 
crossing the stream. This part of the moor, which is particularly 
interesting from an antiquarian point of view, is noticed in the last- 
named excursion.] 

The view from Three Barrows embraces a great extent of moor, 
on one hand, and of cultivated country on the other. It overlooks 
the frontier heights in this part of Dartmoor, being nearly 300 feet 
higher than Ugborough Beacon Rocks, and considerably more than 
400 feet higher than the Western Beacon, above Ivybridge. Much of 
the Erme Valley is in sight, but due W. (where it is formed by this 
conspicuous height and the lofty down crowned with Stalldon Barrow) 
it cannot be seen. To look upon that part of it the rambler must 
descend the hill for a little way. On this -side, below the line of the 
Harford boundary stones, there are several groups of hut circles, some 
of the examples of these ruined dwellings being particularly good. 

* Among other forms of this name are Threberis, Tryberie 
Boroughs, Triborough, and Tre Boroughs. Hobajon's is always 
Hoppyjone's with the moormen. 



EXCURSION 31. THE GLAZES. 63 

Turning from the three huge piles of stones we shall follow the 
reave down the hill S.S.E. for about ^ m., passing on the way a small 
tumulus of the kind usually heaped over a kistvaen. The boundary 
line of Brent Moor goes on to East Glaze Head, but we shall leave it 
-and continue S.S.E. to West Glaze Head, and follow that stream for 
nearly | m. to Glascombe (i.e., Glaze Combe) Corner. At its source 
scattered stone heaps covered with moss, and a shallow gully, attest 
the former presence here of the tinners, and on the way down we notice 
-other objects reminiscent of them. The stream at first runs through 
a rather wide and flat bottom, having low banks, but soon these 
approach each other and form a hollow. In this, at the head of a 
marshy spot, is a cache, not unlike the one we have noticed on Rue Lake, 
near Rival Tor (Ex. 19), in being partly the work of Nature. This 
little secret store place is nine or ten feet long and about three feet high. 
About twenty yards from it is a granite trough. Further down, and 
not far from Glascombe Corner, a very extensive working commences, 
and at the head of this, among the heaps of debris, is a mould stone. 
Part of this working is within the farm enclosures which are now 
reached, the wall having been carried through it. At the corner there 
is a ford where the track from Buckfast to Plympton crossed the stream 
(T. 59). This we shall notice is roughly paved. 

[Should the rambler desire to return by way of Owley, which route 
will take him down the valley of the Glaze, he will follow the in- 
structions given hi S. Ex. 1 10. The valley itself, and also Ugborough 
Beacon, are noticed in S. Ex. 111.] 

Turning eastward we make our way along the ancient path with 
the wall of the enclosures close to us R., and shall shortly come upon 
a group of pre-historic remains which, if not particularly striking, is 
yet of more than ordinary interest to 'the antiquarian visitor. It 
consists of eight parallel rows of stones ; one running westward from 
a low tumulus, and seven seemingly being connected with a small 
circle, of which only a part now exists. The rows, which extend for 
about a hundred yards, are incomplete, and the stones composing them 
are small, but their number is unusual, and it is this feature that will 
attract the attention of those who are interested in such monuments. 
Perhaps these remains may properly be regarded as forming two 
monuments ; one consisting of a single row, the other of seven. 

Passing onward we soon reach the East Glaze, at Glascombe 
Upper Plantation, where there is another ford. This stream is now 
regarded as forming the western boundary of the parish of Brent, but 
It has been said that formerly this extended to the West Glaze. In a 
document dated 1812, in which the acreage of the commons and waste 
lands of the manor of South Brent are set forth, there is an entry 
referring to the Glazes, which is stated to consist of over sixty-four 
acres, and to be situated " between Easter and Wester Glazes." 
Another entry refers to Glascombe, which, according to the document, 
was " formerly said to be in the parish of South Brent." It is further 
stated that it " now pays rates and taxes to Ugborough ; said to be 
lost from Brent by a man who was found dead on the spot and buried 
by the charity of the inhabitants of Ugborough, and is in measure 
42a., ir., 38p." This story, which we remember to have heard many 
years ago, is a counterpart of the one related in connection with 
Sourton Common (S. Ex. 35 ; cf. also Ex. 34), and is also met with in 



64 SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM BRENT. 

other places. It would appear, however, that the existing bounds of 
Brent Moor in this locality, are the same as those recognized in the 
sixteenth century, for a document of the date 1557 draws them from 
" a certain valley or place where and in which two waters called I<es- 
Glases run together into one " to Glaze Head, and thence by the reave 
running up to Three Barrows (Ex. 31). 

Making our way by the wall we soon draw near Ball Gate, and here, 
on the L., close to a despoiled cairn, of which little now remains, is a 
ruined dolmen. It is unfortunate that this should have fallen, or 
perhaps have been intentionally overthrown, as examples of this kind 
of monument are rare on Dartmoor. The supporters show that it 
was not of great height, but its surroundings must have rendered it 
very striking, particularly when the cairn near it was intact. 

Northward of these remains is Brent Fore Hill, or, as it is some- 
times called, Homer Hill, meaning the hill nearest the Brent in-ground. 
Still further N. is Hickley Plain, over which we passed on our way 
from Diamond L,ane to Three Barrows. 

Passing through Ball Gate and the little drift court (see Court in 
Terms Section) we enter upon Coryndon Ball, and follow the road over 
this with Treeland Down on the further side of the wall I,.,* as in 
S. Ex. 109, where the way over Aish Ridge is described. 

From Ball Gate we may also return by way of Merrifield, as shewn 
in S. Ex. 108. 

[A rather more direct route from Brent to Three Barrows, 4 m., 
is via Aish and Ball Gate, S. Ex. 1 10 ; from Wrangaton, 4 m., by Peek 
Gate and the Glaze, S. Ex. in ; from Ivybridge, 4-^ m., by Addicombe 
and Hangershell Rock, Ex. 32 and S. Ex. 115.] 



Shorter Excursions from Brent. 

S. Ex. 99. Brent Hill, 3 m. This fine hill of trap rock attains- 
an elevation of 1,017 feet, and commands extensive views of the South 
Hams and south-eastern border heights of the moor. It may be 
reached by way of L,utton (Ex. 29). Turn R. on reaching the green 
and pass up through a narrow lane to the down. Soon after entering 
upon it the rambler will observe a little gate in the wall above. Pass 
through this and turn I,., and keeping near the wall, make for the 
summit. This part of the down is known as Beara Common. Shortly 
before reaching the top a rampart and ditch will be seen, the hill having 
formerly been fortified on this side (cf. Brent Tor, Ex. 9). The other 
side was naturally protected, being there very steep and rocky. Of 
the little building which once crowned this conspicuous height only a 
fragment now exists. This we have noticed in our Terms 
Section (see Beacon). From no hill on the moorland borders is the 
view more varied than from this one. Southward there is a fine 

* On this down are several hut circles which are sometimes 
referred to as the Pixies' Rings. 



SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM BRENT. 65 

panorama of field and woodland, with farmsteads and towers of village 
churches. The valley of the Avon can be traced for many miles ; 
glimpses of the Channel off Torbay and westward of the Bolt Tail are 
obtained ; the higher part of Torquay is seen, and several landmarks 
on the coast, with Berry Head and the Bolt Head. S.W. is Ugborough 
Beacon, with the moor extending from it northward ; the valley above 
Shipley is seen N. by W. ; beyond it rises Eastern Whitaburrow, and 
to the R. of this Huntingdon Warren house is seen peeping over Dock- 
well Ridge. Away to the N. is Hameldon, and between it and Challa- 
combe Down, W. of it, the break in the huge hill is which Grim's 
Pound is situated is plainly discernible. R. of Hameldon are the 
lofty tors above the E. side of the Widecombe valley, and when the 
sun is shining on it the tower of Widecombe Church clearly reveals 
itself. N. by E. is Rippon Tor, with the bosses of Hey Tor looking 
over the shoulder of the hill it crests, and below it the woods of 
Buckland. To return strike down the hill due E. to a gate opening 
upon a bridle path. Turn R. to the high road, and passing Leigh 
Cross descend to the village. 

(The crags on the W. side of Brent Hill are best seen by turning 
I/, on entering upon the down above Lutton. If this route is followed 
the visitor may make his way to the summit by the grassy slopes 
between the piles. Another way to the summit is by the steep path 
E. of Underbill Farm). 

S. Ex. 100. The Valley of Dean Burn, 12 m. With road to Deari 
Prior Church and Buckfastleigh. For the first 3 m. the way lies along 
the old road to Buckfastleigh. Cross the eastern railway bridge 
and ascend Leigh Cross Hill. Keep L. at the fork. Note the bridle 
path leading to Beara Common L. just beyond. Straight on to Har- 
bournford Cross, then down the hill to Harbournford hamlet, where 
there is a footbridge, built clapper fashion, over the Harbourn (Ex. 
29). Ascend the hill passing Dean Cross and Clampits Stile, to a 
plantation, where the road forks. 

(The lane R. leads to Dean Prior, the way to which by the new road 
from Brent is shown in R. 66. Here Herrick was vicar from 1629 until 
1647, when he was deprived of the living, but he returned to it after the 
Restoration, and died here in 1674. The road going straight on leads 
to Dean ; Buckfastleigh is about i m. beyond that place.) 

The road L. is the one we must follow, leaving the plantation on 
our R., and just after passing this must again turn L-, and then almost 
immediately R. The lane will take us down to Dean Combe, beyond 
which we reach Warn Bridge on the Dean Burn. Close to this is a 
gate where we gain access to the narrow valley named after the stream, 
and which extends upwards to Lambs Down and Cross Furzes. The 
scenery throughout is of a romantic character. The sides of the 
vale are wooded, and in places grey crags thrust themselves from 
amid the foliage, while the stream forcing its way through its rocky 
channel forms more than one fine cascade. [Gems, Chap. XV.] The 
sound of falling water tells the visitor that he is near one of these ere 
he has advanced far into the wood. This is the spot where one 
Knowles, a weaver, is condemned to do penance in the form of a black 
hound, according to a tradition gathered in the neighbourhood by 
Richard John King, an authority on Devon folk-lore and antiquities. 

r4 



66 SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM BRENT. 



The basin into which the water falls is known as the Hound's Pool ; 
further up is Pan Pool, and this also has its story. Passing up the 
valley under Dean Clatters, and noticing Skerraton Farm high up on 
the side of a combe L-, the visitor will draw near Larkham Wood and 
reach the termination of the path, when he will find it his best plan to 
climb the side of the valley R. to Wallaford Down. Over this he will 
make his way northward to Cross Furzes, where he will turn down I,. 
and cross the Burn. From this point the homeward route is shown 
hi R. 33 and S. Ex. 103. Cross Furzes and Lambs Down Farm near 
by, are noticed in S. Ex. 101, as also is Skerraton Down, from which 
there is a fine view of the valley. 

S. Ex. 101. Cross Furzes and Scorriton Down, 14 m. With road 
to Holne. By the Lutton road to the little green beyond Bloody Pool, 
as hi Ex. 29. Thence down the lane R. to Gigley Bridge, which spans 
the Harbourn. On the L. are the enclosures of Dockwell Farm and 
Reddacleave Farm, and in the valley R. Higher and Lower Thyna- 
combe Woods, past which the stream flows on to Zempson Bridge and 
Harbournford. Pass upward from the bridge and turn L. Avoid the 
lane R., which leads by Dean Combe to Buckfastleigh and Ashburton 
(R. 73). This is marked by a guide- stone showing the direction of 
the last-named town, and also that of Totnes, Plympton (or Plymouth). 
and Tavistock. Continue onward to Skerraton Down, and leaving the 
road, follow the green track which runs up over it. 

[By striking across the down, near the hedge R., the brow of the 
hill forming the western side of the valley of Dean Burn will be speedily 
reached, and a fine view of that romantic glen obtained. On the R., 
overlooking Dean Wood, but unseen, is Skerraton (S. Ex. 100), the 
ancient Sciredun, once held, together with lands in Shipley, by David. 
by the serjeantry of two arrows when the king hunted on Dartmoor. 
It was afterwards similarly held by Roger Mirabel, but being forfeited 
by him was given to Walter Medicus, and in 1275 was in the possession 
of John Boy vile, who married Dionisia, the daughter of Medicus. 
Skerraton appears in a forester's account of 1 502 as " Shiridon in 
parochia de Dene," and then paid a venville rent of 7d.] 

The track leads to a gate at the higher part of the down opening 
on to Dean Moor, and from this goes onward by the wall of Lambs' 
Down to Water Oke Corner, from which point the reave referred to in 
the section on The Moors of Holne and Buckfastleigh runs up the hill 
to Pupers. If the visitor is driving to Cross Furzes he must pass 
through this gate, and turning R. to another enter upon Lambs' Down, 
the way then running in front of the ruined farm.* But the pedestrian 
will leave the gate L. and pass across the higher side of the down near 
the wall, and will shortly afterwards descend to a little feeder of the 
Dean Burn stream. Pass through the hunting-gate and up the narrow 
path. Here is a fine view of the valley. Close by are the ruined walls 
of Lambs' Down Farm, locally Lemson Farm. The track now descends 
to the Burn, where is a fording-place, and a single stone clapper 1 1 feet 

* The down is usually referred to as Lambs' Down Waste in order 
to distinguish it from the farm. Just above Cross Furzes on the Dean 
Burn is Lower Ford, and still further up is Higher Ford, and Forder 
Farm. 



SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM BRENT. 67 

8 inches long, 3 feet 7 inches wide at its centre, and about 10 inches 
thick. At its western end the date 1705, followed by the script letters 
G.R., is cut upon its surface, and about the middle of it near its edge 
is a later one 1737, preceded by the letters B.D.A. From the bridge 
we ascend the side of Cross Furzes, a small open space where several 
roads cross (T. i). The first on the R. runs S.E. across Wallaford 
Down, a common between the Dean Burn valley S. and King's Wood 
N., and thence by Wallaford Cross to Buckfastleigh. The next on that 
side runs about E. down the hill between King's Wood R. and Brook 
Wood L. to Hockmoor Head, on the road from Buckfastleigh to the 
moor. The one running N. from the higher corner is the Scorriton 
and Holne road ; and the other bearing L., or N.W. from the corner 
goes on past the entrance to Hayford to Lid Gate, which opens on 
Buckfastleigh Moor. Note the guide-stone near the corner with the 
initials of Brent, Tavistock, and Ashburton. Following the road 
Tunning N., the rambler will descend to Two Oaks, m., and take the 
L. branch at the fork, and \ m. further on will cross the Mardle at 
Combe Bridge. About m. beyond this is the hamlet of Scorriton, 
-where a road turns L., or W., up the hill to Scorriton Down. 

[From Scorriton, where is a small inn called The Tradesmen's 
Arms, the Holne road runs to Holy Brook Bridge, near which a lane 
leads L. to Michelcombe, a small hamlet. (The Holy Brook comes 
<iown from Gibby's Combe Wood through Michel Combe, which gives 
name to this little place). On crossing the bridge keep R. up the hill. 
At the top turn L. to Play Cross, and then R. to the village.] 

The rambler will make his way to the down as above, passing 
Clarke's Barn Plantation immediately before he reaches it. Here he 
will follow a track for a short distance W., which will lead him to Chalk 
Pord, on the Mardle (T. 56), which stream enters Scae Wood just below. 
{For a notice of the objects in this locality see the Section on The Moors 
of Holne and Btickfastleigh.) Above the ford the Wheal Emma leat 
will be seen rushing down the hill into the Mardle, from which the water 
is again taken above Combe and conducted to the mine. Turn S.up 
the hill on crossing the footbridge, keeping the enclosures close I,. 
Pass the stroll leading to Lid Gate, and also Hayford Plantation, L-. 
and about m. further on Water Oke Corner will be reached. Here 
the rambler may turn eastward, and keeping the wall L., make his way 
to Skerraton Down, on entering upon which he will follow the in- 
structions given in R. 33 and S. Ex. 101 ; or he may bear S. and strike 
the green path running to Dockwell Gate (T. 55) This path leaves 
Parnell's Hill L-, and descends to the head of Dockwell Hole, (note 
the bond-stone called The Goose, R.), where it is a plainly defined track, 
and can be readily followed to the gate. Pass up the wide stroll to 
the little green, whence the way to Brent is shown in S. Ex. 103. 

S. Ex. 102. Cross Furzes and Pupers, 13^ m. To Cross Furzes 
as in the preceding excursion. Strike L. from the higher corner up the 
lane to Lid Gate, with Hayford L. On emerging on the moor the 
rambler will find himself at the foot of Pupers Hill, the rocks on its 
summit being about m. distant. These are noticed in the Section 
on The Moors of Holne and Buckfastleigh. Having visited them the 
rambler may follow the reave extending S.S.E. from Inner Pupers. 
i.e., the eastern pile, down the hill to Water Oke Corner. Here he may 



68 SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM BRENT. 

choose his homeward route as in the last excursion. The most direct 
route to Pupers from Brent is by way of this corner, which may be 
reached as directed in S. Ex. 101, or S. Ex. 104. 

S. Ex. 103. Dockwell Hole and Skerraton Down, 8 m. Dockwell 
Gate is the first point ; see Ex. 29. (From here Shipley Tor is f m. 
distant I,., the way to it lying along by the wall outside the enclosures). 
Turn R. soon after passing through the gate, and descend the slope to 
Dockwell Hole, as directed in Ex. 29, where the remains near Harbourn 
Head are noticed. A track goes eastward from Harbourn Head Ford 
to a gate in the wall of Skerraton Down, whence a road runs by the 
side of it to the lower corner, S., at which it is entered upon from 
Gigley Bridge, as described in S. Ex. 101. This the rambler may- 
follow, or he may strike across from the Long Stone to the gate further 
N., at the higher part of the down, as noticed in the same excursion. 
In either case his point will be the lower corner. On leaving the down 
here follow the lane and take the first turning R. to Gigley Bridge, as 
directed in R. 33. On crossing the bridge pass up the lane to the little 
green, and bear L. Exactly m. on, and just after passing Bloody 
Pool R., is Gingaford Cross (guide-post). Here take the R. branch. 
A short distance further on the road again forks, the R. branch going; 
on past Downstow to Yolland and the moor. Take the L. branch, 
and | m. on Lutton Green will be reached. Continue on the road, and 
at the foot of Splatton Hill keep I/, to the village, with the vicarage 
grounds R. 

S. Ex. 104. Huntingdon Warren direct, via Dockwell Gate and 
Water Oke Plain. The Warren House is 6 m. from Brent. To Dock- 
well Gate as in Ex. 29. Thence the way will lie over the Combestone 
Tor track, with Dockwell Hole at the bottom of the slope R. On. 
passing the head of the hollow Parnell's Hill is R., and Small Brook 
Plains L. A straight line to the Warren House would take the rambler 
to Brock Hill Ford and over Hickaton Hill, but the better way is to 
continue on the green track over Water Oke Plain to a little fording- 
place on the leat, \ m. N.W. of Water Oke Corner. (The route to this 
point via Gigley Bridge is shown in S. Ex. 101). Huntingdon Bridge,. 
in front of the house, is i m. distant W. by N., and the ground is good, 
throughout the way. 

[The warren may also be reached from Shipley (Ex. 30, S. Ex. 106). 
If the I,, bank of the Avon be chosen it should be followed up to Lower 
Huntingdon Corner, and the Wella Brook be crossed there at 
Huntingdon Ford ; if the rambler proceeds to the corner by the R.. 
bank (S. Ex. 106) he will cross the river there at Avon Ford.] 

A return route from the warren is given in Ex. 29. 

S. Ex. 105. Yolland, Dockwell Ridge, and Shipley, 7 m. To- 
Lutton Green as in Ex. 29. Straight on N. for about m., when a gate 
L. must be entered and the footpath followed over some fields. Cross 
the lane at Over Brent Farm and another field, then turn R. into a 
second lane ; follow it for a few score yards and turn up the hill L. 
At Downstow Cross. $ m., a lane turns L. to Didworthy Bridge. Here 
note the view : northward Shipley Tor, westward Ugborough Beacon, 
Rocks, and southward Brent Hill. A little further on is Yolland 
Cross. Enter the gate and follow the road past the farm and the fine 



SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM BRENT. 69 

grove near it (R. 73). A short distance beyond this leave the path and 
strike L,. across Yolland Waste to a hunting gate, Yolland Warren 
being I/. On passing through the gate Dockwell Ridge is reached. 
Under this name is comprehended that part of the Brent common land 
.situated on the E. side of the Avon, and consisting of 374 acres, the 
jiorthern boundary of which is marked by the line of posts extending 
irom Dockwell Hole to Small Brook Foot. Turn L,. to Shipley Tor, 
\ m. westward. Shortly before this is reached a circular stone, 3 feet 
10 inches in diameter, and 10 inches thick, will be seen built into the 
"wall. It is similar to the one we have already noticed near Dockwell 
Gate (Ex. 29) and the same size, but the hole in its centre is only about 
2| inches deep. This wall cuts across Shipley Tor, and another runs 
down the hill S. from the rocks at right-angles to it. On the W. side 
of the latter is Black Brake, and on the lower side of this, there are 
more of these circular stones. (These may be reached by passing 
through the hunting-gate near the tor to another gate R., a little way 
down the hill. Just above this, one of them, in a partly finished state, 
may be seen in the wall, and below the gate but on that side of the wall 
facing W., is another. The others are further down ; one is on its 
face, and partly built upon, and another, which is also on its face, is 
hidden among scattered rocks and bushes. These were probably 
intended for mill stones, and not for crushing ore. I have known 
those who remember when it was customary to go to the moor to cut 
stones for the corn mills, and that this had been done for a long period 
is most likely). 

Prom the hunting-gate we pass down the hill S. to the road (R. 33) 
where we turn R. to the moor gate. The return from Shipley Bridge 
to Brent is given hi Ex. 29. If the rambler chooses the route via 
Didworthy he need not cross the bridge from the point he has now 
reached, but may make his way to that place by a pleasant footpath. 
Close to the gate is another, L,. ; this he will enter, and the path will 
lead him across some fields to the one opening on the yard at the back 
of the Sanatorium. The wooded Didworthy Bottom (noticed in the 
next excursion) is kept R. 

S. Ex. 106. Shipley Bridge and Long-a-Traw, 9 m. To Shipley 
via Lutton and Didworthy, or via Aish, as in Ex. 30. If via Didworthy 
the rambler may take the field path from that place to Shipley, as in 
the last excursion. He will cross the lane on leaving the yard of the 
Sanatorium, and passing up by some cottages will soon reach the 
fields, over which he will follow the path with Didworthy Bottom L. 

[A private path runs through the woods from Didworthy Bridge 
to Shipley. This is carried along the L. bank of the Avon, and from 
it a view of the confluence of that river and Red Brook, or Bala Brook, 
is obtained (Ex. 30), the picture being a very charming one. It also 
passes close to a rocky canyon known as Zeal Pool, at the head of which 
is a cataract, and still further up a series of beautiful cascades. Just 
below the latter the path approaches quite near to the river. [Gems, 
Chap. XVI.] 

From Shipley the road running eastward by the enclosures of 
Shipley Cottage should be followed for about m., when a gate will be 
reached L., from which a hunting path leads ^p the tor (R. 64). A 
track runs N. from the latter over Stone Heath, and parallel to it, and 



70 SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM BRENT. 

near to the wall, is another, but neither goes very far out. By follow- 
ing the line of these the rambler has a good view of the narrow valley 
below, with Brent Moor House and Brent Moor Cottages close to the 
river. Keeping near the decayed boundary hedge I,, he will pass, 
above the two clatters that stream down into the river, known as- 
Woolholes and Higher Woolholes, in which Reynard sometimes finds 
a shelter. Near the point where the hedge turns down the hill some 
small pounds containing hut circles will be noticed, and further E. on 
Dockwell Ridge are several low reaves. Here the rambler will descend 
to Woola Plain on the L. bank of the river at the lower end of Long-a- 
Traw (Ex. 29), where is a deserted granite quarry. He will now make 
his way upward, noticing Long-a-Traw Island as he proceeds. Not 
far from this, on a part of the plain called Peathy's Path, are the faint 
vestiges of a hut, or building of some sort. In front is Gripper's Hill, 
and between it and Small Brook is Itifer Bottom, which runs up to- 
Small Brook Plains. This part of the moor, including the canyon 
through which the Avon flows, is noticed in Ex. 29. Crossing the river 
either immediately below the canyon, or at Viger's Corner a little way 
above it, the rambler will make his way down the R. bank. (The 
Rings are on the brow of the hill above him, Ex. 30). Ere he has pro- 
ceeded far it will be necessary to leave the river, as near it is Black 
Tor Mire, but when opposite to the granite quarry, and under Black 
Tor, he may again approach it, and will then follow the road down, 
its R. bank. The little building near where he strikes it was once a 
smithy connected with the quarry, and not far from this, and close to 
the path, there was formerly a rock to which the name of Hobbs* 
Nose was given, from its fancied resemblance in form to the nasal 
organ of a certain quarryman of that name who once worked there. 
Just below Brent Moor House a granite pedestal will be noticed on a 
rock R. This was erected to the memory of a little daughter of Mr. 
Meynell, who formerly resided here. The river here runs over a solid 
bed of granite. A little further down, R. of the way, and below Stone 
Hollow, is the Hunter's Stone, a rock bearing the names of four fol- 
lowers of hounds well known on Dartmoor in a former day Treby, 
Trelawny, and Bulteel being graven on its sides, and on the top Carew. 
This memorial was the work of Mr. C. A. Mohun-Harris, who lived 
at Brent Moor House for a time. Not far below there is a fine water- 
fall. Passing the buildings originally erected as a naphtha factory, 
and afterwards repaired and utilized by the Brent Moor Clay Company 
(T. 60), the rambler reaches Shipley Bridge. For routes to Brent 
see Ex. 29, S. Ex. 105. See end of S. Ex. 112. 

S. Ex. 107. Western Whitaburrow direct. This cairn is 5 m. 
from Brent. To Shipley as in Ex. 30. Then by the old Zeal Tor 
tramroad as shown in R. 58. 

S. Ex. 108. Hickley Ridge, Henchertraw, arid Merrifield, 64- m. 
To Zeal Bridge and through the gateway close to to it, L. On reaching 
the common keep near the river to the Half Ring, and then follow up 
Red Brook L. to Henchertraw (Ex. 30). Just above this strike S.S.E. 
over Hickley Plain to Merrifield Plantation, f m., which keep L. Near 
to this is the grave of Quicksilver, a hunter belonging to Mr. Calmady, 
\vhich dropped dead 'here when being ridden by his owner with the 



SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM BRENT. 71 

Dartmoor hounds about thirty-five years ago. Enter the gate below the 
plantation, and follow the path past Merrifield Farm to Badworthy 
Brook, where turn up the hill R. to Binnamore Cross. Turn R. to 
Aish. 

S. Ex. 109. Merrifield, Brent Fore Hill, and the East Glaze, 6| m. 
To Aish and on by the Shipley road, or by the pathfields entered above 
Lydia Bridge, as in Ex. 30. \ m. beyond the hamlet Binnamore Cross 
is reached. Turn L,. and descend the hill with Staddon Plantation on 
that side, to Badworthy Brook, where a track leads I,, to Treeland. 
On passing over the brook turn I,, up across the fields past Merrifield 
to the common. Strike W.N.W. over Brent Fore Hill to some rocks 
known as Sharp Tor, not far from East Glaze Head, which is m. S.E. 
of Three Barrows. This stream rises in a marsh, on the lower side of 
which vestiges of the operations of the old tinners are observable. 
Following it downward a small working is soon reached, and a little 
removed from the L,. bank is a gert over 100 yards in length, and about 
15 feet deep. Below the working a leat is taken from the stream, and 
here, but on the opposite bank, is a hut circle. Still following the 
Glaze the rambler will speedily reach Glascombe Upper Plantation, 
where he will turn L. to Ball Gate. Here is the fallen dolmen and 
ruined cairn noticed hi Ex. 31. Passing through the gate, as in that 
excursion, the rambler will follow the road by the side of Coryndon 
Ball R. to the plantation of the same name. The road will lead him 
down by the side of this to a stroll at the end of which is a gate. Pass 
through this and up the hill to Aish Ridge. Then leave the road and 
strike L. up over the common by the gravel pit following the green 
path to the gate at its eastern corner. From here a lane runs down 
the hill to Aish, m. distant. (Another, leading to some fields, 
branches from it ; on reaching this keep R.) 

S. Ex. no. Aish Ridge, Coryndon Ball, Glascombe Bottom, Owley, 
6 m. To Aish as in Ex. 30. Avoid the first turning L., but take the 
next on that side at the higher part of the hamlet, and follow this up 
to the down. Thence across this westward to Aish Ridge Plantation. 
Keep this L., and descend the hill to the gate. Pass through the stroll, 
and up the narrow lane with Coryndon Ball Plantation L. Thence 
the road runs straight on to Ball Gate. Coryndon Ball is an enclosed 
down, extending about m. from N. to S. and the same from E. to W. 
It is bounded on the W. by the East Glaze, and on the slope above that 
stream there are some small pounds and hut circles ; there are also 
some stones having something of the appearance of a row. At Ball Gate 
the rambler will turn L., his route being the reverse of that described 
in Ex: 31, to which he is referred for notices of the objects passed. 
This will bring him to Glascombe Corner, i m. distant. (Three Bar- 
rows is ij m. distant N.W. by N. See Ex. 31 ; Ugborough Beacon 
Rocks i m. S.S.E. See S. Ex. 112). Turning L. he will trace the 
West Glaze down the valley, passing the great stream work men- 
tioned in Ex. 31. This is succeeded by Glascombe Lower Plantation, 
below which is Glaze Meet. The objects in this valley, which is usually 
referred to as Glascombe Bottom, being noticed in the following 
excursion it is unnecessary to describe them here. Near Glaze Meet 
is a fine pound through which the rough track running down from, the 



72 SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM WRANGATON. 

corner will take us. Below the pound this crosses the little tributary 
called the Scad, and soon after leaves the commons at Owley Gate. 
It then runs for a short distance between the enclosures to Owley 
where the rambler will turn L. to Owley Bridge, and crossing the 
Glaze will ascend the hill to Bulhornstone Cross. Here is a circular 
stone similar to those noticed near Shipley (S. Ex. 105) ; it was origi- 
nally intended to be used at Owley Mill. The road I/., or N., runs up to 
Aish Ridge ; the one R. runs S. to Broad Moor and Pennaton Bridge ; 
but the rambler will keep straight on N.E., and will soon reach the 
road below Aish, where he will turn R. to I/ydia Bridge. 

S. Ex. in. The Valley of the Glaze, 8 m. Crossing Lj-dia Bridge 
the rambler from Brent will ascend the hill towards Aish, and turn I/, 
below the hamlet. A few yards on he will turn up R. and follow the 
road past Bulhornstone Cross to Owley Bridge (S. Ex. 1 10). Thence he 
will pass up to Owley, and turn R., and hi less than m. will reach 
the moor gate. On his L. is Owley Corner, to which a track comes 
out from Peek Gate (S. Ex. 112), and is the one by which visitors from 
Wrangaton will reach this point (Ex. 31). The road the rambler has 
been following from Owley now becomes a rough track. About 200 
yards from the gate it forks, the L. branch running past the source of 
the little Scad up the hill to Spurrell's Cross, whence, marked by small 
stone heaps, it goes on to Harford Gate (T. 62, 59 ; the R. branch 
running a short distance up the valley. The latter he will follow, and 
not far on will cross the Scad, near where it joins the Glaze. At 
that point there is a ford on the latter, from which a private road 
runs up the hillside between Coryndon Wood R. and Skitscombe Wood 
L. to Coryndon Farm. Soon the rambler's road begins to climb a 
slope, and before him he sees grey stones and ferns and thorn bushes. 
When he reaches these he will find himself at the wall of an ancient 
pound of a more than ordinarily pleasing character. The vegetation 
which has partially covered the vallum though not increasing its 
interest from an antiquarian point of view, certainly does so from the 
standpoint of the picturesque. In places moss covers the stones, 
and amid them sturdy thorns and a holly are growing, while ferns are 
everywhere abundant. A thorn bush has also found shelter in the 
wall of one of the two dilapidated hut circles within this enclosure. 
The vallum is 422 yards in circuit, and some parts of it now cover a 
space of ten or eleven feet in width. It is intact except for a few 
breaches where tracks have been carried through it. One of these is 
that by which we have reached the pound, and this crosses it and goes 
on to Glascombe Corner, from which Three Barrows is i^ m. distant. 
(See S. Ex. 1 10, Ex. 31). The surroundings are of a romantic character. 
Eastward there is a steep descent to the Glaze, which here partly hides 
itself in a wooded hollow, the acclivity above the further bank being 
clothed with trees. In other directions rise the bare slopes of the moor, 
with the rocks of Ugborough Beacon crowning the hill to the south, 
about i m. distant. Passing down to the river E. the rambler will 
make his way up its R. bank, and very speedily find himself at the 
meeting-place of its two branches. On the peninsula which these form 
is Glascombe Lower Plantation, and on leaving this the united streams 
flow for a short distance below Newland's Brakes, which stretch upward 
to Coryndon Ball. (S. Ex. 1 10). Glaze Meet is one of the beauty spots 



SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM WRANGATON. 73 

of Dartmoor. Here are great boulders of granite, some with coats of 
moss, ferns and heather, and sturdy hawthorns, a charming cascade. 
and a dark pool over which trees spread their branches. This is the 
Wishing Pool, and it is said that those who leap across it, and while 
doing so loudly express a wish, will obtain what they desire. In the 
plantation, and near to the confluence, are two heaps of moss-covered 
stones, not unlike the ruined basements of huts, but their true nature 
cannot be determined. They are only interesting as perhaps being 
the remains of a building shown on the old map of the moor to which 
we have alluded in Ex. 31 as existing on this tongue of land in the 
sixteenth century. (On the same map Glaze Bridge, lower down the 
stream, appears as Glaas Bridge). 

Leaving this delightful spot the rambler will proceed up stream 
for about ^ m., when he will leave it and strike up the slope westward, 
or a little N. of W. This course will bring him to a stone row, which 
is of rather exceptional interest, in being single at one end, the N.E., 
and double at the other. From this he will proceed westward to the 
brow of the ridge, and then turn S. to the cairn on Glascombe Ball, 
I m. N.W. of Ugborough Beacon. This is known as Glas Barrow, 
and is nearly due W. of the pound on the Glaze, but 40x3 feet above it. 
These ancient burial mounds abound in this part of the moor ; on 
the summit of every hill between the West Glaze and the Erme they 
are found in groups, and are also scattered in the lower slopes. Less 
than m. S. of Glascombe Ball is Spurrell's Cross, where the Black- 
wood Path (T. 63) and the track from Owley to Harford (T. 62) inter- 
sect each other, but of the monument which once marked the spot 
only a fragment now remains. [Crosses, Chap. III.) A short distance 
westward is a single stone row running approximately N. and S., and 
starting from a small cairn, another cairn being near it. It is rather 
over 120 yards in length, but most of the stones have fallen.* Another 
is to be seen northward of Glascombe Ball. 

Turning eastward into the Owley path the rambler will follow it 
down the hill to Owley Gate, whence he will return to Brent as in the 
preceding excursion. 

S. Ex. 112. Ugborough Beacon, 8 m. The summit of this hill is 
3 m. from Brent, via Owley and Peek Gate, and i m. from Wrangaton 
Station, via Wrangaton Gate. The first point will be Owley as in 
S. Ex. in, but instead of there turning R. to the moor, the rambler 
will follow the road for about m. further, when he will reach Peek 



* This row is referred to in my book on the crosses of the moor 
<ist Edition, 1884). When the late Mr. R. N. Worth was preparing a 
paper on the stone rows of Dartmoor for the Devonshire Association 
{1892) he wrote to me about the Butterdon row, noticed later on 
(Ex. 32), and in my reply I happened to mention that eastward there 
was another running parallel to it, referring to this row near Spurrell's 
Cross. He states this in his paper, but the description he gives is that 
of the one on the slope of the West Glaze, which we have spoken of 
above, S. Ex. 1 1 1 . These rows were named by me to the Ordnance 
Surveyors in 1883 in response to an enquiry relative to the stone remains 
in this locality. 



74 SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM WRANGATON. 

Gate, between the plantations of that name.* The rocks on the 
summit of the Beacon Hill are more than 530 feet above this gate, and 
over | m. from it W. by S. 

[The visitor from Wrangaton should enter upon the common at 
the gate of that name. Prom the station bridge he will follow the 
Ivybridge road for a few score yards and then turn R. into Green Lane. 
This will shortly bring him to Marwood's Cross, where is a guide-post. 
Here he will cross the old highway, which runs I,, past Wrangaton to 
Bittaford, and R. past Glazebrook to Brent Bridge, and make his way 
up the lane to Wrangaton Gate, m. from the station, at which point 
the Blackwood Path commences (T. 63). The rocks are m. N.W. by 
W. Other gates opening on this part of Ugborough Moor, are Shute 
Gate, a little to the N. of the last-named, and Leigh Gate further 
W. Shute Gate is close to Deals Brake, and at the head of Deals 
Bottom ; Leigh Gate, mentioned in the sixteenth century as Laye Yeat, 
is W. of Knowle Plantation, which abuts on the golf links. On a kind 
of sketch plan of the moor appended to the document Instructions for 
my Lord Prince, temp. Henry VIII. South Steeryton Yeatte appears 
opposite to what may be taken to be the venville lands of Dean and 
Ugborough. It is probable that this gate was to be found nearer the 
former place than the latter. There is also early mention of Eston 
Gate in this neighbourhood, but this cannot be identified. Leigh 
Gate is the most convenient for visitors from Bittaford Bridge. The 
golf links at the foot of this hill may be approached by either.] 

The tor crowning this fine frontier eminence consists of several 
distinct piles, neither of them being of great height, yet forming a rather 
striking group. They are sometimes spoken of as the Beacon Rocks, 
though more often as Ugborough Beacon, and sometimes as the Eastern 
Beacon. But the ordnance map gives the name of Ugborough Beacon 
to one of the piles only the westernmost one, round which a cairn 
84 yards in circumference has been built and applies the name of the 
Eastern Beacon to another cairn 178 yards S.S.W. of the former. 
(This one is so dilapidated and overgrown with grass that I found it 
difficult to take a correct measurement of it, but it is about 48 yards 
in circumference). On what authority these cairns were so named 
I do not know, but if the hill ever was a station on which signal fires 
were lighted, it is highly improbable that there were two within a few 
yards of each other. It is, however, very doubftul whether this hill 
was a signalling station. I have elsewhere brought forward some 
evidence to show that in this instance the word Beacon is probably a 
corruption of Pigedon, i.e., Peek Down. [Crosses, Chap. II.], and have 
also referred to the subject in the Terms Section (see Beacon). One 
of the masses of granite, it will be seen, is nicely balanced on a very 
small base, and another, on the northern pile, overhangs and forms a 
rude canopy, beneath which is a seat of such convenient proportions 
as almost to lead one to suppose that the work of Nature has been 
supplemented by that of man. Perhaps it was here that a certain 
Mr. John Elliott Lord Elliott, as he was often called once took 
his seat, when he came, as it used to be said, to this lofty spot to look 

* Shown as Picke Yeat on the old map in the museum at Exeter 
referred to in Ex. 31. The farm of East Peek is between Peek Gate 
and Cheston. 



SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM WRANGATON. 75 

down upon Brent, of which manor hewas then contemplating the purchase 
and which he subsequently acquired. The seat seems to have 
escaped the notice of former antiquaries, otherwise it is nearly certain 
they would have told us that it was the chair of an arch-druii. A fine 
view is obtained from the rockj, the height of which is 1,233 Iee t 
The village of Brent is seen E.N.E., and Ugborough S.S.E., together 
with many places in the South Hams, the whole of which district is 
visible. Much that is commanded from Brent Hill (S. Ex. 99) the 
visitor looks upon here, and westward sees other objects, among them 
being the great rounded Kit Hill on the further side of the Tamar. 

(To the S.S.W. of the cairn to which the name of the Eastern 
Beacon has been attached, and 135 yards from it, are two others. 
25 yards apart. The larger is 94 yards in circumference, the other being 
70 yards, and both are much covered with vegetation. A short dis- 
tance down the hill, in the midst of some old workings, is a small 
mound, but its real nature is not apparent). 

Turning from this fine group of rocks the rambler will make his 
way down the slope of Beacon Plain, his course being a little N. of W. 
This will bring him to a shallow gert in which the Lud rises, and to 
which the name of Main Head has been given.* Here there are two 
small mounds of earth, each enclosed by a low stone wall, but they 
present nothing remarkable, f From this spot Spurrell's Cross is 
about m. distant N. by W. (S. Exs. in, 113), and is approached by 
the Blackwood Path (T. 63). Into this, which runs near the L,. bank 
of the little stream, the rambler will now turn, and following it south- 
ward by Creber's Rock, will soon reach the golf links. He will here leave 
it L. if making his way to Leigh Gate ; for Wrangaton he will follow 
it to the enclosures ; and for Peek Gate will leave it on the R. and 
strike northward towards the plantations close to it. If he is bound 
for Brent he will there turn L. to Owley, whence the road is described 
in S. Ex. 1 10. 

[For Routes from Brent see end of Ivybridge District. Directions 
for reaching Hexworthy via Holne Moor, or via Heng Lake and Aune 
Head, will be found at the end of the Routes Section.] 

The right of way past Brent Moor House has recently been 
questioned, but it has been exercised by the public for very many years. 



* The Lud leaves the moor just above Bittaford Bridge, and 
flowing past Ludbrook falls into the Ernie below Ermington. 

f These mounds are evidently not particularly old, nor do they 
seem to partake of the character of mining remains. In 1861 there 
was a military encampment on this part of the moor, and it is possible 
that the mounds were thrown up for some purpose by the soldiers. 



76 SOUTHERN DARTMOOR. 



IVYBRIDGE DISTRICT. 

For Distances, and Important Points and Landmarks in the 
locality, see commencement of Brent District. Other points in the 
south quarter of the forest are here shown. 



Important Points in Southern Dartmoor. 

Aune Head ; the source of the Avon, on high ground, two miles 
southward of Hexworthy ; a track leads to it from that place. Black 
Lane ; a path, q. v., running from Fox Tor to Erme Head. Broad 
Rock; a natural boundary mark, on the Abbots' Way, q. v., near Erme 
Head. The Crossways ; the point where the Abbots' Way is crossed 
by the disused Zeal Tor tramroad ; less than mile north westward 
of Western Whitaburrow, a cairn on the forest boundary line. Erme 
Pits ; very deep tinners excavations, close to the head of the Erme. 
Green Hill ; a favourite pasturage ground above the Erme, between 
the Black Lane Brook and Red Lake. Heng Lake Gully ; a stream 
work on the Avon, above Higher Bottom. Huntingdon Hill ; the 
highest part of Huntingdon Warren, on the Avon. Petre's Cross, 
on Western Whitaburrow : See The Crossways. Plym Head ; the 
source of the Plym; i mile S. by W. of Fox Tor, and i| miles S.E. of 
Nuns' Cross. Plym Steps; the point where the Abbots' Way, q. v., 
crosses the Plym, about 2 miles from its source. Red Lake Ford; the 
point where the Abbots' Way crosses Red Lake, about i mile N.W. of 
Western Whitaburrow. Ryder's Hill ; a lofty height, rather over 
\ mile E.S.E. of Aune Head. 



Delightfully situated on the Erme, one of the most beautiful of 
the Dartmoor rivers, the large village of Ivybridge extends itself into 
four parishes, and these meet at the structure which gives the place 
its name. On the E. side of the river is the parish of Harford to the 
N. of the bridge, and Ugborough to the S. of it ; on the west side Corn- 
wood to the N. and Ermington S. The first three each embrace a 
considerable portion of the moor, and extend to the forest, the latter 
does not touch the waste, but, as we have already seen (Ex. 31), the lord 
of the manor of Ermington, possesses certain rights upon Erme Plains, 
which tract of moor lies within the bounds of Harford and Ugborough, 
and thus the bridge may be regarded as the centre of four places having 
a connection with Dartmoor. The present lord of the manor of Erming 



EXCURSION 32. STOWFORD. THE WESTERN BEACON. 77 

ton is Mr. P. B. Mildmay, M.P., of Flete. In spite of its modern 
sounding name Ivybridge has long been so called, for Risdon speaks of 
one Alfred de Ponte Hedera, to whom a grant of land here was con- 
firmed by Sir John Peverell, lord of Ermington, in Edward the First's 
time. The bridge was formerly very narrow (the visitor will probably 
be inclined to think it is not much other now) being only of sufficient 
width to admit of a packhorse crossing it. This structure still exists 
(though it is probably not the original one) as may be seen from the 
rocks in the stream under it, where the mark between the older and the 
added portions is plainly visible. The bridge is situated immediately 
in front of the London Hotel. 

Ivybridge Church, being a modern structure, possesses no features 
of particular interest. Neither does the old church it replaces, though 
this is certainly a picturesque object. Its dismantled walls, and the 
low tower, thickly covered with ivy, will be seen close by, and give the 
impression of the ruin of an ancient building, and yet it is only of 
comparatively recent date. But the visitor with a taste for ecclesi- 
astical architecture will find something to reward him when he makes 
his way to the fine church of Ugborough, or to Ermington Church, 
with its curious bent spire, while Harford and Cornwood, though much 
smaller, are good examples of moorland churches. 

Ivybridge is placed amid scenery of a charming character. The 
Erme, with its deep pools and cascades, the wooded valley of Stowford 
Cleave, the moor hills that look down upon it, the pleasant pastures 
on the south and east and west, all make up a picture that will delight 
the rambler who fixes upon this village as a base whence to explore 
the southern part of Dartmoor. 



Excursions from Ivybridge. 

Ex. 32. The Western Beacon [Ugborough Beacon] Butter don Hill, 
Sharp Tor [Three Barrows'], Erme Plains, Antiquities on Brown Heath, 
Erme Pound, Mining Remains on the Erme, Piles Copse, Butter Brook, 
Addicombe Slaggets, 14 m. 

Our starting-point will be the old bridge from which we shall pass 
up the hill with the extensive paper mills of the Messrs. John Allen 
and Sons, Ltd.,L., and soon after crossing the railway reach Stowford. Of 
the ancient mansion very little now remains. This formerly belonged 
to Matthew de Ivybridge, as Risdon calls him, whose daughter brought 
it to the Dymocks. It afterwards came to the crown, and was purchased 
by Adam Williams, whose descendent, Thomas Williams, was Speaker 
of Parliament in the time of Elizabeth. There is a brass to his memory 
in Harford Church. John Prideaux, who became Bishop of Worcester, 
was born of humble parents, in a cottage at Stowford. He is also 
commemorated by a brass in that church. Turning R. behind the house 
we pass up a lane to the commons, and then strike eastward to the 
Western Beacon, which is about | m. distant, and nearly 400 feet above 



78 IVYBRIDGE DISTRICT. 

the moor gate. (This may possibly be Stonorde Yeat, of which there 
is early mention). The view from this fine border height, the southern- 
most of all the Dartmoor eminences, is one of great beauty. The 
estuary of the Erme is in full view, and we are placed so high above it 
(i, 088 feet) that it looks quite near. This, the West Pigedon of an 
older day, forms a conspicuous landmark from numerous points in the 
South Hams. Eastward rises East Pigedon, now represented by the 
hill crowned with the Beacon Rocks (S. Ex. 1 12). Much of the tor has 
been destroyed by quarrymen, and the six cairns that are to be seen 
here have also been despoiled. One of these was placed on the rocks, but 
very little of it now remains. The foundations of a small square 
building are to be seen upon it. It is not possible to obtain a correct 
measurement of all of these cairns, but one of them is 85 yards in 
circumference, and another 67 yards. 

A line of boundary stones runs N. to Butterdon Hill, m., and this 
we shall now follow. About mid-way is Black Pool, through which 
the line passes, the eastern part of it thus being in Ugborough parish 
and the western in Harford. This pool, which is very shallow, is 
oblong in shape, and 95 yards in circumference. A dilapidated cairn 
may be seen close to it on the S.W. 

[If the rambler desires to visit Ugborough Beacon from this part 
of the moor he will find it the better plan to branch off here, and not 
ascend Butterdon Hill. The summit of the Beacon Hill is just over 
i m. from the pool, and the course to be steered is N.E. by E. The 
way lies N. of Cuckoo Ball Corner, and I/ud Brook is crossed about 
mid-way. The rocks to which the name of Claret Tor has been given 
will also be passed. The beacon is noticed in S. Ex. 112.] 



Cairns. 



Ugborough Beacon. 




Cairns. 
FROM BUTTERDON HIU.. 



LOOKING N.E. 



Continuing on our way we pass the Long Stone, as the first boundary 
pillar N. of the pool is called, and then climb up between the scattered 
rocks to the summit of Butterdon, 1,204 feet. Here there are three 
cairns, while others are found on the slopes near by. These three are 
nearly in a line running N.E. and S.W. The N.E. one is 92 yards in. 
circumference ; the middle one 80 yards ; and the other 50 yards. 
Close to the centre cairn are the foundations of three small comparatively 
modern enclosures. W.N.W. is Weatherdon Hill, the summit of which 
is only m. distant. On this there are two cairns, 115 yards apart. 



EXCURSION 32. BUTTERDON HILL. 



79 



one 79 yards in circumference, and the other 62 yards. They appear 
to have been opened ; at all events hollows have been made in them. 
Between the two hills there is another cairn, 53 yards in circumference. 



Eastern 
Whitaburrow. 




Piles Hill. Hangershell 
Rock. 

FROM BUTTERDON HILL. LOOKING N. 

About 43 yards N.E. of the north-eastern cairn is a stone circle 
35 feet in diameter, enclosing a cairn the diameter of which is about 
20 feet. Only eight stones'are now to be seen, and these have all 
fallen bu+ two, which are in a slanting position. From this circle a 
stone row extends northward for a distance of 1,791 yards, and this 
has been adapted as the boundary between the moors of Ugborough 
and Harford. We shall now follow it, and when at a distance of 460 
yards from the circle, with Hangershell Rock, noticed in S. Ex. 114. 
L-, shall reach a small grass-covered cairn R. On this a small shelter 
has been formed. I remember when some horse races were held here, 
and the course can still be seen near this tumulus.* It is connected 
with a track that comes up from the in-country southward of the 
Western Beacon. (On the E. side of the ground the course touches 
the Blackwood Path (T. 63). About ^ m. N. of the tumulus the stone 
row crosses the path from Owley to Harford (T. 62), which, however, 
is here not very clearly defined. Spurrell's Cross is less than m. E., 
and a little nearer to us than that point is the stone row we have 
already noticed (S. Ex. in, T. 62), which runs parallel to the one we 
are following. A little further on we cross a depression extending 
upwards from the source of Butter Brook, and in this are eight rifle 
butts, four on each side of the shallow hollow. These are of granite 
and were erected when the soldiers were encamped near here in 1861 
(S. Ex. 112). The cairn on Glascombe Ball (S. Ex. in) is m. R.. 
or E. of this point. 

Still following the stone row we pass up the slope N., and soon 
arrive at its termination, which is marked by a small pillar about 
3i feet in height, set in the centre of a circular pavement 6 feet 

* This was about forty-five years ago, and the meeting was attended 
by a large number of people from the neighbouring parishes. 



So IVYBRIDGE DISTRICT. 

9 inches in diameter. On its W.S.W. face is an incised cross 7 inches 
high and 5-J- inches across the arms. On the old map of Dartmoor, to 
which we have several times referred, Hobajon's Cross, noticed in 
Ex. 3 1 , is shown as standing in this row, and I have elsewhere suggested 
that this stone with the incised cross may not improbably mark the 
place it occupied [Crosses, Chap. II]. From this point the Ugborough 
and Harford boundary is marked in the same way as it is S. of Butterdon 
Hill, that is, by a row of posts, and this, which we have already noticed, 
we shall follow, and on Piles Hill shall strike the Elackwood Path 
(T. 63), which comes up R. from Spurrell's Cross. Here we see a cairn 
I,., and on the further side of this is the branch path which enters on 
the moor at Harford Gate (T. 63). A little way oh is another cairn L., 
and just beyond this the two tracks unite. Some distance below us 
L., is Piles Gate, at the S.E. corner of Higher Piles, which we shall 
pass on our homeward route. 

Leaving the track we strike L. to Sharp Tor, a solid mass of rock 
placed on the brow of a steep hill and overlooking Piles, the higher 
wall of which enclosure is carried along the side of the declivity below it. 
Close to the tor is a large cairn. The summit of Three Barrows is about 
m. distant (Ex. 31). Making our way northward we shall strike the 
track again, and soon pass Piles Corner, where the wall turns downward 
to the Erme. Immediately inside it are some hut circles, and a noted 
fox holt known as The Dungeon, where, so Mr. C. A. Harris tells us in 
his Foxhounds of Devon, a well-known master, deeming the occasion 
demanded it, once thundered forth the Epistle to the Danmonians. 

Our track will lead us below Three Barrows and Hobajon's Cross, 
which are noticed in Ex. 31, to the long-deserted I/eft Lake clay pits, 
and on passing over the brook at Left Lake Ford we find ourselves on 
Enne Plains, of which tract of moorland we have already spoken. 
This comprises Quickbeam Hill and Brown Heath, though on the 
Ordnance map the name is attached only to a narrow stretch of level 
ground through which the Erme flows, this flat, we presume, being 
considered the only justification for calling any spot near here a plain. 
(See that word in the Terms Section). The first recorded perambula- 
tion of the bounds of this tract took place in 1603, and subsequently 
it was customary to view them once in every seven years. When this 
was done a proclamation was read at certain points on the Erme giving 
notice of the perambulation, and setting forth the rights belonging 
to the manor of Ermington. The tenants have the right of pasture, 
and the lord the right of free fishery, not only where the river bounds 
the tract in question, but from its source to the sea, and also the right 
to all wreckage found in the river, or as far from its mouth seawards 
" as an umber or tar barrel can be seen." (See Exs. 31, 33). 

Passing onward we cross the Ugborough boundary line, and make 
our way along the lower side of Quickbeam Hill, with several groups 
of hut circles below us L. In about i m. we reach Belter's Ford on 
Hook Lake, in Stony Bottom, less than ^ m. below the line, one of the 
pillars in which, near the hollow, bears the initial letter of Ugborough, 
and is known as the IT Stone. The bottom has been streamed through- 
out, but the heaps thrown up by the tinners are now in great measure 
clothed with plants, and the spot is a favourite one with whortleberry- 
gatherers. At its head are some deep pits, and the scanty vestiges 
of a mining hut. On crossing it we are on Brown Heath, where is one 



EXCURSION 32. REMAINS ON BROWN HEATH. 8r 

of the most interesting groups of remains on the moor. These consist 
not only of relics of prehistoric times, but also of those of mediaeval 
days. The cluster comprises three pounds forming a large hut settle- 
ment, a stone row, and kistvaens, as well as an old drift pound with 
accompanying buildings, and vestiges of tinners' operations, which 
include a blowing-house with a mould-stone. 

The track which we have followed to this point now bends I,., and 
running through the southernmost of the hut enclosures, again turns 
and goes N. along the L. bank of the river to Erme Pound. It is here 
not very clearly defined, but by turning in the direction named the 
visitor will speedily arrive at the ruined wall. On the side nearest 
Stony Bottom this makes an inward sweep, so that the enclosure, 
which measures 338 yards in circumference, is irregular in shape. The 
stones composing the wall are now scattered over a width of about 
1 1 feet ; the entrance appears to have been on the northern side. In 
the western part of the pound a wall runs across it N. and S., thus 
cutting off a portion of it, and about the middle of this wall is a small 
hut circle, 10 feet in interior diameter. Immediately without the wall 
on the N.W. the basements of two other dwellings are to be seen. 
Two walls there run out from the main one for a short distance, and 
the two huts being placed between these, and being connected with a 
piece of wall about 12 feet long, act as a third side, and thus a small 
court is formed. The larger of these huts has a very perfect basement. 
Its diameter is 1 6 feet ; the other is 12 feet. Another hut circle, 
about 2 1 feet in diameter, will be seen N. of the enclosure, and in this 
is a low curved wall, which, however, does not run entirely across it, 
the part that appears to be wanting being probably the doorway 
leading into what may have been an inner apartment. 

On the E. side of this lower enclosure a wall runs out from the 
main vallum for a distance of about eight yards, and from this, but at 
a right angle to it, a double stone row runs up the slope for a distance 
of 170 yards, and terminates in a small circle 30 feet in diameter, 
enclosing a ruined kistvaen. At its lower end some of the stones in 
this row, which is about five feet wide, are from 3 feet to 4 feet high, 
but most of them are small. Near its upper end it passes quite close 
to a hut circle, and above this it is nearly obliterated. Ten stones 
remain erect in the circle, one of them being 5 feet high and 3 feet wide ; 
two others are fallen, and some are missing. The best view of the row 
is obtained from this point, where the beholder looks down the slope 
and sees it throughout its length. 

This circle is placed close to the wall of another enclosure, 126 
yards from the lower one, and forming a particularly fine example of 
an ancient hut pound. It is 426 yards in circumference, and the wall, 
which is formed of very large stones, is about 5 feet in height and of 
considerable width. In places these are seen lying in courses. On 
the northern side is a block 9 feet long, which has its ends supported 
by two others, a hollow being formed beneath it. Near this the 
wall is imperfect for a distance of about 30 feet, the stones perhaps 
having sunk, the ground here being rather boggy. There appears to 
be an entrance on the S.E., and another on the S., and here a wall runs 
across the pound. Close to this is a hut circle, and there is another 
in the middle of the enclosure. Outside the wall, but connected with 
it by two smaller ones, is a hut circle 22 feet in diameter, a small court 



82 IVYBRIDGE DISTRICT. 

being thus formed in a similar manner to the one seen in the lower 
pound. 

Thirty yards N. of this enclosure the visitor will come upon the 
third, in which, however, there is nothing particular to note. The wall 
now resembles a low reave, and near it are what appears to be the 
remains of a kistvaen. It closely adjoins Erme Pound, formerly used 
for estrays, and which possesses a peculiar interest as being the only 
things of its kind in the purlieus of the forest, and throughout Dartmoor 
with the exception of Dunnabridge Pound, above the West Dart (Ex. 5 ,42 )* 
The wall of each stands on the line of an ancient circumvallation, as 
even a slight examination is sufficient to reveal, and although there 
are many instances of newtakes having been formed on the sites of hut 
enclosures, these are the only pounds whose walls are reared on such 
primitive foundations. When Erme Pound was built the stones of 
the older enclosure, the line of which it followed, would, of course, be 
used, but it is probable that recourse was also had to the wall of this 
higher one. Other later enclosures were also formed here, for in an 
account of the forester of the south quarter of the time of Henry VII. 
there is an entry of iM., " being new rent of Thomas Rawe, John 
Beare, and others for one acre of land on the common of Devon lying 
neare to Yerme next Erme Pound and Quyocke Bemefote [Quickbeam 
Foot] to hold to them according to the custom of the forest of 
Dartmoor." 

The view from the higher part of these hut groups, which extend 
upward for about -J- m. from the foot of the slope, and are appropriately 
known as Erme Pound Rings, embraces the most solitary parts of the 
extensive southern border commons. It is a scene of desolation. 
Not even a tor is Adsible ; only long stretches of heath with the great 
ridge of Stalldon rising high to the south. The Erme pursuing its course 
through the long valley alone gives life to the picture. But the seclu- 
sion of this part of the moor endows it with a certain charm, while the 
remains of an older day found here on every hand give to it an 
exceptional interest. (See remarks Ex. 30.) The visitor who enters the 
Erme valley where the cultivated country gives place to the moorlands, 
and passes up through it till he reaches the spot where the river rises, 
will find something to attract him throughout the whole of the way. 

We shall now proceed to the pound, which is connected with the 
enclosure last noticed by some old walls. It is situated on the side of 
the hill, the lower, or western, part of the wall being at its foot, and 011 
the brink of the river. In shape it is roughly circular, and is 345 yards 
in circumference. The gateway, which is 8 feet wide, is on the S.S.E., 

* The statement that has been made that " there are several other 
enclosures in this neighbourhood, of which most appear to have served 
a purpose similar to that of Erme Pound," this purpose being the 
securing of cattle at the drifts, is incorrect. The only enclosures 
in the neighbourhood of the pound are those described above, which 
nobody ever supposed to be drift pounds that is, nobody who had 
visited the spot, which the writer of the statement is question had not. 
Nor would anyone who knew much about Dartmoor suppose that more 
than one drift pound would be found in any locality. As a matter of 
fact there were only four or five for the whole of the moor. The manor 
pounds near the border villages are of quite a different character. 



EXCURSION 32. ERME POUND. 83 

and here the wall is 6 feet thick. It is from 4 feet to 4.4 feet in height, 
being at its lowest on the higher side, where the ground is covered with 
rocks. The lower part of the pound is fairly clear of granite. Four 
hut circles exist within it, with vestiges of others, and tiny courts may 
be seen adjoining them, but the remains are in a very ruinous state. 
Outside the gateway, but near to the pound, are the walls of a curious 
little building 22 feet long by 12 feet wide. A low stone bench, or seat, 
15 inches high and 22 inches wide, runs round its interior. Further 
down is another, which is rather larger, but this has no bench. In 
this a gable is still standing, and it will be noticed that the doorway 
is protected by a kind of passage. These buildings were probably 
erected as shelters for those attending the drifts when the pound was 
in use. They stand in a small clatter. 

[About $ m. above Erme Pound the river receives Red Lake 
(Ex. 30, R. 64). W. of the pound is the stone row running over Stall 
Moor, and noticed in Ex. 33. S. of it is a ford, where the track coming, 
out from Watercombe Waste (T. 66) crosses the river. Should the 
rambler desire to make his way down the R. bank of the Erme, he may 
cross it at this ford, or he will find a place where he can generally do 
so at the foot of Stony Bottom. Directions for this route, which 
will lead him down to Harford Bridge and past the church, are given 
in Ex. 33.] 

Leaving Erme Pound we pass down with the river R. to the point 
where Hook Lake falls into it, and very near to this shall find a good 
example of a blowing-house. It is 27 feet in length by \-j\ feet wide, 
and like a good many of these buildings stands against a bank. A 
watercourse may be seen leading to it, and where this is taken from the 
Erme are the remains of a weir. Lying within the entrance is a granite 
block in which there are two tin moulds, one in a complete state, the 
other partly destroyed. It is interesting to find a notice of this stream 
work in the seventeenth century. In a lease of the date 1661 it is 
described as " a certain Tynnwork called, or known, by the name of 
Hooke Lake, situate within the parishes of Brent and Ugborough, 
and within the jurisdiction of the Stannary Courts of Plympton and 
Ashburton." Hook Lake, it may be explained, rises on Brent Moor, 
and then crosses Ugborough and Harford Moors, which are here merely 
narrow strips of land running out to the forest. Opposite to the con- 
fluence of Hook Lake and the Erme is Green Lake Bottom, noticed in 
Ex. 33. (For the route to Brent from this point see Ex. 30). 

Passing down the valley by Quickbeam Foot, and noticing on 
one hand the evidences of mediaeval mining, and on the other those of 
the presence here of man in times still further remote, as shown by 
the ruined huts on the slope of the hill L., we shall, when about i m. 
below Hook Lake, come upon some ruined walls where these evidences 
are combined. At the lower end of a circular enclosure containing 
huts, and within a few yards of the river, is a small rectangular building 
of the type erected by the tinners. Just beyond this we cross Dry 
Lake, and almost immediately afterwards Left Lake, which forms the 
southern boundary of the tract over which the Ermington manorial 
rights extend. Still continuing to follow the Erme, we at length pass 
Crooked Oak, and find ourselves at the wall of Higher Piles. On 



84 IVYBRIDGE DISTRICT. 

the hillside L. all the way down to this point, hut circles and small 
pounds are numerous. 

[The rambler who does not care to scramble through the rocky 
enclosure below, but who is content to view the ancient oak wood 
known as Piles Copse from a distance, may here turn up the hill, and 
on arriving at the higher corner of the newtake will turn R., and keeping 
close to Piles Wall pass under Sharp Tor. On reaching the corner at 
Piles Gate, where the wall is carried down the hill W. by the side of 
Piles Brook, he will leave it and strike due S. till he reaches the branch 
of the Blackwood Path (T. 63), which he will follow to Harford Gate.] 

Entering Higher Piles Newtake we shall pass down by the stream 
finding a path through the oak wood, or between it and the river, 
along the bank of which it extends for about m. The trees are not 
of the size of those in Wistman's Wood (Ex. 5) ; they more nearly 
resemble those at Black Tor Copse, on the West Ockrnent (Ex. 14). 
But there is evidence that the wood is of considerable age, and thus an 
additional interest is lent to it. It is figured on the old map of Dart- 
moor now in the museum at Exeter. m. below it we shall come upon 
an ancient enclosure, and a little further on shall cross Piles Brook 
and enter Lower Piles, up across which we shall make our way through a 
wilderness of granite to Lower Piles Corner, S.E. Here are a number 
of hut circles, and low walls arranged in such a curious manner as to 
render it difficult to understand the plan of the cluster. 

Outside the newtake and not far from the corner, is a kistvaen 
near a dilapidated hut circle. This kist is about 3 feet deep, and is 
placed in a partly demolished circle, of which only seven stones are now 
standing. The cover stone is missing, and the northern end of the kist 
is composed of several small stones instead of one slab like the other 
end and sides. Striking due S. we soon reach Harford Gate, into which 
the rambler may turn and make his way to Ivybridge past Broomhill 
and Lukesland, as in Ex. 33.* If he desires to return by way of Addi- 
combe he will continue S. keeping the wall R., and just before reaching 
Butter Brook will notice some very fine hut circles. Crossing the little 
stream he will leave Tor Rocks, a very interesting pile, R., and still 
pursuing a southerly course will soon reach the wall of the Combeshead 
enclosures, where a track will lead him across Addicombe Slaggets to 
the moor gate (T. 64). (Opposite Addicombe are two ancient enclosures 
which are noticed in S. Ex. 114). From the moor gate the rambler 
will make his way by the lane to Stowford, and thence follow the road 
down to the village. 



* This gate appears as Harford Yeat in the sixteenth century. 
Lukesland stands near the site of a house formerly known as Lukesland 
Grove. 



EXCURSION 33, HARFORD. g s 



Ex. 33. Harford, Tristis Rock, Stalldon Barrow, Stall Moor Circle, 
~Erme Head, Valley of the Erme, Harford Bridge, 17 m. 

We shall first make our way up the hill to Stowford, as in Ex. 32, 
but instead of turning R. to the common shall follow the lane past 
Lukesland and Broomhill to Harford, one of the most delightfully 
situated hamlets on the moorland borders. (Near Broomhill the 
rambler may desert the road and strike over some fields R. to the 
church, crossing the Butter Brook a little way below Tor Rocks, by a 
single stone clapper. Here may be seen an ancient cross which was 
discovered a few years ago serving as a gate-post, by the rector, the 
Rev. John A. Uran, and was set up by him in its present situation. It 
stands on the line of the track connecting the two religious houses of 
Buckfast and Plympton (T. 59). 

[In 1 9 1 2 a cross was discovered near Venn Cross, in the neighbour- 
hood of Ugborough, by Mr. Arthur White, of Wrangaton Manor, and 
now stands on the lawn there. 

Some misapprehension appears to have been caused by the 
existence of a stone at the point the moormen call Hobajohn's Cross 
^Ex. 31, 32). This has the appearance of a cross with one rudely 
formed arm only, and is similar to one found on Dartmeet Hill, which 
examination showed to be shaped by natural means. But even if the 
stone in question were really the remains of a cross, which some have 
imagined, there is nothing to lead us to suppose that it would be the 
Hobajohn's Cross shown on the map setting forth the bounds of Brent 
Moor (Ex. 31). That cross is figured as an important object, and the 
head discovered on the cairn, and described in my book on the crosses 
of the moor, would fittingly belong to such. I saw the fragment during 
many years, but it now appears to be missing.] 

Descending to Harford Bridge, placed at the head of the 
wooded part of the beautiful valley which extends upwards from 
Ivybridge, we cross it and enter a gate R. Here we are on the 
track which runs up by the Erme under Stalldon Barrow (T. 65), 
which, however, we shortly leave and climb the side of Hall Newtake 
L. towards the enclosures of the ancient farm of that name. This was 
once the residence of Colonel Chudleigh, father of Elizabeth Chudleigh, 
whose absurdities, as Macaulay observes, Horace Walpole made it his 
serious business to record, and who afterwards became Duchess of 
Kingston. The scanty ruins of Hall Pleasure House are just within 
the plantation on the verge of the down. They are surrounded 
by a wall which encloses a space of about an acre in extent. On the 
further bank of the river is Bullaven, the enclosures belonging to 
which extend nearly to Lower Piles (Ex. 32). Our way will take us 
to Tristis Rock, or Hall Tor, as it is sometimes called, whence we 
have a good view of Stalldon, with Sharp Tor and Three Barrows on 
the other side of the deep Erme valley. 

Not far from the rock is a single stone row which starts from a 
ruined circle and runs N. for a distance of 400 yards, and consists of 
112 stones. This we shall follow to Burford Down, and then crossing 
Yadsworthy Waste, where are a number of hut circles, shall pass 
upward to Stalldon Barrow. A good view of the moor opens up as 
we proceed, particularly that part of it lying between the Erme and 



86 



IVYBR1DGE DISTRICT. 

Three Barrows. 
Sharp 
Tor. 




Erme Valley. 
FROM TRISTIS ROCK. LOOKING N. 

the West Glaze, the prominent heights on which are Ugborough Beacon, 
Butterdon, Weatherdon, and the Western Beacon, and on the slopes 
of these and on the ridges between them many of the cairns that stud 
that part of the moor are seen clearly denned against the sky. 

Stalldon Barrow is really a cairn, but the name also attaches to 
the lofty hill which it crowns. This hill is situated near the southern 
extremity of Stall Moor, which may be said to extend from the 
enclosures of Yadsworthy to Erme Head, a distance of 4 m. Its 
northern portion, that is the part the more remote from the cultivated 
country, is known as Outer Stall. This moor is mentioned in the Court 
Rolls of the forest temp Edward IV. as " the land of Stealdon." 

The cairn is 60 yards in circumference, but is not very high. On 
the S.W. side the stones have been removed, and used in the erection 
of a little house on the summit. Of this only three walls now remain, 
but they are very substantially built. The story goes that a child 
was once found on Stall Moor, and was adopted by some good people 

Hanger- Weather- 

Ugborough shell Butterdon don Western Tor Tristis 

Beacon. Rock. Hill. Hill. Beacon. Rocks. Rock. 




Ernie Valley. 
FROM SOUTHERN SLOPE OF STAIJ.DON BARROW. LOOKING S.S.E. 



IG>. BOE.NTAIWBRIDCE DISTCT. 







88 IVYBRIDGE DISTRICT. 

in the neighbourhood, and given the name of Hillson. As a son of 
the hill this was certainly a very appropriate one, and as though further 
to justify it, the foundling betook himself to Stalldon Barrow when he 
grew up, and built a little house there. Here he dwelt and earned a 
living by making eight-day clocks, and one version of the story says 
that the first ever seen in the neighbourhood was made by him. Mr. 
W. Hillson, of Wakeham's Rook, not far from Cornwood village, has 
had one of these clocks nearly fifty years ; it formerly belonged to a 
family named Mumford, of Great Steart, in this parish. " I cannot 
tell how the truth may be " ; all I can vouch for is that the little 
house on the cairn has long been known as Hillson' s Hut. About forty 
years ago I used to hear it said that a rain gauge was once to be seen 
here. 

On the slope of this hill to the N.E. are some ancient remains, 
and others occur on the N.W. side of it. To the latter we now make 
our way, and shall come upon the first of these objects when about 
125 yards from the cairn. This is a circular enclosure 22 yards in 
diameter, the wall being formed of small stones and covered with grass. 
Outside this wall is a hut circle, but there are none within it. Further 
on, and nearly m. N.W. of the Stalldon cairn, are two others, one 
enclosed in a circle 30 feet in diameter, of which only a few of the 
stones remain. Both cairns are covered with vegetation. From these 
remains a single stone row runs S. for a distance of about 460 yards. 
Some of the stones are large, but few of them are standing. 

Proceeding in the same direction, that is, about N.W., we soon 
strike the track running out to Erme Pound (T. 66), and this we shall 
follow R. About m. on we cross Bledge Brook, a little tributary of 
the Erme, and just beyond this shall reach the circle sometimes known 
as The Dancers, and also as Kiss-in-the-Ring. This is 54 feet in 
diameter, and consists of 26 stones, of which three are fallen. The 
average height of these is 2\ feet, but there is one 5 feet high. From 
this circle a single stone row runs northward for a distance of over two 
miles, terminating in the ruined kistvaen we have already observed on 
Green Hill (Ex. 30). The groups of hut circles above the eastern bank 
of the Erme, noticed in Ex. 32, are here plainly visible, as also are Erme 
Pound Rings, also described in that excursion. Looking down the 
valley between Stalldon Barrow R. and Sharp Tor and Three Barrows 
L., the Western Beacon is seen 4^ m. distant in a straight line. On 
the slope towards the river, and 123 yards from the circle, is a hut 
enclosure 320 yards in circumference. This is divided into three parts 
by low walls, and contains the basements of several ancient dwellings. 
The whole is in a very ruinous state. Southward, and also on the 
slope, is another decayed enclosure with hut circles. The Erme 
Islands in the river form a striking feature in the picture seen from 
these remains. 

From the circle we follow the row northward, and shall notice 
that the stones composing it become smaller as the distance from the 
starting-point increases. When rather over \ m. from this we pass a 
mossy cairn 23 yards to the I,., or W., of the row, 44 yards in circum- 
ference, but not very high. R. of the row is a small pound with hut 
circles. Just beyond this we reach Green Bottom opposite Stony 
Bottom (Ex. 32), in which is an old stream work. It is noticeable 
that the row crosses the latter, and it would thus appear as though the 



EXCURSION 33. NORTON'S COMBE. 89 

mediaeval tinners (for it was they who laboured here, as the ruins of 
two small rectangular buildings in the combe attest) had such reverence 
for pre-historic monuments that they did not disturb the row, or 
where they were compelled to do so, carefully set up the stones again 
upon their rubble heaps. The circumstance is rather difficult to under- 
stand. The row crosses the Erme over ^ m. N. of the bottom (Ex. 32), 
and then runs straight to Red Lake, which it also crosses, and ascends 
Green Hill, where there is a considerable break in it.* 

[The following routes from Ivybridge cross Green Bottom : R. 59, 
to Princetown ; R. 62, to Lydford ; R. 63, to Okehampton ; R. 64, 
to Hexworthy and Chagford (if by the R. bank of the Erme) ; and R. 
64, from Cornwood to Hexworthy and Chagford.] 

From the head of Green Bottom we strike N.W. by N. over the 
hill to Horton's Combe, passing the head of Knocking Mill on the way. 
This latter is a combe running down to the Erme, its lower end being 
nearly opposite to the point where Dry Lake falls into that river, t 
In winter a rivulet flows through it, but there is no stream in the summer 
and it is consequently difficult to see how mining operations could have 
been conducted here, but that they were the stone heaps, now covered 
with moss, that extend throughout the length of the combe clearly 
show. At its head are the remains of two small mining buildings, 
which, like the workings, are clothed with moss. A little way down 
the combe another runs from it towards the S.W., the lower end of it 
being on the brink of the river just above Erme Pound. This also has 
been worked, though no stream runs through it. Between these two 
combes is Stinger's Hill, at the eastern foot of which is a small strip of 
ground known as The Meadow. Horton's Combe is so called from 
having formerly been the spot in which a Cornwood farmer of that 
name was in the habit of collecting his cattle. It is sometimes known 
as Hortons' Ford Bottom, and the stream that runs through it as 
Hortons' Ford Brook. By continuing our N.W. course for another 
m. we may pass above Erme Pits to the springs of the Erme, or we 
may keep more to the R. and reach the river where it is yet only a 
rivulet below the pits. 

* I have always striven to be correct in taking my measurements 
of objects on the moor, some of which I obtained in the early seventies, 
but I cannot pretend to such nicety as this : I read that the 
Stall Moor Row was measured in 1880 and found to be exactly 
11,239 ft. 8 ins. in length ! This monument was figured in a paper by 
the late Mr. C. Spence Bate read before the Devon Association in 1871, 
and a plan of it was made in 1880 by the Rev. W. C. Lukis, in which 
year I also briefly described it in the second volume of The Antiquary. 
Nine years later it was " discovered " by a writer during a flying visit 
to Southern Dartmoor. 

f Or Hux Lake ; see Ex. 30. In 1 502 there is mention of Hertes- 
lake or Hurtlake in connection with Whitepytte, both on the Erme. 
It is probable that this refers to Hook Lake, Ex. 32, and not to Hux 
Lake. Other forms of Erme are Arme, and Irm. In 1468 we have 
Sedilburgh Hill and Dertstream Hill, " between the rivers Erme and 
Aune," but these cannot now be identified. 



90 IVYBRIDGE DISTRICT. 

[The following points are within easy reach of Erme Head : Ducks' 
Pool (Ex. 30) |- m. N. ; kistvaen on Green Hill (Ex. 30) i m. N.E- ; 
Red Lake Ford (Ex. 30, R. 7) i in. E. by S. : Erme Pound (Ex. 32) 
i m. S.E. by E. ; Yealm Head (Ex. 34) i m. S.S.W. ; Broad Rock 
(Ex. 34) ^ m. N.W. The Abbots' Way (T. i ) passes here, crossing the 
infant stream at Erme Pits Ford in the midst of the great tin work, 
and again at Erme Head Ford immediately below where it oozes 
from the mire, and goes on N.W. to Broad Rock. The perambulators 
of 1240 mention a bound in this part of the moor which they call 
Grymsgrove, and this the jurors of 1609 considered to be Erme Head. 
The next point named in the 1240 perambulation is Eylesbarrow, bvit 
in 1609 the line was carried first to Plym Head, and it is this line that is 
now regarded as the boundary. It runs from near Erme Pits Ford to 
Erme Head Stone, N.W., on which is the inscription " A Head," the 
older form of Erme being Arme (which is still used by the moormen), 
and then abruptly turns westward to Broad Rock, which is near by.] 

As we have already seen (Ex. 30), the mining remains in this locality 
are extensive, and afford examples of streaming and also of open 
workings. Of the latter Erme Pits, by which name the excavations 
on the Cornwood side of the stream are generally distinguished from 
those on Erme Pits Hill, are the largest and deepest. These probably 
represent the Armed Pit mentioned in 1672 as yielding a particular 
kind of ore called zill tin. The remains of two little buildings of the 
usual mining type may be seen in these pits. 

Passing down through the stream work, where we shall notice a 
great slab of granite called the Table Stone, we find for ourselves a path 
along the R. bank of the Erme, and in about i m. shall reach the point 
where Red Lake falls into it. The river, which will be our companion 
as far as Harford Bridge, here bends R. We pass along The Meadow, 
and when opposite Erme Pound shall strike the Stall Moor stone row, 
and shortly after come upon the track leading from the pound to 
Watercombe (T. 66). Just below this we reach Green Bottom, from 
which point downward the bank is covered with the debris of the tinners, 
among which we shall notice the remains of some of their buildings, one 
being of more than ordinary interest in possessing a double wall. 
Bledge Brook is crossed on the way. When opposite Dry Lake 
(mentioned in Ex. 32, where the L. bank of the river is described) the 
rambler should turn aside to the rocky hollow R., the entrance to 
which is marked by a few mountain ash trees. It is really the work 
of the miners, but is now so draped with plants that it might well 
pass for that of Nature. Immediately below Dry Lake is Left Lake 
(both on the E. side of the stream), and soon after passing the latter 
we shall come upon a little tributary. A short distance up the hollow 
R. through which this flows is the best example of a miners' cache 
to be found on Dartmoor. It is on the L. bank of the little stream, 
and quite close to it. The entrance is on the higher side, and until 
this is seen there is nothing to indicate its nature, for in approaching 
it up stream it has the appearance of a grass covered mound. It 
is known as Downing's House, and sometimes as the Smugglers' Hole 
(see Cache in Terms Section), and a story is related of its having been 
a place of concealment for contraband spirits. A short distance 
above it is a little crossing place on the stream, sometimes referred 



EXCURSION 34. ANTIQUITIES ON THE YEALM. 91 

to as Tinker's Bridge. On the hill northward of the cache is a cluster 
of hut circles. 

Still keeping near the Ernie we pass over Tom's Plain, where we 
shall strike the track coming up the valley from Harford Bridge, 2 m. 
further down, and shall follow it thither (T. 65). It will lead us through 
the pass in which the ancient oaks of Piles Copse find shelter (Ex. 32), 
and above which Sharp Tor rises on one hand and Stalldon on the 
other, the relative situations of which may be supposed to be similar 
to those of the two mountains chained together by Riquetti. Thence 
our way will lead us below Burford Down where are pound -like remains, 
to Hall Newtake, where we emerge on the road. 

Turning I,, we ascend the hill to Harford Church, and keeping R. 
shall make our way past the hamlet to Broomhill, m. from it. Thence 
the lane will lead us by Lukesland L,. and Erme View R. (the latter 
overlooking the romantic Stowford Cleave) to Stowford House, whence 
we shall pass down to the village. 

Ex. 34. New Waste, Stall Moor Gate, Antiquities on the Yealnt 
[EXTENSION To Yealm Head, Langcombe Bottom, and Broad Rock, 
add 4 m.], Broadall Lake, Pen Beacon [Shell Top, add i m.], Rook 
Farms, j\ m. from and to Corn wood. 

Our starting-point will be the moor gate at Watercombe, which 
we may reach either by way of Harford Bridge, saving about \ m., or 
from Cornwood. If we choose the former we shall pass over Burford 
Down as in Ex. 33, and when about i m. from the bridge shall turn 
L. at the end of the Yadsworthy enclosures, and steering W.N.W. 
shall arrive at the gate, or the track near it, in another mile. If we 
go by way of Cornwood we follow the instructions given in S. Ex. 119 
for reaching that village, and shall then take the road running N.E- 
from the open space in front of the inn. This will bring us to the 
Vicarage Bridge, on the Yealm, $ m. beyond which we turn L. at Tor, 
and then almost immediately bend R. At the fork a little further on, 
where a road runs R. to Yadsworthy, we keep L., and soon reach the 
gate near Watercombe Farm. Here we enter on New Waste, often 
called Watercombe Waste, and follow the track northward, and crossing 
Redaven Lake, with Redaven Gulf R., pass through Stall Moor Gate 
and gain the open common.* This track, which is the one described 
as running over Stall Moor to Erme Pound (T. 66), we follow from the 
point we have now reached for \ m., when we shall leave it to examine 
the fine enclosure below us on the L,. This is of considerable size, and 
contains a large number of hut circles. In shape it approaches an 
oval. On the S.E. side a wall is carried out from the main one with 
a semi-circular sweep, thus forming a smaller pound. A small stream 
flows through the larger enclosure and falls into the Yealm in Dendles 

* New Waste Gate, which opens upon the lane, is the true moor 
gate, as the waste has only been enclosed about 90 years. It 
may possibly be the one referred to at Lydford Castle in 1479 as 
Abbot's Gate, for allowing which to be ruinous, to the nuisance of the 
country. Walter Abbot and another were fined. It is described as 
" the gate of the Moor at Staledon," i.e., Stalldon. That part of the 
moor E. of the waste is sometimes known as Steart Ridge. 



92 CORNWOOD DISTRICT. 

Wood. This wood, with the bare hill of Hawns on the further side of 
the valley, which together form the well-known Hawns and Dendles, is 
in full view from the pound. 

[Stalldon Barrow crowns the hill E., and is about i m. distant. 
It is also about i m. from the gate near Redaven Gulf, from which it 
bears N.E. by E. Ex. 33.] 

Close to the hut enclosure a track comes up from between Dendles 
Wood and Harrowthorn Plantation. This we leave R. and strike N. 
to a little affluent of the Yealm known as Ranny Brook which flows 
from the E., and on crossing this shall at once come upon an extensive 
hut settlement, situated with regard to the river and its tributary 
like the one on Brown Heath (Ex. 32), and is also placed on a slope. 
The settlement consists of two pounds, roughly circular in shape, 
within and without which are a number of ruined huts. The pounds 
are joined together, and the wall that is common to both being of 
smaller proportions than the main one, they have more the appear- 
ance of a single pound divided into two parts. Regarded in this way 
the enclosure is 635 yards in circumference. On the S.S.W. is an 
entrance formed by two large slabs about four feet high, one of which 
is in a slanting position, and there are other openings. Three little 
huts of the type known as behive huts, that is, having domed roofs, and 
which were probably used as shelters for shepherds or herdsmen, have 
been formed on the ruins of the wall. In the larger of the divisions 
there are 16 hut circles, some being good examples, and in the smaller 
division five hut circles. One of these is 21 feet in diameter, and the 
stones of which its wall is composed are laid in courses. Between the 
pounds and the tributary huts are numerous one has the door jamb 
in a very complete state and there are also appearances of a reave. 
Above the pounds, that is N. of them, there are a few more hut circles, and 
these are of a character unlike those usually found on the moor. The 
basement wall instead of being formed of slabs set on their edges, or, as 
is more rare, of stones piled on one another, is composed of earth with 
stone facings, and in one example, is quite ten feet thick. About 
30 yards S.S.E. of the larger pound is a kistvaen in a circle 13 feet in 
diameter, but much overgrown. 

From this ruined settlement of the early men of the moor, we 
descend westward to the Yealm, here flowing through a romantic glen, 
into which it falls from a considerable height in a series of cascades. 
On the L. bank is a blowing-house in a very decayed state, and within 
it two mould stones, one of which is broken. By following the river 
upward and crossing it near Yealm Rocks we shall find the ruins of 
another building, and in this tin was also smelted, as is proved by 
the granite mould lying within it. This is about $ m. above the for- 
mer. The course of the Yealm on the moor is but a short one, for 
i m. below its source trees begin to line its banks, and about m. 
lower down it enters Dendles Wood. But this moorland part of it is, 
nevertheless, full of interest. Above the wood is a great Streamwork, 
and at the head of that the hollow through which we have now traced 
it, while to this succeeds a scene of wildness and desolation. The 
river separates the two divisions of the common lands of Cornwood ; 
the tract to the E. of it forming Stall Moor, as noticed in Ex. 33, and 
that to the W. forming Pen Moor. 



EXCURSION 34. GRYMSGROVE. 93 

[EXTENSION To Yealm Head, Langcombe Bottom, and Broad Rock 
add 5 m. if the return be made to Yealm Rocks ; if the rambler returns 
direct to Pen Beacon via Shell Top, add 4 m. Passing upward we 
leave the source of the Yealm, less than f- m. distant, and 500 feet 
higher than where it is joined by Ranny Brook below Yealm Steps, 
on the R., in order to avoid the mire. We soon draw near the summit 
of the ridge running N.E. from Shell Top, and along which the Corn- 
wood boundary is carried. This ridge, although so high, is very 
marshy, but the ground presents no real obstacle to the pedestrian. 
(In R. 59 the line is drawn from Yealm Head to Broad Rock direct, 
the marsh being avoided by keeping a little to the R., but we now 
follow another course). We strike N.N.W. over the ridge, and in 
less than \ m. shall reach firmer ground. Then we turn due N. and 
make our way for % m. along the upper slope of Langcombe Hill to 
Langcombe Bottom, which we should strike about ^ m. below Lang- 
combe Head. Here, on the R. bank of the stream, is a good example 
of a kistvaen, standing in a small stone circle. The covering slab has. 
fallen, or has been thrown, into it. The late Mr. Spence Bate con- 
sidered that this ancient tomb may have been the Grymsgrove of the 
perambulators of 1240 (Ex. 33), but, as it appears to me, without 
any better reason than that grove may have meant grave. Had there 
been a few trees in the locality it is possible that the name might have 
retained the form in which we have received it from the perambulators ! 
But there are no trees within several miles of Erme Head, while a 
number of graves are to be found not far from it. By the change of a 
single letter one of these could be fixed upon, and so the ancient 
bound became Grim's Grave. By the suggestion that Grim may have 
been a chieftain, the founder perhaps of Grim's Pound, the idea was 
made interesting. But that is all that can be said for it. I see no 
reason for believing that the jurors of 1609 were wrong when they 
supposed the Grymsgrove of the " auncient recordes " to be identical 
with Erme Head. At the same time they certainly appear to have 
been so in carrying the line from that place to Plym Head. By so 
doing the common lands of Shaugh Parish are made to run, as it were, 
into the forest. We have already noticed the occurrence in two 
localities (S. Ex. 35, Ex. 31) of the story of land having been claimed 
by a parish on the ground of having given burial to a stranger found 
dead within the bounds of another which had refused to do so. The 
story is also met with in this part of the moor, and though probably 
having no more truth in it than the others, at least points to some 
encroachment, or altering of boundaries here. The man was found, so 
the tale runs, lying on the moor at the head of a combe, about 
i m. below Broad Rock, and not far from some scattered granite 
known as Little Gnats' Head. The combe, down which trickles a 
small feeder of the Langcombe Brook, bears the name of Deadman's 
Bottom. 

Leaving the kistvaen we strike N.E. by N. over Broad Mead, and 
in f m. reach Broad Rock, to which we have referred in Ex. 33 and 
in R. 59. This object is important not only as a bond mark, but 
also as indicating the point where the Abbots' Way branched (T. i). 
It is only 1 1^ feet long by j\ feet wide, and not being more than 3 feet 
high, cannot be seen from a distance, but I remember when a pole 



94 



CORNWOOD DISTRICT. 



standing by the side of it made it a very convenient landmark. Re- 
cently another has been set up. On its surface is this inscription : 

BB. 

BROAD ROCK. 

The initials stand for Blachford Boundary, the stone here denning 
the limits between that manor and the forest. 




FROM BROAD ROCK. LOOKING S.E. 

The view eastward embraces Green Hill, Brown Heath, and 
Three Barrows. Over the ridge beyond Red Lake Mires the cairn in 
Huntingdon Warren is seen due E., and to the R. of the mires the 
Abbots' Way where it approaches Red Lake Ford. R. of Brown Heath 
is Stony Bottom and Quickbeam Hill, S.E. Turning toward the W. 
only the heath on which the beholder is standing is seen, but when he 
has walked a few yards from the rock in that direction, an extensive 
view suddenly unfolds itself. 

Sharp 
Tor 

Sheeps Hart Peak Leather 

Yelverton. Tor. Tor. Hill. Tor. 




FROM NEAR BROAD ROCK. LOOKING N.W. 

Sheeps Tor, Lether Tor, and Sharp Tor are prominent objects to 
the N.W., beyond which is a fine range of country, backed by the 
Cornish hills. More to the R. of the picture North Hisworthy and 
Mis Tor are seen uplifting their forms against the sky. 



EXCURSION 34. BROAD ROCK. SHELL TOP. 



95 



(From Broad Rock Plym Head is m. N. ; Ducks' Pool m. N.E. ; 
Erme Head over J m. S.E. ; Langcombe Head over m. S. by W. ; 
Plym Steps i m. W. ; and Plym Ford i m. N.W.) 

The Abbots' Way descends the hill from Broad Rock to Plym 
Steps, passing the head of Deadman's Bottom, on the side of which, 
about midway down, is a hut settlement. The Tavistock branch goes 
towards Great Gnats' Head, below which it reaches Plym Ford. 

Mis Tor. 

Cocks Staple Roose N. Hisworthy 

Eylesbarrow. Tor. Tors. Tor. Tor 




FROM NEAR BROAD ROCK. 

The boundary between Cornwood and Shaugh is carried southward 
to Shell Top, running along the ridge, as we have already observed. 
It affords no guidance as the bondmarks are few, and the ground being 
marshy in places, it will be better to keep on the brow of the hill west- 
ward of it, unless the rambler prefers to retrace his steps to Yealm 
Head. In either case he will first return to the kistvaen by the Lang- 
combe Brook, and then if he decides upon the former route will strike 
S.W. He will pass below Shavercombe Head, but must take care not 
to descend the hill too much, but keep some distance above Hen Tor 
(R. 7, Ex. 37). Bearing L,., or S.S.W., Shell Top, 2 m. from Broad 
Rock, will be reached. A few rocks crown its summit, and round 
them a small cairn has been built. But the rambler who climbs this 
lofty height is not likely to bestow his first thoughts upon objects 
such as this ; his attention will be attracted by that which is seen 
from it. One of the finest views to be obtained from any Dartmoor 
border height is spread before him. From the giant hills that look 
down upon the waters of the Walkham in the north, to the woods and 
green fields of the western part of the South Hams in the opposite 
direction, the eye ranges over a succession of beauties. A striking 
feature is formed by the rivers that fall into the sea near Plymouth, 
which are seen embosomed amid hills, one of them being the little 
stream that we have lately traced to its source. 

S.W. of the cairn, and about m. from it, is an enclosure with hut 
circles, -i- in. below that is the wall of Cholwich Town Waste. On 
the farm of that name. (Ex. 35) in a field called Great Hill, is a fine 
single stone row, over 230 yards in length, with the remains of a circle 
at the N.E. end. In the wall on the slope above is a large stone that 
may once have served as a menhir. 



96 SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM IVYBRIDGE. 

Shell Top rises to a height of 1546 feet. About m. S. of it is- 
Pen Beacon, 1407 feet. A reave connects the two, and this we shall 
follow down to the lower height (R. 7).] 

Leaving the Yealm we make our way south-westward to Broadall 
Lake, the upper part of which is generally referred to as Broadall Gulf. 
This we should strike near the point at which it enters the enclosures, 
where are a number of hut circles. We pass upward with the wall I,, 
to the higher corner of High-house Waste, which is close to the head 
of a little stream. Thence we follow a reave up the hill to a pound 
250 yards in circumference, and containing eight hut circles, one, 
which is nearly in the centre, having a wall about six feet thick. Above 
this are several reaves, which in places cross each other. One goes 
westward, and seems to be connected with a longer one coming up the 
side of the hill from the Plym. Another runs upward to Pen Beacon, 
and to that point we make our way. On this is a barrow 72 yards in 
circumference, but not of great height. On its S. side a little shelter 
has been built, and on the W., a few yards from it, are the ruins of a 
small rectangular building. Shell Top is % m. N. by W. 

One mile S.S.E. of Pen Beacon is West Rook Gate, and to this we 
shall now make our way, and follow the road thence by the Rook farms 
to Heathfield Down and Cornwood village, as in R. 7. The return to 
Ivybridge will be by way of the road running S.E. frpm the inn, and 
will lead us by Moor Cross to Houndle Hill, soon after which we pass 
Fardel, R., and in about i-J- m. reach Dame Hannah Rogers' School, 
where we turn down R. to the village. 



Shorter Excursions from Ivybridg-e. 

S. Ex. 113. The Lud Brook, 6 m. Following the Brent highway 
(R. 66) for 2 m. the visitor will reach Bittaford Bridge, where a road 
turns L- under the viaduct, and runs past the hamlet up to the common. 
(Another road passes under the viaduct very near to the Horse and 
Groom Inn ; this is the old coach road noticed in S. Ex. 112, and by 
following it to Leigh Cross, a short distance beyond the entrance to 
the Plymouth Borough Lunatic Asylum, at Blackadon, and then 
turning L. the visitor is led to the commons at Leigh Gate and the 
Golf Links, f m. from the summit of Ugborough Beacon, as described 
in S. Ex. 112). Blackadon Farm was formerly known as Blacket. 
On reaching the moor above Bittaford by the lane running by West 
Peek the rambler will strike N., with Cuckoo Ball R., and at Cuckoa 
Ball Corner will turn R. to the Lud (S. Ex. 112). This little stream 
may be traced to its source, and the return be made by way of 
Butterdon Hill, -- m. S.W. of it, whence a green track may be followed 
S.W. for i m. to the moor gate at Quarry Pit Plantation. Thence 
by the road down the hill past Stowford to the village. Between 
Ivybridge and Bittaford is the hamlet of Filham. From this a road 
runs up to the moor. Fyllam Yeat (gate) receives early mention. 
Further on is a second turning, L., to the moor, and then a third. 
The latter leads to Cantrell Farm and Cantrell Gate, or Cantrel Yeat 
as it appears in the sixteenth century. Near it are the remains of a 
stone row about 50 yards in length, and running westerly from a low 



SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM IVYBRIDGE. 97 

tumulus. It appears to have been double, though only a few stones 
are now standing. 

S. Ex. 114. The Wester yi Beacon, Butter don, and Hanger shell 
Rock, 5 1 m. The visitor will first make his way past Stowford to the 
gate at Quarry Pit Plantation, and will then pass upward to the Western 
Beacon, as in Ex. 32. It is interesting to note that the source of the 
Errne, which stream flows so far below the visitor, is over 260 feet 
above this lofty point. The line of bond-stones referred to in Ex. 32 
comes up the hill from behind Stowford, where is a boundary rock 
having the letters H U cut upon it, denoting Harford and Ugborough. 
This line is followed N. by Black Pool to Butterdon, as directed in the 
excursion just named, whence the visitor makes his way N. by the 
ancient row to Hangershell Rock, which is not far to the L. of it, and 
about m. on. The view from this point is particularly good. I 
remember when a little grave was to be seen close to the rock, with a 
headstone bearing the following inscription : 

" In memory of Tiny, a faithful and affectionate little terrier, 
who died at Lukesland, March igth, 1875, aged 12 years. 

My little dog lies buried here, 

Stranger stop and drop a tear ; 

And as you pass this little grave, 

One small request I of you crave 

Let no hand nor foot of thine 

Despoil this little Tiny's shrine. S.F.M." 

Near the rock a green path will lead the visitor S.W. past Weather- 
don Hill, m. distant (Ex. 32). I,ess than \ m. S. of the summit of 
this hill, and near Addicombe, are two ancient pounds, the larger of 
which is divided by a wall running across it. It is 165 yards in circum- 
ference. There are also a few hut circles, but the remains are very 
much decayed. Crossing Addicombe Slaggets S. to the moor gate the 
visitor will descend the hill as in S. Ex. 113. 

S. Ex. 115. To Three Barrows direct (4% m. from Ivybridge), 9 m. 
To the moor gate as in Ex. 32. Thence N. across Addicombe Slaggets, 
and up the green path with Butterdon R. and Weatherdon Hill L. 
Thence past Hangershell Rock to the stone row. Follow this N. to 
its termination, when the bond-stones will form a guide. These lead 
past Sharp Tor I,., about | m. beyond which the cairn crowned hill 
rises R. See Ex. 32. 

S. Ex. 116. Piles Copse (4^ m. from Ivybridge), 81 m. Harford 
Moor gate is the first point, and this the visitor may reach either by 
way of Harford as in Ex. 33, from which place he will turn up the hill 
by the church, or he may go by way of the gate at Quarry Pit Planta- 
tion as in Ex. 32. Should he choose the latter he will pass over Addi- 
combe Slaggets, keeping near the enclosures L. About m. from the 
gate, at Combeshead Brake, the wall is carried westward towards 
Tor Rocks, which rise above the southern bank of the Butter Brook, 
and which the rambler should visit. The direct course is N. to 
Butter Ford at the corner | m. distant, close to which are some fine 
examples of hut circles. Harford Gate is just beyond this. Here 
three tracks start ; one being the Owley Path (T. 62), another the 



98 SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM IVYBRIDGE. 

branch of the Blackwood Path (T. 63), which runs up to Piles Hill, 
and the third, which is carried along by the wall, going to the gate ot 
Lower Piles, 4 m. N. The rambler will follow the last-named. Outside 
the gate of Piles is the kist noticed in Ex. 32, and inside it the curious 
hut circles also mentioned in that excursion, which embraces Piles 
and the copse. The latter is i m. N., and the way to it lies through 
the newtakes, Piles Brook being crossed midway. 

S. Ex. 117. Stowford Cleave, 5^ m. The beautifully wooded valley 
through which the Erme flows from Harford Bridge to Ivybridge bears 
the name of Stowford Cleave, and justly takes high rank among similar 
spots in the Dartmoor borderland. We have elsewhere remarked on 
the word Cleave, Exs. 1 1, 23, and Terms Section in Part V. The visitor 
may enter this close to the viaduct near the station, where he will find 
a path that will take him up the valley by the R. bank of the river. 
When this is lost Harford Church comes in sight, half hidden amid 
trees, and the hills begin to reveal themselves, the picture being as 
fine as anything the fringe of the moor can show. [Gems, Chap. XVII.] 
Crossing a field a lane is reached where the visitor turns R. to Harford 
Bridge. Thence the return route is by the church as in Ex. 32. 

S. Ex. 1 1 8. Henlake Down and Hangher Down, 4 m. A road 
leads up through the wood from the viaduct near the station. Follow- 
ing this the visitor will be led to Henlake Down and Pithill Farm. 
From the down there is a fine view, which, however, is greatly extended 
when Hangher Down is reached. A track in the higher corner of 
Henlake leads to this. On the summit is the Round Plantation, a 
conspicuous object in the neighbourhood. A track runs over the 
common, going northward to the road between Harford Bridge and 
Cornwood. N.W. of the Round Plantation a road leads down to 
Moor Cross (S. Ex. 119). 

S. Ex. 119. Cornwood and Hawns and Dendles : with road to 
Lutton. (Cornwood village is 3 m. from Ivybridge, and i m. from 
Cornwood Station (G.W.R.) ; the entrance to Hawns and Dendles is 
at Combe, i^ m. from Cornwood village). The Cornwood road, as 
stated hi Ex. 34, runs up the hill with Ivybridge church R. to Dame 
Hannah Rogers' School, where it turns L. About i^ m. on it passes 
Fardle, the former home of the Raleighs, though not the birthplace of 
Sir Walter. The chapel is in a good state of preservation. Pasrdng 
over Houndle Hill the rambler will reach Moor Cross, where is one of 
the entrances to Blachford. 

(The road running L. is the one which the rambler is directed to 
take for Lutton, R. 57. After crossing the Yealm, which is close by, 
he will pass the first turning R. and at the next cross road on the ridge, 
will keep straight down the hill to Piall Brook, and will then pass up 
the hill and bend R. to Lutton, a hamlet where is a small hostelry 
called the Mountain Inn. Below the bridge over the Piall Brook is 
Slade Hall, the residence of Mr. J. D. Pode. Here an ingot of tin was 
found in iS"o. It measured 14 inches by 8 inches, and was about 
3 inches thick, its weight being si^lbs. I mention this because I have 
seen it stated that the tin ingots were of a cubic form. The rambler on 
Dartmoor who has examined the blowing-houses there will know better.) 



SHORTER EXCURSIONS FROM CORNWOOD. 99 

From Moor Cross we make our way to Corn wood, which is some- 
times locally spoken of as Cross. Here on the open space in the centre 
of the little village is a fine Latin cross, erected in 1902 to the memory 
of Frederic Rogers, Lord Blachford, and of Georgiana, his wife. 
[Crosses, Chap. IV. and Addenda.] On one side of this space is an 
entrance to Blachford, and on the other the gate of Delarnore. 

(A road branches R. from the one leading to the station a short 
distance from the village. This runs on past Lutton and through 
Sparkwell to Old Newnham and Plympton Station). 

From the cross we take the road running N.E. as in Ex. 34, and 
on crossing the bridge over the Yealm near the vicarage turn L. and 
follow the path by the river. Soon we bend R. and here there is a 
road L. leading to Wisdome Mill. We pass this and take the next 
turning L-, and then again bend R. and pass up by Sweet's Wood to 
Combe L. Here we enter Hawns and Dendles. It has been suggested 
that this charming spot owes its name to a corruption of some Celtic 
words, meaning twice, or doubly beautiful, but in this idea there is 
more poetry than probability. It seems to have derived its curious 
appellation from the names of two owners of the lands that form it. 
The existence of one of these, however, a Madame Hawns, rests only 
on tradition ; that of the other has the authority of title-deeds, in 
which the name appears as Daniels. Hawns and Dendles is a wooded 
valley through which the Yealm flows on quitting the moor, and in 
which it is joined by Broadall Lake, the confluence being between 
Fernfires Wood S. and Dendles Wood N. The tract of land between 
these streams is divided into two parts, the western one being called 
Hawns, and the eastern Dendles Waste. The cascades on the Yealm 
are fine, and there are some delightful glimpses of the surrounding 
moor. [Gems, Chap. XVIII.] At the northern end of the higher path 
on the W. side of the valley a gate opens on to Combe Waste, 
between the woods and Harrowthorn Plantation. The path is continued 
on the moor, and is the one referred to in Ex. 34 ; by following this 
Yealm Falls and the Yealm Rings or Yealm Circles, as the pounds are 
sometimes called, may readily be reached. The public are admitted 
to Hawns and Dendles on Monday, Wednesday, and Saturday in each 
week, by the courtesy of the owner, Miss Deare. Near the head of the 
Broadall Lake are the Broadall Mires. 

S. Ex. 1 20. Stone Circle on Stall Moor, and Erme Pound, from 
Cornwood, io|- m. The distance is from and to Cormvood village. 
The Ivybridge visitor will find it very interesting to go to Erme Pound 
by this route, and return by way of the L. bank of the Erme and 
Harford as in Ex. 32, or by the R. bank as in Ex. 33. The moor gate 
at Watercombe is the first point. Thence the stall Moor track should 
be followed northward (T. 66). The circle called the Dancers will be 
seen R. 2| m. from the gate (Ex. 33). The ford on the Erme 
is about m. further on, and Erme Pound is just above it (Ex. 32). 

S. Ex. 121. Pen Beacon and Shell Top from and to Cornwood 
village, 6 m. ; add 6 m. if from Ivybridge. The way lies first to Heath- 
field Down, m., which is approached by the road running N.W. from 
the cross (R. 56). On reaching this little common take the road over 
it R. to the enclosures and pass up the lane, branching R. at the first 



too Routes 55, 56. Brent and Ivybridge to Plympton. 

forks ; the L. branch leads to Newpark Waste under Rood Wood. 
Passing West Rook L., and Middle Rook R., the rambler will make 
his way up to West Rook Gate, between Broker's Plantation L-, and 
Hillson's Brake R., and here he will enter on the moor. This part is 
usually spoken of as Rook Tor, but nothing more than some scattered 
stones' are to be seen there (cf. Clay Tor, Ex. 8). Pen Beacon is i m. 
N. by W., and Shell Top, 4- m. further in the same direction. These are 
described in Ex. 34. On returning from the beacon the rambler may 
steer S.E. by S., that is, a little to the I,, of the line struck in ascending, 
which will bring him to East Rook Gate, with Hillson's Brake R. and 
Ford Waste L. About | m. down the hill a lane branches L. to Hele 
Cross and Wisdome Mill, and another R. to Wakeham's Rook and 
East Rook. He may return by way of the latter, or keep straight 
down the hill for another 4- m. and then turn R. to the village. 

The district covered by the excursipns from Brent and Ivybridge 
is deficient in tors, and is less wild than the northern part of the moor, 
as the rambler over it will have seen. But he will also admit that there 
is ample compensation for this. The borders are here particularly 
interesting, while the south quarter of the forest and the venville 
commons abxttting upon it are far more rich in pre-historic remains than 
any other part of the great waste. 



Routes from Brent and Ivybrldge. 

(Retxirn Distances not included. The rambler is supposed to be 
supplied with a pocket compass.) 

R. 55. To Plympton, W.S.W. and W. Brent Bridge, Wrangaton, 
Bittaford Bridge, Ivybridge, Lee Mill Bridge, Lyneham Inn. From 
Brent, u m. ; from Ivybridge, 6* m. Reverse, R. 74. 

[Objects : Ex. 32.] 

This is a road route ; few directions are needed. The way from 
Brent to Ivybridge has been shown in R. 47. Thence the high road is 
followed past Cadleigh Park, Lee Mill Bridge, where the Yealm is 
crossed, Smithaleigh, and the Lyneham Inn. Just beyond the sixth 
milestone from Plymouth a road branches L. to the town of Plympton ; 
the main road goes on to Rid<*way, whence a road also leads L. to 
Plympton, immediately opposite the George Hotel. If the visitor is 
bound for Plympton Station he will not enter the town, but will pass 
down through Ridgway. 

R. 56. Brent to Shaugh. W. by N. Owley Gate, Spurrell's 
Cross, Harford, Cornwood, Piall Bridge, White Hill Corner,' Walter, 
12 m. Reverse, R. 75. 

[Objects: S. Exs. in, 112 ; Exs. 32, 33, 34, 35, 36.] 

The way lies by the hamlet of Aish, and Bulhornstone Cross to 
Owley Gate, as in S. Ex. 1 1 1 . Here we are on the Harford track, already 
described (T. 62), and after following it for a short distance we shall 
find its character alters. It becomes a wide, green path, and will lead 



Routes 57, 58. Brent and Ivybridge to Shaugh. 101 

us up the hill N. of Ugborough Beacon to Spurrell's Cross. Its course 
is nearly due W., and is marked by low heaps of stones not far apart. 
West of the shattered cross [Ancient Crosses, Chap. III.] the path runs 
on the line of the track leading from Buckfast to Plympton (T. 59), 
which was carried up the hill N.E. from Glascombe Corner. After 
passing the head of Butter Brook L., Harford Gate is soon reached. 
The way then lies down the lane to the church, where we turn R. and 
descend to Harford Bridge (Ex. 33, S. Ex. 117). Thence the road 
passes upward with the ancient farm of Hall R. \ m. beyond the gate 
of this homestead, just after passing Hall Cross, the road forks. The L. 
branch is known as Reddapitt Lane, and runs by Blachford to Corn- 
wood, being a shorter way than the other. But it is not a public road, 
and therefore the R. branch must be followed. In rather over \ m. 
we reach Tor, where we turn L-, and passing Wisdome and crossing 
the Vicarage Bridge, shall proceed direct to the village. 

(Here the visitor from Ivybridge will join this route. See R. 57). 

From Cornwood our way will take us N.W. over the side of Heath- 
field Down to Piall Bridge, which we shall cross, and still following the 
road shall in about \ m. reach Quick Bridge. We pass up the hill with 
Cholwich Town R., to Tolchmoor Gate (Ex. 35), and crossing the Torry 
at Tolchmoor Bridge shall speedily find ourselves at White Hill Corner, 
where is a guide-post (Ex. 36). Here we turn I,., and passing Boringdon 
Cottages R. shall make our way up a narrow road by Shade Cottages, 
also R., which will bring us to the commons. Passing along the side 
of Stewarts Hill, R., and by the Wotter Waste Clay Works R., we 
continue to follow the road under Collard Tor Cottage to Beatland 
Corner (guide-post). Here we cross the road from Plympton to Cada- 
ford Bridge, and soon arrive at Shaugh village. 

R. 57. Ivybridge to Shaugh, N.W. by W. Houndle Hill, Moor 
Cross [Lutton, Heddon Down, Crownhill Down, Portworthy, Niel Gate, 
9 m.], Cornwood: thence as in R. 56, 84 m Reverse, R. 76. 

[Objects : Exs. 34, 35, 36.] 

Passing up by the church we turn L. to Pardle, Moor Cross, and 
Comwood village, as in S. Ex. 119. From Corn wood the way is des- 
cribed in R. 56. 

Another way is by Lutton, but the former is the better one. Turn 
L- at Moor Cross as shown in S. Ex. 119, and on reaching Lutton pass 
up to the common and strike W. by N. It may not be possible to keep 
a direct line, as there are a number of clay pits in this part of the moor. 
The point to be reached is the northern end of Hooksbury Wood, at 
the western foot of Crownhill Down, 2\ m. from Lutton. Here are 
cross roads and a guide-post. Take the road running down westward 
to the Torry, keeping the wood L. On crossing the stream the road 
goes up the hill to Portworthy, about m. beyond which turn R. and 
follow the road N. to Niel Gate, i m. Turn L. to the village at Beat- 
land Corner, | m. N. 

R. 58. Brent to Princetown, N.W. Shipley, Western Whita- 
burrow, Red Lake Ford, Ducks' Pool, The Plym, Siward's Cross, 12 m. 
To Two Bridges, add i4 m. Reverse, R. 7. 

[Objects: Exs. 30/32, 33, 37, 3.] 

The first point will be Shipley, to which we may make our way 



102 ROUTE 58. BRENT TO PRINCETOWN. 

either by the hamlet of Aish, or by Wash Gate and Didworthy, as in 
Ex. 30. On passing through the moor gate near Zeal we leave the road, 
turning up L. by the wall of the enclosures, with the deserted naphtha 
works ^>n the R. For the next 3 m. we shall have the guidance of the 
old Zeal Tor tramroad (T. 60), but as it here goes L. around Zeal Hill, 
it will shorten the distance a little if we strike up over the common in 
a N.W. direction, taking care, however, not to keep too much to the 
R., when we shall meet with it again. About 2 m. from Shipley this 
old tramway passes the long-deserted Brent Moor Clay Works, which 
are seen L. Just before reaching these it will be found that the path 
has been encroached upon by the bog, and can no longer be followed. 
Here we must keep it a short distance on our L,., and further on we shall 
find that it becomes a hard path again. It is almost better to walk 
along its side here as the cutting is encumbered with loose stones. 
2% m. from Shipley Western W 7 hitaburrow is reached (Ex. 30), and 
from here North Hisworthy above Princetown is in full view to the 
N.W. ; to the R. of it is Great Mis Tor (Ex. 6). 2 m. away W.N.W. is 
Erme Head, marked by a large stream work, and -4- m. R. of this our 
way lies. Beyond Whitaburrow the tramroad descends, and m. 
from it we reach the Crossways (Ex. 30). Here we turn L. into 
the old Abbots' Way (T. i), which we shall follow to Red Lake Ford. 
On crossing the stream we must steer N.W. over Green Hill to Stony 
Hole, a great stream work on Dark Lake, or, as it is also called, the 
Black Lane Brook, passing Middle Mires on the way. 

[From the stream-work the rambler may follow Black Lane 
(T. 75) to Fox Tor, and crossing the ford below it (Ex. 3) make his way 
to White Works, and thence to Princetown by Castle Road (T. 7). 
See R. 7.] 

Crossing the stream-work, our course being W.N.W., and leaving 
Ducks' Pool R. (Ex. 30), we descend to the Plym. On the slope are 
the scattered rocks of Great Gnats' Head, above which is a cairn, 
(about f m. below the pool), and by keeping these near us L- we shall 
strike the river at, or near, Plym Ford. The ridge running N.E. from 
Eylesbarrow now lies between us and Siward's Cross, our next point, 
and in passing over this we must keep a N.N.W. course. The house 
near the cross is seen as we make our way down the northern side of 
this ridge. The way from the cross to Princetown is described in the 
extension to Ex. 2. The course is W. of N., and a branch of the Abbots' 
Way is followed throughout the distance (T. i). The walls of the 
enclosures must be kept R., care being taken when those belonging 
to Nun's Cross Farm are passed, to keep straight on to the corner of 
another enclosure. Beyond this is South Hisworthy Tor. Princetown 
is entered by way of Ivybridge Lane (T. 6). The distance to Two 
Bridges may be shortened by about i m. by bearing R. when Nun's 
Cross enclosures are passed, and steering N.E. for 4- m. to Peat Cot. 
Here cross the Devonport leat ; leave it L., and strike due N. towards 
the outer corner of the Tor Royal enclosures, or follow up the leat and 
leave it when near the wall, See R. 34. From the corner the course 
is N.E. over Tor Royal Newtake to the steps over the Blackabrook 
S. of Round Hill farmhouse. See Ex. 3, T.B. to Peat Cot. 



ROUTE 59. IVYBRIDGE TO PRINCETOWN. 103 

R. 59. Ivybridge to Princetown, N. by W., with route from 
Cormvood, N. Harford Bridge, Valley of the Erme, Green Bottom, 
Ernie Head, The Plym, Siward's Cross, 12\ m. From Corn wood : 
Pen Beacon, Shell Top, Shavercombe, Hart Tors, Siward's Cross, 9^ m. 
To Two Bridges, add i\ m. Reverse, R. 7. 

[Objects : Exs. 32, 33, 34, 37, 3/1 

Starting from the bridge we pass up the hill to Stowford, and 
make our way on by Lukesland to Harford, and thence to Harford 
Bridge, as in Ex. 33. Entering the gate at the W. end of this we follow 
the track running up the R. bank of the Erme (T. 65), and passing 
under Stalldon Barrow reach Tom's Plain. Here we lose the path, 
but continue our way up the valley to Green Bottom, rather over \ m. 
below Erme Pound, which is on the opposite bank. (The Erme valley 
is described in Exs. 32, 33). We now leave the river and strike up over 
the hill N.W., as in Ex. 33, and in \\ m. shall pass Erme Head R., and 
\ m. further on shall reach Broad Rock on the Abbots' Way (Ex. 34, 
T. i). Our next point is Plym Ford, i m. N.W. The branch of the 
Abbots' Way leading to it is not very plainly defined, but the ground 
is good, and by following a N.W. course down the hill by Great Gnats' 
Head, which should be kept R., the ford will be reached. From this 
point the way is described in R. 58, where also the route from Nun's 
Cross to Two Bridges is shown. 

From Cornwood the route to Shell Top as given in S. Ex. 121 
must be followed. The rambler will then strike W. of N. down the 
hillside, but on approaching Hen Tor, i m., must leave it about m. 
below him. He will thus avoid the marshy ground on the top of the 
ridge. The course is now a little E. of N., the Plym being in sight in 
the valley L. Very soon the Shavercombe Brook is crossed, near a 
tumulus \ m. above Shavercombe Falls, and i m. further on the Plym 
at Plym Steps, when the course is changed to due N., and the slope 
ascended with Lower Hart Tor R., and Higher Hart Tor L,. When 
a little to the R. of Eylesbarrow, a cairn marking the bounds of the 
forest, the track coming up from Siward's Cross should be struck 
(T. 6). Should it not be seen the same northerly course must be 
followed down the hill, and the cross will be reached in about I m. 
The path from the cross to Princetown is described in the extension 
to Ex. 2 and in R. 58. 

Another route from Cornwood is by way of Stall Moor, but it is 
longer. The rambler will cross the Vicarage Bridge and at Tor turn 
I/, and then R. to Watercombe Waste Gate as in Ex. 34, and thence to 
Stall Moor Gate, from which he will follow the track running near the 
Stall Moor Circle out to Erme Pound (T. 66). Just before reaching* 
the Erme he will cross Green Bottom, when he will leave the track, 
and follow the directions given in the former part of this route, i.e., 
Ivybridge to Princetown. Or he may take the L. branch of the track 
after leaving Stall Moor Gate, and following this to the Yealm trace 
that stream nearly to its source. Thence, keeping a little to the R., 
to avoid the mire, he will strike northward for \\ m. to Broad Rock, 
coming in sight first of Erme Head. See ante. The route from Yealm 
Head to Langcombe Bottom given in Ex. 34 may also be followed, 
when the brook can be traced downward to Plym Steps. 






104 Routes 60 to 63. Brent and Ivybrldge to Tavlstock. 

R. 60. Brent to Tavistock. For points and objects see R. 58, i. 
which compose this route, 19^ m. Reverse, R. 13. 

R. 61. Ivybridge to Tavistock. This route is composed of R. 
59, i, where points and objects are named, 20 m. Reverse, R. 13. 

If the visitor goes by road the way will lie through Cornwood, 
R. 57, and thence to White Hill Corner, R. 56. From this point he will 
follow the road N.W., passing Lee Moor House R., and shortly after 
Blackaton Cross [Crosses, Chap. IV.], and descend the hill, with Saddles- 
borough L., to Cadaford Bridge. Thence he will proceed as in R. 68, 
passing over Marchants Bridge, through Dousland (Ex. 39), and 
Walkhamptoa, over Huckworthy Bridge (Ex. 40), to Warren's Cross 
and Whitchurch Down. Reverse, R. 13. 

[Objects : S. Ex. 119, Exs. 34 to 40. 7.] 

R. 62. To Lydford. From Brent, N.W. ; from Ivybridge, 
N.N.W. ; from Cornwood, N.N.W. Shipley, Western Whitaburrow, 
Red Lake Ford, Ducks' Pool, The Plym (From Ivybridge : Harvard 
Bridge, Valley of the Erme, Green Bottom, Erme Head, The Plym), 
Siward's Cross. (From Cornwood : Pen Beacon, Shell Top, Shaver- 
combe, Hart Tors, Siward's Cross), Princetown, Rundle Stone, Mis Tor, 
White Tor, Hill Bridge. From Brent, 23 m. ; from Ivybridge, 23^ m. ; 
from Cornwood, 20^ m. Reverse, R. 20. 

[Objects : Between Shipley and Red Lake, Ex. 30 ; Red Lake to 
the Plym, Exs. 33, 43, 36 ; Plym to Princetown, Exs. 37, 3, 2 ; Prince- 
.town to Lydford, Exs. 6, 9, 10. The route from Ivybridge does not 
include Exs. 30, 43, but adds Ex. 32. The Cornwood route leaves out 
Exs. 30, 32, 33, 43.] 

This route is composed of R. 58, 59, 2, q.v. The visitor is also 
referred to the Reverse (R. 20) for some hints relative to crossing the 
Walkham between Princetown and Hill Bridge. 

R. 63. To Okehampton. From Brent, N.N.W. ; from Ivybridge, 
N. by W. With branch to Belstone. Shipley, Western Whitaburrow, 
Red Lake Ford, Black Lane (From Ivybridge : Harford Bridge, Valley 
of the Erme, Green Bottom, Erme Head, Black Lane), Fox Tor, Prince 
Hall Bridge, Muddy Lakes, Hollow Combe, Broad Down, East Dart 
Valley, Cranmere, Ockment Hill, New Bridge. From Brent, 26 m. ; 
from Ivybridge, 27 m. Reverse, R. 27. 

[Objects: Exs. 33, 30, 4, 3, 46, 45, 16, and 15.] 

From Brent the directions given in R. 58 must be followed for the 
first -j\ m., which will bring the rambler to the stream work on Dark 
Lake, and quite close to Ducks' Pool (Ex. 30). From Ivybridge the 
route to Erme Head, 8 m., is given in R. 59 ; on reaching the stream 
work at that place the rambler must follow up Dark Lake for about 
\ m., when he will reach the old workings near Ducks' Pool. Black 
Lane, which runs W. of N., will now become his path (T. 75, Ex. 3, 
R. 7), and in about i m. he will come in sight of Fox Tor, below which 
is Child's Tomb (Ex. 3). On passing this L. he will descend to Stream 
Hill Ford on the Swincombe river, \ m. distant, and crossing the latter 
will proceed due N. over Tor Royal Newtake (Ex. 3, 4) for \\ m., when 
he will turn R. to Moorlands. Passing this he will turn down the lane 
L. to Prince Hall Bridge, and follow the road by the house to the lodge 



Route 64. Brent and Ivybridge to Chagford. 105 

on the Two Bridges L-, and Dartmeet road R. Muddy Lakes Newtake, 
in front of the lodge, must then be crossed, the course being due N., 
when the rambler will reach the Princetown and Moreton road close 
to the old Powder Mills gate. Entering this he will still keep a course 
due N., with the Powder Mills Cottages R., and in 2 m. will reach 
Hollow Combe, where he will cross the Cherry Brook under Lower 
White Tor, which rises from the steep hill L. Another mile, the 
course still being N., will take the rambler over Broad Down to Sandy 
Hole (Ex. 45), on the East Dart. From this point the directions given 
in C.R. i a for reaching Craiimere must be followed, and from that 
spot C.R. 9 and Ex. 16 will show the way to Okehampton. 

If the rambler is bound for Belstone he will, on reaching Cranmere, 
make his way down the Taw as described in C.R. 10. If he does not 
desire to include the pool he may strike direct from East Dart Head 
to Taw Head. The direction is due N., and the distance m. 

R. 64. To Chagford and Moreton. Prom Brent, N. ; from 
Ivybridge, N. by E. ; from Cornwood, N.N.E. From Brent : Gigley 
Bridge, Cross Furzes. Holne, Pound's Gate, Ponsworthv , Jordan, Challa- 
combe, Jurston Gate, C, 19 m. ; M. (by Moor Gate) about i m. further ; 
but a more direct way from Ponsworthy would be through Widecombe 
thence by Heytree Cross and North Bovey. From Ivybridge : Har- 
ford, Valley of the Erme to Red Lake Foot, Aune Head, Hexworthy, 
Sherburton Bridge, Dunnabridge Pound, Post Bridge, Warren House Inn, 
Jurston Gate, C., 23! m. ; M. (by Moor Gate), 25 m. From Cornwood : 
Watercombe Waste and Stall Moor Gate, Stall Moor, Red Lake Foot ; 
thence as from Ivybridge, vide supra. C., 22 m. ; M. (by Moor Gate), 
33+ m. Reverse, R. 33. 

Objects : S. Exs. from Brent, Holne Moor Section, and Exs. 28, 
27, 22. If from Ivybridge, Exs. 32, 30, 43, 42, 44, 45, 21, 22 ; if from 
Cornwood commence with Ex. 33. 

From Brent : The way lies through Scorriton, directions for reach- 
ing which are given in S. Ex. 101. Thence pass up the hill to Holne, 
crossing the road from Buckfastleigh to the moor just before arriving 
at the village. Pass on by the Church House Inn, and on reaching a 
road running E. and W. cross it and enter the field at the stile L. Follow 
the path past Home Cot, and down through the wood with the Dart L. 
to the road close to Xew Bridge (Exs. 27, 28), which cross and ascend 
to hill to Pound's Gate (Exs. 27, 28). At the further end of the hamlet 
we turn R. after passing the Spitchwick Lodge, and leaving Leusdon 
Church R. descend to Ponsworthy. When m. up the hill beyond 
Ponsworthy turn L. to Jordan Mill, and crossing a narrow lane keep 
N. by E. to Dunstone Down, where turn L. Passing a stroll leading 
to Rowden Down L., and a short distance beyond that a road running 
to Cator L., we follow the road for i m. to Lower Blackaton (S. Ex. 85), 
from which point we continue northward up the valley to Challacombe, 
i m. (S. Ex. 85). Thence onward between Grim's Pound R., and 
Headland Warren House in the valley L., for 2-k m., to the Princetown 
and Moreton road. Turn R. for Moreton. Cross the little valley N. 
for Chagford, and reaching the road follow it to Jurston Gate. See R. 4. 

From Ivybridge : The first point is Harford (Ex. 33). The second 
is Green Hill, which may be reached either by way of the R. bank of 
the Erme, or by going over Sharp Tor and Quickbeam Hill. In the 



io6 Route 64. Brent and Ivybridge to Chagford. 

former case the rambler will follow the directions given in R. 59 for 
reaching Green Bottom. Here he may cross the river, or at the ford 
just above (T. 66), or still proceeding up the R. bank, find a crossing- 
place at Red Lake Foot, and pass upward towards Red Lake Ford, 
with the stream R. If he goes by way of Sharp Tor he will pass up 
the lane with the church L. to Harford Gate, and bearing L. will follow 
the green track running N.W. to Piles Hill (T. 63), his mark being 
Sharp Tor, which on passing he will keep L. The way now lies through 
the shallow dip between this tor and Three Barrows to Stony Bottom, 
as in Ex. 32, 3^ m. from the moor gate. The course is now N. over 
Brown Heath to Red Lake Ford, i m. The hut enclosures noticed in 
the excursion named are on the slope L., and the line of bond-stones 
between Harford and Ugborough Moors R. Crossing Red Lake at 
the ford the rambler will still steer N., having Green Hill L. (Ex. 30) and 
Red Lake Mires R. By keeping near to the latter he will strike the 
hard path running through the marshy ground to Heng Lake Gully 
(Ex. 29), and so reach the Avon. The way lies up this stream, the R. 
bank being traced to its source, i-i- m. (Ex. 43). From Aune Head the 
track running N. must be followed to Hexworthy (T. 54). This is not 
well defined near the mire, but by proceeding W. of N. for about m. 
the head of the Wo Brook will be seen R. The track runs down the 
hill near the L- bank of this stream, and when the latter turns sharply 
toward the E., still goes N. over Down Ridge. It runs to a gate in 
the wall of a newtake through which it passes, and reaches the road 
below immediately behind the Forest Inn. 

[The part of this route just described forms the route from Ivy- 
bridge to Hexworthy referred to in R. 33. The way from Heng Lake 
Gully to Brent was there sketched ; the reverse is here given. The 
first point is Shipley (Ex. 30), whence the old tram road (T. 60) may be 
followed as in the route to Princetown as far as the Crossways (R. 58). 
Thence strike N. by E. over the old peat workings, keeping the valley 
of the Avon in sight R. to the gully, f m. Or the Avon may be traced 
from Shipley upward as directed in S. Ex. 104, to Lower Huntingdon 
Corner, and thence followed to the gully, i m. further up. From 
that point see directions ante.] 

From the Forest Inn the way lies over Gobbet Plain, to which the 
road above the inn leads westward ; or it may be reached by the road 
running down in front of the inn and turning L. up the slope. Descend- 
ing to Sherburton Bridge on the Swincombe river the rambler will pass 
up to the farm, where he may obtain permission to go through the 
enclosures to the clam on the West Dart, near Sherburton Firs. Cross- 
ing this he will climb the hill northward to the road coming R. from 
Dartmeet and going L. to Two Bridges. On the L. is Brownberry, 
and opposite to it Dunnabridge Pound (Ex. 5, 42). Pass the gate of 
this and turn R. by the wall, and follow the green track through the 
newtakes and over the side of Bellaford Tor, to Post Bridge (T. 80, 
Ex. 44). The way to Chagford and Moreton from that place is given 
in R. 4. 

(The visitor from Cornwood enters upon the moor at Watercombe, 
and will follow the track over Stall Moor to the ford on the Ernie above 
Green Bottom (T. 66, S. Ex. 120), and may either cross here or at Red 
Lake Foot, a little further up stream. See ante. 



io8 Routes 65, 66. Brent and Ivybridge to Bovey. 

R. 65. To Bovey Tracey, N.E. For points and objects see R. 66, 
54, of which this route is made up. From B., isf m. ; I., 2o m. ; 
Reverse, R. 40. Road throughout. 

R. 66. To Ashburton, N.E. Bittaford Bridge, Wrangaton 
Station, Brent Bridge (L. for Brent), Palstone, Whiteoxen, Dean (OtD 
ROAD from Brent through Harbournford), Buckfastleigh, Dart Bridge. 
From /., 13 m. ; B., 8 m. Reverse, R. 47. 

[Objects : Ex. 32 ; seen from near Wrangaton Station.] 
A road route. From Ivybridge the first point is Bittaford Bridge, 
2 m. (S. Ex. 113) ; i m. beyond this is Wrangaton Station. About 
i m. further on, at the Carew Arms, a road branches R. to Totnes. 
Keep straight on, crossing the Glaze, and shortly afterwards the Avon 
at Brent Bridge. Road I,, to Brent. Continue on past the London 
Inn. The cross-road a little way up is the point where the rambler 
from Brent joins this route, leaving the village by the Avonwick road ; 
"but he would do better to proceed by the old road through Harbourn- 
ford to Dean, as in S. Ex. 100. m. from the cross-roads is Palstone, 
R., and i m. beyond this the road forks, the R. branch leading to 
Totnes. Keep straight on down the hill with the grounds of Marley 
R., and the farm L. Thence pass under Whiteoxen Arch, or Dry 
Bridge, as it is sometimes called. A little further on is Dean Church 
(S. Ex. 100), and i m. beyond is Dean village, where the old road from 
Brent conies in L. Pass through Buckfastleigh, about i m. on, and 
thence as in S. Ex. 97, 98. 



Route from Brent to Holne Moor 
and Hexworthy. 

Dockwell Gate, Water Oke Corner, Pupers, Hapstead Ford, Head of 
Ringleshutts Gert, Combestone Tor, Saddle Bridge. [Objects: Ex. 29, 
and Holne Moor Section.] 

These points are noticed in the Reverse (Dockwell Track, T. 55, 
Part V.) ; Ivybridge visitors will start from Brent. Another Route to 
Hexworthy and Post Bridge, via Heng Lake Gully and Aune Head, 
from Brent and Ivybridge, will be found in R. 64 ; Reverse, R. 33, 
Part III. 



Cranmere. 

The base for Ashburton visitors is Post Bridge (R. 52). For those 
from Brent the most convenient will be Two Bridges (R. 58), or Hex- 
worthy (via the Avon to Heng Lake Gully, see Rs. 33, 38 ; thence R 64 ; 
see also R. 63). For Ivybridge and Cornwood visitors the bases will be 
Princetown or Two Bridges (R. 59 ; see also R. 63). 

The Routes to the pool from these bases are given in Part I. 



Index. 



Abbots' Way 46, 58, 90, 95 

Addicombe 84 

Aish (Wid.), 16 ; Tor . . 16 

Aish (Brent), 52 ; Ridge 71 

Ashburton 2 

Aune Head . . 33, 76, 1 06 

Ausewell Cross, 9 ; Wood 9 

Avon, The 38. 50 

B 

Bala Brook 59 

Ball Gate 59 

Batch Loaves 12 

Beara Common . . . . 64, 65 

Bel Tor, 1 5 ; Corner . . 15 

Belt. The 8 

Bench Tor 39 

Birch Wood 9 

Bittleford 10, 1 1 

Black Pool 78 

Black Tdr (Avon) .. 52, 70 

Blackadon 96 

Blackadon Tor (Webburn), n 

Blackslade Down, 7 ; Ford, 7 ; 

Mire, 7 ; Water, 8. 

Blackwood Path, 74, 75, 79 

Bledge Brook 88 

Bloody Pool 45 

Boro Wood Castle . . . . 22 

Bourne's Pit 42 

Brake Corner 16 

Brent, South 38 

Brent Fore Hill 64 

Brent Hill 64 

Brent Moor Clay Works, 59 ; 

House, 70, 75. 

Broad Falls 49 

Broad Rock . . . . 93, 94 

Broad Rushes 59 

Broadall Mires 99 

Brock Hill Ford, 68 ; Stream, 

46, 48. 



Brook Wood 67 

Brown Heath . . . . 80. 8 1 
Buckfast Abbey . . 29, 44 
Buckfastleigh, 30 ; Moor, 43, 44 
Buckland-in-the-Moor, 9, 10, 25 
Buckland Beacon, 8, 25 ; Com- 
mon, 9; Woods, 12, 20, 
Burford Down . . . . 85, 91 

Burrow Corner 7 

Bush Meads 54 

Butter Brook . . . . 79, 97 
Butterdon Hill . . 78, 79, 97 
Buzzard, The 4 



Cantrel Gate 96 

Chalk Ford . . . . 43, 67 
Chase Gate, 16 ; Hill . . 14 

Childe's Tomb 104 

Cholwich Town Waste . . 95 
Church House Inn (Holne), 27, 
105. 

Clampit's Stile 65 

Cleave Wood (Webburn), 1 1 
Cockingford, 7, 1 1 ; Bridge, 10 
Cold East Cross . . 3, 8 
Collins, Edward . . . . 27 
Combe Bridge (Mardle) . . 67 
Combe Wood (Buckland) . . 9 
Combestone, 40 ; Tor . . 41 

Corn Down 1 1 

Cornwood 98, 99 

Coryndon Ball 71 

Crad Hole Ring . . . . 48 

Cranmere 108 

Cross Furzes . . 65, 66. 67 
Crossways, The 56 

D 

Dancers, The . . . . 88, 99 

Dark Lake 57 

Dart, The, Course of, 17 ; 
Gorge of, 26. 



INDEX. 



Dartmeet 26 

Dead Persons, Discovery of, 

63, 64. 

Deadman's Corner .. .. 16 

Dean Burn, Valley of . . 65 
Dean Cross. 65 ; Prior, 65 ; 

Wood, 66. 

Diamond Lane 61 

Didworthy 52, 69 

Dockwell Gate, 45, 67 ; Hole, 68 ; 

Ridge, 68. 

Dolmen at Ball Gate . . 64 

Downing' s House . . . . 90 

Dr. Blackall's Drive.. 12, 13 

Dry Bridge 8 

Ducks' Pool . . . . 57, 90 

Dungeon, The 80 

Dunstone Down . . . . 3 



Erme, The 38 

Erme Pits, 58, 90 ; Plains, 62, 
80 ; Pound, 58, 82, 83, 99. 



Pardle 

Fieldfare 
Foale's Arrishes 
Forest Inn, The 



98 

42 

7 
1 06 



Gibby's Combe 43 

Gigley Bridge . . . . 66, 68 
Gingaford Cross . . . . 68 

Glas Barrow 73 

Glascombe, 71 ; Ball, 73, 79 ; 

Corner, 63. 

Glaze, East 71 

Glaze Meet 72 

Glaze, Valley of the . . 72 

Glazes, The 63 

Golden Eagle, The . . . . 4 
Golf Links near Wrangaton, 74, 

96. 

Great Bridge . . 3, 8, 9 

Great Lot Wood . . 10, 1 1 

Green Will 56, 57 

Green Lanes . . . . 3, 8 
Grey Goose Nest . . . . 7 
Gripper's Pound . . . . 50 
Grymsgrove 93 



Half Ring, The . . . . 60 

Hall 85, 101 

Halshanger, 3, 23 ; Common, 4 
Hangershell Rock, 79 ; Little 

Grave at, 97. 

Hangher Down 98 

Hangman's Pit 41 

Hannaford Stickles . . . . 16 

Hapstead Ford 44 

Harbourn, The, 45 ; Head, 68 

Harbournford 65 

Harford, 85 ; Bridge, 85, 98, 

103 ; Gate, 80, 84, 97, 101 
Hawns and Dendles, 92, 98, 99 

Hayford 67 

Heap o' Sinners . . . . 48 
Hembury Castle . . . . 29 
Hemsworthy Gate . . 7, 24 

Hen Tor 95 

Henchertraw 70 

Heng Lake, 49 ; Gully . . 106 

Henlake Down 98 

Herrick 65 

Hexworthy 106 

Hickaton Hill, 46, 68 ; Remains 

on, 46. 

Hickley Ridge 59 

Higher Bottom 49 

Hillson's Hut 88 

Hobajohn's Cross, 62, 80, 85 
Holne, Village of, '16, 27 ; 

Bridge, 12, 19; Chase, 12, 

14, 17 ; Cot, 14 ; Moor, 39, 

108 ; Gate, 28 ; Turn, 12. 
Holy Brook . . . . 43, 67 
Hook Lake . . . . 62, 83 
Horn Hill (Wo Brook) . . 42 
Horn's Cross (Wo Brook). . 42 
Horridge Common . . . . 4 

Horse Ford 42 

Horton's Combe . . . . 89 
Horton's Ford Brook. . .. 89 
Hunters' Stone, The . . 70 
Huntingdon, 43, 48, 68 ; Clapper, 

49 ; Cross, 49. 
Hux Lake 56 



Ivy bridge 



76, 77 



INDEX. 



Jobbers' Path 
Jordan 



59. 60 
ii 



K 



Kinghurst Down Wood . . 12 

Kingsley, Charles . . . . 28 

Knattaburrow, 59 ; Hill . . 59 

Knocking Mill . . . . 58, 89 



Lake 

Lambs Down 
Langamarsh Pit 
Langawell . . 
Langcombe Head 



12 
65, 66 

.. 40 
.. 40 
93 



Left Lake, 80, 83 ; Mires. . 62 

Leigh Cross 65 

Leigh Gate 74 

Leigh Tor 1 2, 96 

Leusdon Common, n, 12, 15 ; 
Lodge, 1 1 . 

Lid Gate 67 

Lizwell, 1 1 ; Meet, 1 1 ; Wood, 1 1 
Lock's Gate Cross .. n, 14 

Logwell Rock 1 1 

Long-a-Traw . . 50, 52, 70 
Longstone, The . . . . 45 

Lower Ford 60 

Lower Tor 14, 15 

Lud, The 75 

Lukesland 91 

Lurgecombe Mill . . 3, 8 

Lutton (Brent) 52 

Lutton (Cornwood) . . . . 98 
Lydia Bridge .. .. 51, 72 
Lyneham Inn, The . . . . too 



M 



Mardle, The 
Meadow, The 

Merrifield 

Meynell's Bank 

Michel Combe 

Middle Brook 

Middle Mires 

Mil Tor, 15, 1 6 ; Wood 

Moor Cross 

Mountain Inn (Lutton) 



42, 43, 67 



43 
59 
56 
16 



N 

Nap 43. 44 

New Bridge, 16 ; Hill, 12 ; 

Marsh, 12, 14. 
Newhouse (Rippon Tor) . . 6 

Nun's Cross 102 

Nutcracker, The (Rippon Tor), 

4, 24. 



O 

Old Hill . . 
Over Brent Farm 
Owley Bridge 
Owley Corner 



59 
68 
72 
72 



Paignton Reservoir . . . . 39 
Parnell's Hill . . . . 45, 67 
Pen Beacon, 93, 99 ; Moor. . 92 
Petre's Bound Stone, 43 ; Cross, 
55 ; Pits' House, 60 

Piall Bridge 101 

Piles, 80, 84, 97 ; Brook, 98 

Piper's Beam 49 

Place Wood Camp . . . . 22 
Plym Ford, 103 ; Steps . . 103 

Ponsworthy 1 1 

Pound's Gate .. .. 12, 14 
Pudsham, Higher . . . . 10 
Pudsham Down . . 3, 7, 9 
Pupers 43, 67 

Q 

Quick Bridge 101 

Quickbeam Hill, 80 ; Foot. . 83 



R 
Ranny Brook . . . . 92, 93 

Ravens' Rock . . . . . . 12 

Red Brook, 59, 60 ; Mires, 60 
Red Lake, 56"; Clay Works, 51 ; 

Peat Works, 55. 

Redaven Lake 91 

Rings, The (Brent) .. .. 53 
Rippon Tor, 4, 6, 24 ; Cross on, 6 

Rook Tor 100 

Rook Gate, West . . . . 96 

Rounders Hole 42 

Ruddycleave Water, 8, 9 ; 

Bridge, 8. 

Rushlade, 8 ; Common . . 3 
Ryders Hill . . . . 42, 43 



INDEX. 



Saddle Bridge . . 
Sandy Way 
Scad. The'.. .. 
Scea Wood 
Scobitor, 7 ; Rocks 



42 
72 

43 
7 



Scorriton, 67 ; Down, 43, 44, 66 
vSharp Tor (Dart) . . . . 16 
Sharp Tor (Ernie) . . . . 80 
Shavercombe Head . . . . 95 
Shell Top .. . . 95, 96, 99 
Sherberton Common n, 12 

Shipley. 66 ; Bridge, 52, 69 ; 

Tor, 52, 68. 

Simon's Lake 16 

Siward's Cross 102 

Skerraton Down . . . . 66 
Slade (Wo Brook) . . . . 42 

Slade Hall 98 

Small Brook, 5 1 ; Plains . . 46 

Snowdon Hole 43 

Soldier's Grave, A . . . . 2 

Spitchwick 12 

Splatton Hill .. 45, 52, 68 
Spurrell's Cross . . 72, 75, 79 
Stall Moor, 86. 92 ; Stone Row 

on, 88. 

Stalldon Barrow . . 85, 86 
Stascombe Telling-place . . 42 

Stinger's Hill 89 

Stittleford's Cross . . . . 7 
Stone Cross . . . . 7, 10 
Stony Bottom . . 59, 62, 80 
Stony Hole, Miners' Huts at, 57 
Stowford, 77 ; Cleave . . 98 
Summer House, The . . 3 
Sweaton 1 1 



T Gert 46 

Tavistock Inn (Pound's Gate). 

12, 14. 
Three Barrows, 62, 80, 97 ; 

Reave, 61. 

Thynacombe Wood . . . . 66 
Tor Hill (Widecombe) . . 7 
Tunhill Kistvaen, 7 ; Road. 7, 8 
Two Hills 44 



U 

U Stone, The 6z 

Ugborough Beacon, 73, 74, 7$ 

Uppacott 14 

Upper Plantation . . . . 1 1 



W 

Warn Bridge 65 

Wash Gate 52 

Water Oke Corner, 67 ; Plain, 46 
Water Turn . . . . 8, 9 

Watercombe 91 

Weatherdon Hill . . . . 78 
Webburu, East, n ; West, II 
Wella Brook Gert. 49 ; Head, 43 
Welstor Common, 8, 9 ; Cross, 8 
Wennaford Brook . . . . 40 
Western Beacon, The, 77, 78, 97 
Wheal Emma Leat . . 42, 43 

Whit Hedges 44 

Whitaburrow, Eastern, 53 ; 

Western, 54, 55, 70. 
White Hill Corner . . . . 101 
Whittaburrow (Widecombe), 7 

Widecombe 24 

William's Well 7 

Wisdpme Mill . . . . 99, 100 
Wishing Pool, The . . . . 73 
Wo Brook, The . . . . 42 

Woolholes 70 

Wrangaton, 74 ; Cross at, 85 



Yadsworthy Waste . . . . 86 
Yealm, The, 92 ; Blowing House 

on, 92 ; Head, 93 ; Rings, 

92, 99 ; Rocks, 93. 

Yeo, The 3 

Yolland Cross .... 68 



Zeal Bridge, 70 ; Hill, 52 ; 

Plains, 53. 
Zempson (Harbourn) . . 66 



GUIDE TO DARTMOOR: 

K Topographical Description 
of the Forest and Commons 



BY 

WILLIAM CROSSING, 

AUTHOR OF 

Ancient Stone Crosses of Dartmoor and Its Borderland, Amid Devonia's Alps 
Tales of the Dartmoor Pixies, Gems in a Granite Setting, A Hundred 
Years ott Dartmoor, Folk Rhymes of Devon, 
From a Dartmoor Cot, S-c. 



WITH MAPS AND SKETCHES. 

A NEW EDITION IN FIVE PARTS. 



PART V. 

Plympton, Shaugh, Yelverton, and Dousland 

Districts. Also Packhorse Tracks 

and Dictionary of Terms. 



" I ascend the toilsome hill, 
And now upon thy wind-swept ridge I stand : 
The south the west with all their million fields 
In sweet confusion mingled lie below, 
Above me frowns the tor." 

CARRINGTON. 



Eietet : 

A. WHEATON & Co., Ltd., Booksellers and Stationers. 
223 High Street. 



OUT OF THE LAND OF GORSE AND HEATHER 

TO 

THE RIGHT WORSHIPFUL 

THE MAYOR AND MAYORESS OF PLYMOUTH, 
A. EDMUND SPENDER, B.A., 

AND 

HELEN FRANCES SPENDER, 
GREETING. 



PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION. 



THE favourable reception accorded to the former editions of this Guide 
has rendered a further issue necessary. In this some considerable 
alterations in the arrangement have been made. While a description 
of Dartmoor in one volume had much to recommend it, the plan was 
also not without its disadvantages. The ground covered being 
extensive it was impossible to produce such a book as the author 
considered the subject demanded without its becoming rather bulky, 
and this was inconvenient from the tourist's point of view. It is now 
divided into five parts, but there has been no abridgement of matter. 
The few alterations in the text are chiefly of the nature of additions 
which were needed in order to bring the book up to date. 

The author is much gratified at knowing that the Guide has been 
found helpful by the tourist in the past, and ventures to believe that 
in its present form it will prove of still greater value in the future. 

BI.ACK DOWN, DARTMOOR 
July, 1914. 



DARTMOOR GUIDE. 



POPLE'S 



NEW LONDON HOTEL 

(Visited by their Majesties The King and Queen, King Edward VII. 
and Queen Victoria.) 

Officially appointed by the " Royal Automobile Club," 
and the "Automobile Association." 



A charming i8th Century Hotel, with every modern comfort 
and luxury. Beautiful covered Courtyard as Lounge. Near the 
Cathedral and Railway Stations. Electric Light. Night Porter. 

SPLENDID MOTOR GARAGE 

Adjoining the Hotel, with Lock-up Private Boxes and 
Inspection Pits. 

Telegrams: " Pople, Exeter." Telephone: 146, Exeter. 

R. POPLE, Proprietor. 



Houses 



Let 

Sold 

Built 

Repaired 

Painted 

Decorated 



For anything to do 
with Houses or 

Building 

i . - ^ 
Land in 




Communicate 
with 



The 



<x^Howard, 

Contractor 
and House Agent 

ROCKVALE, YELVERTON. 'Phone 13. 



PREFACE. 



DURING recent years the claims of Dartmoor as a holiday and health 
resort have become widely recognized. Those to whom an old world 
region is an attraction will find in it a field of surpassing interest. No 
district in England of similiar extent is so rich in pre-historic remains, 
and in none does Nature wear a wilder aspect. 

To this elevated tract of land no guide book, in the true sense of 
the term, has hitherto appeared. It has, of course, been noticed in 
county guides, and there are also topographical works and handbooks 
descriptive of it, but in the former the accounts are necessarily super- 
ficial, while in the latter the visitor is not given any directions for 
finding his way over those parts of the waste remote from roads. To 
enable him to learn what Dartmoor really is he needs something beyond 
notices of the more celebrated, because more readily accessible, places 
and objects of interest. He should be led from the beaten track, and 
wander among the hills where signs of man's occupancy are not, where 
silence broods over the sea of fen, and the pasture grounds of the 
cattle that range at will are as they were when the Norman herdsman 
drove his beasts there ; or he should stray into solitary combes 
encumbered with the ruined huts and fallen rock-pillars of the people 
who once made this wild land their home. As my acquaintance with 
Dartmoor is a life-long one, and as it has been with me a subject of 
study and of systematic investigation during many years, it is with 
some degree of confidence that I take upon myself the task of con- 
ducting the visitor over it, and leading him into its remoter parts. 

This book is the first to give a complete topographical description 
of Dartmoor, and the reader may depend upon its being correct. Its 
aim is to furnish the visitor with an account of all that is to be found 
on the moor worthy of note, and to acquaint him with the best means 
of reaching the various objects from any point. The districts into 
which the moor has been divided are described in the excursions, and 



viii. PREFACE. 

at the end of these are given routes to each of the other districts. By 
this arrangement the moor is crossed in every conceivable direction, 
so that it is not possible to find any part of it that is not noticed some- 
where in the book. For the sake of convenience the terms used in 
connection with the forest and commons are given, with their mean- 
ings, in glossarial form, some archaeological terms being also included. 

I desire to express my thanks to Mr. PHILIP GUY STEVENS, of 
Prince town, for the series of pen-and-ink sketches he has been at such 
pains to furnish, and which were executed on the spot. It is hoped 
they will be found useful as a means of helping the visitor to identify 
the principal tors and hills. 

If I gain the confidence of the rambler who uses this book my 
satisfaction will be complete. There is some reason for me to hope 
that I shall do so, as I venture to believe that he will discover ere we 
have gone far on our wanderings together that I am really and truly a 
Dartmoor man. 




CONTENTS. 



PART V. 



PAGE 
I 

. 24 
I 

. 24 



Distances to Plympton and Shaugh 

,, Yelverton (one mile from Dousland) 

Important Points near Plympton and Shaugh 

,, Yelverton and Dousland 

Plympton to Shaugh 69 

,, Sampford Spiney 69 

Excursion 35. Prom Plympton and Shaugh 2 

36. 4 

37- ,, n 10 

The Dewer Stone and Cadaford Bridge 16 

Route 67. Plympton and Shaugh to Princetown 18 

(The route to Princetown from Ivybridge and Cornwood via 
Cadaford Bridge is also shown from the bridge onward). 

loute 68. Plympton and Shaugh to Tavistock * 19 

69. ,, ,, ,, Lydford 19 

.,, 70. ,, ,, ,, Okehampton 20 

.,, 71. ,, ,, ,, Chagford and Moreton .. 20 

,, 72. ,, ,, Bovey Tracey 21 

,, 73. ,, Ashburton 21 

,, 74. Plympton to Ivybridge and Brent 22 

,, 75. Shaugh to Cornwood and Brent 22 

,, 76. ,, Ivybridge 23 

76. Cornwood to Ivybridge 23 

Yelverton 25 

Roborough Down 25 

Yelverton to Dousland 35 

Dousland 29 



x. CONTENTS. PART V. 

PAGE 

Excursion 38. Prom Yelverton and Dousland 29 

39- ., ,, 32 

-.40. 35 

To Brisworthy 29 

Burrator Lake 32 

Cadaford Bridge 27, 28 

,, Childe's Tomb and Pox Tor (T. 2) 42 

(For Dartmeet down Stream to Swincombe, thence T. 8 to 
Hexworthy. Prom Dartmeet to Widecombe village 
Part III., commons Part IV. R. 5, a.) 

,, Crazy Well, via Lether Tor Bridge and Kingsett, T. 2, 3, 

R. 67. (See Part I.) 42, 45, 

,, Dean Combe, via L,owery and Cross Gate, T. 2, and 

Nosworthy Bridge 33 

,, Dean Combe (from Thrushel Combe) 30 

,, The Dewer Stone, via Gratton Bridge, Greenwell Gert, and 

Wigford Down 28 

,, Ditsworthy and Thrushel Combe 30 

,, Eylesbarrow, via Dean Combe as above 14 

,, Eylesbarrow, via Sheepstor and Thrushel Combe 14 

,, Lynch Down 28, 29 

,, Shaugh, via Cadaford Bridge (p. 27, 28) 9, 38 

,, Sheeps Tor 32 

,, Siward's Cross, T. 2 (see Part I.) 42 

,, Ward Bridge 35 

Sheepstor to Crazy Well, R. 67 18 

,, Princetown, R. 67 18 

,, Thrushel Combe (by road from the village) . . . . 15 

(from the tor) 33 

To Cranmere from Plympton and Shaugh 23 

,, Yelverton and Dousland 38 

Moorland Tracks 40 

Dictionary of Terms 75 



DARTMOOR GUIDE. 



MAPS. 

Sketch Map of the Moor facing page i 

Surroundings of Cranmere 38 



ONE INCH MAPS. 

17. Plympton and Shaugh District .. 4 

18. Yelverton District 30 



The numbers of the Routes and Excursions as given in the first 
edition of the Guide are retained throughout. T. signifies Track ; 
Ex. or S. Ex., Excursion or Shorter Excursion ; R., Route ; and C. R., 
Cranmere Route. The entire length of each Excursion is given ; 
Route distances are given one way only. 



DARTMOOR GUIDE. 



SIDMOUTH (Devon). 

aw^Boracc^Muan j ^^^^ 

The 



Fortfield Hotel. 

Greatiy Enlarged. New Wings. 
Electric Light Throughout. Lifts to all Floors. 



C")N E of the most comfortable Hotels on 
^ the South Coast. Unequalled posi- 
tion. Situated in its own charming 
Grounds. Full South and facing sea; 
having two full-sized Croquet Lawns. 
Handsomely furnished by Maple & Co. 
Complete with every luxury and con- 
venience. Near to Brine Baths and 
convenient to Golf Links. Sanitary 
arrangements perfect. Large and com- 
modious bedrooms. Handsome private 
Suites of Apartments, either on ground 
floor, first or second floors, with Bath- 
rooms and Lavatories. Corridors carefully 
heated. Spacious Public Rooms. 
Billiards. High-class Cuisine. Selected 
Wines. Moderate and inclusive terms. 



Telephone ry , >rt . .. r> 

NO. 39. 1 anfr on application to proprietor. 



GUIDE TO DARTMOOR. 

IN FIVE PARTS. 



Part I. PRINCETOWN, Two BRIDGES, HEXWORTHY, AND POST BRIDGE: 
DISTRICTS. 

Deals with the whole of the central part of the Moor, andi 
contains notices of Crazy Well Pool, Si ward's Cross, Childe's Tomb, 
the Merivale Antiquities, Mis Tor, Wistman's Wood, Darttneet, etc. 

Excursions i to 6 ; 41 to 46. Shorter Exs. i to 14. Routes, 
i to 8. Cranmere Routes i, 2, 15, 16, 17. 

Part II. TAVISTOCK, LYDFORD, OKEHAMPTON, AND STICKLEPATH 
DISTRICTS. 

Describes Northern Dartmoor, extending from Sampford, 
Spiney on the West to Throwleigh on the East : Notices Brent 
Tor, Lydford Gorge, Hill Bridge, Tavy Cleave, Fur Tor, the 
Island of Rocks, Yes Tor, the Belstone Range, Cosdon, etc. 

Excursions 7 to 18. S. Exs. 15 to 47. Routes 9 to 30. 
C.R. 3 to n. 

Part III. CHAGFORD, MORETON, LUSTLEIGH, AND BOVEY TRACEY 
DISTRICTS. 

A Description of Eastern Dartmoor : This part contains a 
notice of Cranmere Pool, and among other places and objects 
included in the Excursions are the Scorhill and Kes Tor Antiquities, 
Teign Head, Fernworthy, Grim's Pound, Drewsteignton Dolmen,. 
Fingle Bridge, Lustleigh Cleave, Hey Tor, Widecombe Village, etc. 

Excursions 19 to 25. S. Exs. 48 to 87. Routes 31 to 46*. 
C R. 12. 13, 14. 



xiv. DARTMOOR GUIDE. 

Part IV. ASHBURTON, BRENT, IVYBRIDGE, AND CORNWOOD 
DISTRICTS. 

The whole of Southern Dartmoor, so rich in antiquities and 
charming border scenery, is described in this part. Among other 
places noticed are Rippon Tor, the Buckland Woods, Holne 
Chase, Brent Moor, Shipley, the Valley of the Erme, Stowford 
Cleave, Hawns and Dendles, etc. 

Excursions 26 to 34. S. Exs. 88 to 121. Routes 47 to 66. 
Prom the southern part of the moor the starting points of the 
Cranmere Routes are Princetown, Two Bridges, and Post Bridge, 
C.R. i, 2, 16, 17. These are given in Part I. 

Part V. PI<YMPTON, SHAUGH, YELVERTON, AND DOUSLAND 
DISTRICTS. 

Describes Western Dartmoor from Cornwood to the Walkham : 
Shaugh Bridge, the Dewer Stone, the Plym Valley, Heavy, Sheeps 
Tor, and the Burrator Lake. This part also contains a brief 
description of the old pack-horse tracks on the Moor, to which 
reference is frequently made in the book, as well as a Dictionary 
of Terms used in connection with the Forest and Commons. 

Excursions 35 to 40. Routes 67 to 76. For Cranmere Routes 
see Princetown, Two Bridges, and Post Bridge, C.R. i, 2, 16, 17, in 
Parti. 



Each Part contains directions for reaching Cranmere Pool from 
the Districts described in it. 



DARTMOOR GUIDE. xv. 



Where reference is made to other of the Author's 
books the titles are thus abbreviated. 

'A Hundred Years on Dartmoor" . . . . . . 100 Years. 

'Gems in a Granite Setting " . . . . . . Gems. 

'The Ancient Stone Crosses of Dartmoor and Its 

Borderland " . . . . . . . . . . Crosses. 

' Amid Devonia's Alps " .. .. .. .. Dev. Alps. 

' Tales of the Dartmoor Pixies " Pixies 



SKETCH MAP 




OF DAPTMOOP^ 



GUIDE TO DARTMOOR. 



PLYMPTON AND SHAUGH 
DISTRICT. 

[The village of Shaugh is about 5 m. from Plympton Station 
(G.W.R.), by road via Niel Gate, and 2^ m. from Bickleigh Station 
(Xaunceston Branch, G.W.R.), by road via Shaugh Bridge.] 

DISTANCES: BY ROAD. ASHBURTON, via Ivybridge, P., 
i8|- m. ; S., 22 m. BICKLEIGH, P., 5 m. ; S., 3 m. BOTTLE 
HILL GATE, 2f m. from P. BOVEY TRACEY, via Ivybridge, 
P., 26 m. ; S., 29^ m. BROWNEY CROSS, P., 3 m. ; S., i|- m. 
CA DA FORD BRIDGE, P., 6 m. ; S., i m. CHAGFORD, via 
Dousland and Princetown, P., 26 m. ; S., 2i m. - CORNWOOD, 
P., s m. ; S., 6 m. DOUSLAND, P., 9^ m. ; S., 5 m. EXETER, 
40 m. from P. GEORGE HOTEL, Tavistock Road, P., 4 m. ; S., $$ 
m. HEXWORTHY, via Princetown, 20^ m. ; via Ivybridge, 23 m. 
IVYBRIDGE, P., si m. ; S., 9 m. LEE MOOR CROSS, via Beatland 
Corner, P., 6 m. ; S., 3 m. LUTTON, 4$ m. from P. LYDFORD, 
via Dousland, P., 21% m. ; S., 17 m. MORETON, 13^ m. beyond 
Princetown. OKEHAMPTON, via Dousland, P., 23^ m. ; S., 19 m. 
PLYM BRIDGE, 2 m. from P. PLYMOUTH, P., 5 m. (or about 
4 m. to the outskirts of the town) ; S., via Bickleigh, :o m. POST 
BRIDGE, s m. beyond Princetown. PRINCETOWN, via Dousland, 
P., 14 m. ; S., 9 m. SOUTH BRENT, P., 12 m. ; S., 14 m. 
SPARKWELL, 3 m. from P. TAVISTOCK, via Plym Bridge and 
George Hotel, 14 m. from P. ; via Dousland, io m. from 5. TWO 
BRIDGES, i \ m. beyond Princetown. YELVERTON, via Cadaford 
Bridge and Greenwell Down, P., 9^ m. ; S., 5 m. 

BY RAII, (G.W.R.) PLYMOUTH, 4$. m. (Marsh Mills, on 
the Launceston Branch, is i m. from Plympton Station, and is the 
station for Yelverton and the Princetown Railway, Tavistock, and 
Lydford). For SOUTHERN DARTMOOR CORNWOOD, 4$ m. ; 
IVYBRIDGE, 6J m. ; WRANGATON, 10 m. ; BRENT, 12^ m. 



Important Points and Landmarks. 

Cadaford Bridge Pen Beacon Tolch Moor Gate. Places of Interest. 
Cornwood The Dewer Stone Hawks' Tor Hawns and Dendles 
Shaugh Bridge Trowlesworthy. Prehistoric Antiquities. Cholwich 
Town : stone row Ringmoor Down : stone circle Shaugh Moor : hut 
circles Trowlesworthy : hut circles and stone row. 

B5 



2 OLD-TIME PLYIYIPTON. 

Although Plympton is somewhat removed from the moor, there 
was an early connection between the two. As stated in the Terms 
Section it was one of the four Stannary towns. The barony of Plymp- 
ton was bestowed by Henry I. upon Richard de Redvers, to whom has 
been attributed the building of the castle, of which little more than 
fragments of the keep now remain. Baldwin de Redvers, the son of 
Richard, granted to the burgesses of Plympton common of turbary 
for all necessary fuel for their houses on his commons forming part of 
the moor, and a right of way through Lea Wood for their carts, and this 
was confirmed by his daughter, Isabella de Fortibus (Ex. 6). 

A Saxon monastery seems to have existed at Plympton, but was 
suppressed in 1121 by Bishop Warelwast, who founded in its stead a 
priory of Augustine Canons. This was so richly endowed that at the 
Dissolution it was the wealthiest foundation in the county. A few 
remains of it exist to the south of the churchyard, and fragments are 
also discoverable in other places near by. 

The parish church of Plympton St. Mary stands in a low situation 
near the Torry Brook, and, as already stated, has attached to it a 
similar legend to that we have noticed as being connected with the 
churches of Brent Tor and Buckfastleigh (Ex. 9, S. Ex. 98). The story 
says that Crownhay Castle, on the outskirts of Ridgway, was selected 
as a site for it, but this not being pleasing to the Evil One, he removed 
the stones from it to the spot where the building now stands. The 
Stannary town and the castle are not, however, in this parish, but hi 
the adjoining one of Plympton Maurice, or as it is also called, Plympton 
Earl. This ancient town is memorable as being the birthplace of Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, and it was also in or near it that Sir George Treby. 
the eminent lawyer and judge, was born. 



Excursions from Plympton and Shaug-h. 

[Tracks : 68 to 71.] 

Ex. 35. Newnham, Crownhill Down, Ridding Down, Tolchmoor 
Gate, Quick Bridge, Heddon Down, Sparkwell, 12 m. ; this is from and 
to Plympton Station. Shaugh visitors reach Crownhill Down by way 
of Niel Gate, Portbury, and Hooksbury Wood, as in R. 76. 

Passing through Colebrook we keep R. near the railway, and 
follow the road running E. for J m. to the foot of West Park Hill, 
where we turn L. to Loughtor Mill. About m. R. is Old Newnham, 
which, in the time of Edward I., was the seat of Simon de Plympton. 
It afterwards came into the possession of the Strodes, one of the mem- 
bers of which family, Richard Strode, we have referred to as 
having been confined in Lydford Castle by order of the Tinners' Court, 
held on Crockern Tor (see Stannaries, in Terms Section). Another was 
William Strode, one of the five members whom Charles I. attempted 
to seize. The sweet tone of the tenor bell hanging in Plympton St. 
Mary Church tower is traditionally said to be owing to a lapful of 
silver having been thrown by Marie Strode into the metal from which 
the bell was cast. This was in 1614. Keeping R. on passing Loughtor 



EXCURSION 35. CROWNHILL DOWN. 3 

Mill we ascend the hill by Holly Wood, and turn L. just beyond one of 
the entrances to Newnham Park, in which is the mansion that took 
the place of Old Newnham. This was built about two hundred years 
ago. As we proceed we have a view of the deer park in the valley of 
the Torry, L. At the forks shortly reached we take the R. branch, 
and pass upward through Bottle Hill Mine to the common. 

[The I<. branch goes on to a moor gate and runs down the side of a 
part of Crownhill Down, usually referred to as Pits, to the cross roads 
at the N.E. corner of Hooksbury Wood, mentioned in R. 57. From 
this corner one road goes up the valley to Coleland Bridge, another 
straight on to Fernhill, above which is Higher L,ee Wood, and a third 
to Portworthy.] 

On our R. as we pass up through the mine is the rounded hill 
known as Hemerdon Ball, a conspicuous object from the vicinity of 
Plympton Station. Hemerdon, on the southern slope of this hill, is 
the seat of the Woollcombes, and not far from this is the hamlet of the 
same name. Here, in Henry the Third's reign, dwelt Alexander de 
Hemerdon, castellan of Plympton Castle, and one of the witnesses to 
the charter granted by Baldwin to the burgesses. At the time when 
an invasion of England by Napoleon was deemed not improbable, 
troops were encamped on Hemerdon Ball. 

From Bottle Hill Gate we make our way along the verge of Crown- 
hill Down with the wall R., and when this recedes towards Drakeland 
Corner shall keep straight on towards another corner, where is a ruined 
building, known as Horniwink. Here we leave the enclosures and 
strike over the down a little E. of N. By so doing we shall avoid the 
numerous clay pits on this part of the common, some of which belong 
to the Smallhanger Clay Works, and others to the Heddon and 
Broomage Works. There is little to interest the rambler here beyond 
the view of the moor which he obtains. We have already referred to 
the paths on this down (T. 68) ; these have been chiefly made by the 
clay workers, and run in every direction. Passing one or two barrows 
we at length arrive at the enclosures of Crownhill Down Cottage, 
which we keep R., and shortly afterwards reach Broomage Farm, 
where, besides the farmhouse itself, there are also a couple of cottages. 
Here, keeping the wall R., we pass Crownhill Tor, a small mass of rock 
of no great height above the turf, I,., and bearing a little to the R. 
shall find ourselves near Broomage farmhouse. Here we strike N. to 
Tolch Moor Gate, 5 m. from Plympton. (On the other side of this the 
road descends to Tolch Bridge, which is quite near. Below this the 
Torry flows under Knowle Wood, on its L. bank, and enters Torry 
Combe). 

Here we turn R., our next point being Quick Bridge, nearly i m. 
S.E. The wall I,, bounds the land belonging to Cholwich Town, the 
stone row to which we have referred as existing there (Ex. 34), being 
less than in. N.E. from the gate. The present farmhouse was formerly 
a residence of the Cholwich family, and is an interesting example of 
the old border dwellings. The kitchen possesses a particularly wide 
hearth. An immense granite trough is to be seen here, which may have 
been used for brewing purposes, but more probably for salting meat 
in. A site very near the house is pointed out as that on which the 



4 PLYMPTON AND SHAUGH DISTRICT. 

chapel stood. The last member of the family who lived here is said to 
have died in prison, but in what circumstances the story does not tell 
us, and whether there is any truth in it I have not been able to discover. 
The form of the name under which Polwhele refers to the family i& 
Cholditch. They had a considerable estate in the parish of Chudleigh ; 
the last notice of the family in the registers of that place is the burial 
in September, 1727, of Thomas Cholwich. According to Lysons 
Cholwich Town belonged at the time he wrote, 1822, to Mr. J. B. 
Cholwich, of Farringdon House, near Exeter. In the Additions to 
Risdon, 1 8 1 1 , it is stated that Oldstone, hi the parish of Blackawton, 
also belonged to this representative of the family. 

Proceeding down the road we shall notice the lane leading to the 
house L., and a little below this the ancient entrance, but this is not 
now used. Near by is an old cross, which was found some years ago 
doing duty as a gate-post [Crosses, Chap. IV.] A branch of the Piall 
Brook runs near the house, and on the further side of this is Holmbush 
Waste and Nelder Wood, and above these Parkland Plantation, on the 
verge of the moor below Pen Beacon (Ex. 34). Quick Bridge spans 
the Piall Brook, called in the neighbourhood the Pall Brook, which comes 
down from Broomage Waste, on the hill above Broomage Wood, and on 
crossing this we desert the road. This runs on to Piall Bridge, and past 
Heathfield Down to Cornwood (R. 75), but we shall climb the hill R. 
Our course will now be S.S.W. over Heddon Down to the enclosures L. 
The clay works must be kept some distance R., and the plantation on 
the brow of the hill L. In i m. Heddon Gate will be reached, where a 
road runs down to Gorah Cottages. This we follow, and turning R. at 
the cottages make our way to Sparkwell, i m. Here there is a small 
inn called the Treby Arms. A short distance from the village, and near 
the verge of the common, is Goodamoor, the seat of the late General 
Phillipps- Treby. Mr. Paul Ourry Treby, once so well-known in the 
hunting-field, and whose name will long be remembered by Devon 
sportsmen, formerly resided here, and sixty-five years ago was one of 
the four Deputy Foresters of Dartmoor. In the opposite direction, that 
is, southward of the village, is Beechwood, anciently called Moor ; the 
present residence was built in 1797. As we make our way by West 
Park Hill to Colebrook we pass Hemerdon and Old Newnham. 

Ex. 36. Shaugh Hawks' Tor, Ccllard Tor, Stewarts Hill, White Hill 
Corner [EXTENSION TO White Hill Yeo, add i m.], Blackaton Cross 
[EXTENSION To Cadaford Bridge, add i| m.], S addle sborough, 5^ m. 
from and to Shaugh. 

In the section dealing with the ancient tracks on the moor I 
have described one that formerly ran from Plympton to Tavistock 
(T. 69), on the line of which the present road is formed. Along this 
we shall now make our way from the ancient place that, according to 
the old rhyme, was a borough town when Plymouth was non-existent, 
to the village of Shaugh, as the monks did when they went from their 
priory to visit their church there. We follow the road described in 
R. 67, leaving it when we reach Beatland Corner, \ m. after entering 
upon the moor. Here we branch L. by Beatland and Bughill Planta- 
tions, and skirting the Bowling Green, a level piece of turf L., shall 
enter upon the enclosed lands and speedily find ourselves in the village. 



~ 17 PLYMPTON frSHAUCH DISTRICT 




; PARTS OF 737. 



6 PLYMPTON AND SHAUGH DISTRICT. 

Shaugh is a typical border settlement, with its sturdy-looking 
granite church, its unpretentious inn, its ancient cross and tiny manor 
pound. Its full name is Shaugh Prior, its adjunct being derived from 
its connection with Plympton Priory, to which it was given by Roger 
de Novant. Behind it is the rock-strewn steep of West Down, crested 
by Shaugh Beacon, from which a fine view of the Plym valley and the 
Dewer Stone is commanded, with Roborough Down to the N.W. In 
the White Thorn Inn there was formerly a peat fire, which was kept 
continually burning. We remember seeing it in 1873, when it had not 
been suffered to go out for forty years. Near the door the upping-stock 
will be noticed. Shaugh Bridge, at the foot of the hill E. of the village, 
has long been celebrated as one of the beauty spots of the moorland 
borders. It is associated with Carrington, the' poet of Dartmoor, who 
tells us that he often lingered near it. On the Dewer Stone Hill his name 
with the month and year of his death, is cut upon a rock, and in Shaugh 
Church is a tablet to his memory, placed there by his son, Mr. W. M. 
Carrington, in 1871. Carrington died at Bath, and was buried in the 
churchyard at Combe Hay, a few miles from that city. On his granite 
tomb is the following : 

" Sacred to the memory of the Poet N. T. Carrington, 
Who died the 2nd of September, 1830, aged 53 years." 

A little to the E. of Shaugh Church is an old cross standing in a 
socket-stone built into the hedge [Crosses, Chap. V.], and here we turn 
R. to the common, where we shall desert the road and keeping close to 
the enclosures L. be led to Huxton Corner, or as the spot is sometimes 
called, Windmill Hill. Crossing the road we strike up over Shaugh 
Moor to Hawks' Tor, which is not much more than J m. distant. This 
is a small pile, but a very curious one. One end of a large slab of granite 
rests on what is the main part of the tor, its other end being supported 
on a boulder standing on the lesser and lower part of the tor, a kind 
of small chamber thus being formed beneath it. There is some reason 
for supposing, this arrangement to be artificial, though it is difficult 
to see what the object could have been intended for. It has been 
suggested that it was a dolmen. Polwhele, writing in 1793, says 
that several had supposed it to be such, though he was not of that 
opinion.* 

Less than m. southward of Hawks' Tor is Collard Tor, near 
which is the cottage of the same name, with its small enclosures formed 
on the slope of a rock-strewn hill, and to this we shall now make our 
way. Below it is the road running from Shaugh to White Hill Corner, 
which is noticed in R. 75. Near the foot of the Collard Tor Cottage 
enclosures a narrow strip of common runs down towards the Torry, 
which is known as The Rut. Eastward of it, under Wotter, is Higher 
Lee Wood, which is probably the wood referred to in the grant made 
to the men of Plympton by Baldwin de Redvers, already mentioned. 
The parish of Plympton does not include much of the common land 
that goes to make up Dartmoor (though the greater part of Crownhill 
Down is situated within its boundary), so that the permission to supply 
themselves with peat from other commons would be of value to the 
people of Plympton. Eastward of Collard Tor are two single stone 
rows, fourteen stones standing hi one, and ten in the other. 

* Historical Views of Devonshire. Vol. i , Section IV. 



EXCURSION 36. LEE MOOR. 7 

Passing these we make our way over Wotter Common, to Wotter 
Brook, here a tiny stream, and crossing it shall reach what is known 
as the Roman Camp, but which is supposed to be a disused reservoir, 
and of modern date. It is situated on the side of Stewarts Hill, and 
close to the road. The latter we now follow eastward, with Black 
Alder Tor R. Below this, but not in sight, is White Hill Tor, some- 
times called Torry Combe Tor, from its situation. The moor people 
often speak of this valley as Terracum ; I have seen the name written 
Tor-y-cwm, the idea, I suppose, being to give it a Celtic appearance ; 
as Torrycomb it was known more than 400 years ago, when there is 
a reference to the pinfold there. It is now the centre of a great clay 
industry, of which we see abundant evidence on every hand. The 
Lee Moor Clay Works of the Messrs. Martin Bros, are by far the largest 
of any in the district. Quite a settlement has been formed here, their 
employees numbering about 400. There is a church mission room, 
a Wesleyan Chapel, and a reading room. One of their large pits is 
about 40 acres in extent, and of great depth. Following the road 
past the cottages of the employees we shall be led to White Hill Corner 
(R. 75, 56, 61), where there is a guide-post : Meavy, 4^ m. ; Sheepstor, 
4i m. ; Cornwood, 3 m. ; Ivybridge, 5|- in. ; Shaugh, 3 m. ; Bickleigh, 
Sim. 

Shell Pen 

Top. Beacon. 




Clay Works. 
FROM WHITE HII.I, CORNER. LOOKING E. 

P X 

[EXTENSION TO White Hill Yeo, add i| m. If the rambler cares to 
do so he may trace the Torry to its source. It rises at a spot known 
as White Hill Yeo, a little to the E. of Pen Beacon (Ex. 34), and about 
i m. distant. There is, however, little to reward him, unless he desires 
to see the great clay pit we have referred to, for the formation of which 
it was found necessary to divert the Torry. Striking E. over the com- 
mon he will soon reach this, and will then cross the little stream and 
make his way up its L. bank with Cholwich Town Waste R. On reach- 
ing Torry Brook Head, near which are the vestiges of some ancient 
pounds, he will bear R. around the leat where it makes a bend, 
and then keeping it close L. trace it upwards to the reservoir 
or Big Pond, as it is called (R. 48). On the R. as he proceeds is the 
hill known as Hexton, where is a stone called the Hanging Rock.fand 
also one or two cairns. It is possible that this name points to the 



8 



PLYMPTON AND SHAUGH DISTRICT. 



former existence of a dolmen here, though it would not be safe to 
conclude that such was the case (cf. Shilstone Tor, Ex. 14). Turning 
L. at the pond the rambler will pass over the side of Grey Hills to 
Blackaton Cross.] 

Prom White Hill Corner we make our way along the road N.W. 
(R. 67), and passing Sunderland Cottages R. shall soon reach the 
enclosures of Lee Moor House. Beyond these we enter again upon 
the open moor, and here, close beside the way, shall find an interesting 
object. This is Blackaton Cross, often called the Roman, or Roman's 
Cross, a name also sometimes attached to a similar relic near Sheepstor, 
and to others in the neighbourhood. Only the head and the socket- 
stone belong to the original monument. It was furnished with the 
present shaft, which was cut for a window-sill at Lee Moor House, and 
set up by the late Mr. Phillips, who resided there [Crosses, Chap. IV.] 



Cocks 
Tor. 



Peak Sharp Lether Sheeps Mis 
Hill. Tor. Tor. Tor. Tor. 



N. Hisworthy 
Tor. 




Trowlsworthy Warren. Legis Tor. 

FROM BLACKATON CROSS. LOOKING N. 

There is a good view from the cross. Far away to the N.W. is 
seen the peak of Brent Tor (Ex. 9) ; to the R. of this Cocks' Tor and 
Great Mis Tor (Exs. 8, 6) reveal themselves ; nearer to us are Lether 
Tor, Sharp Tor, and Sheeps Tor (Ex. 39) ; while beyond Grey Hills 
and Blackaton Slaggets, and only i m. distant, are the piles of Trowles- 
worthy. 

Proceeding along the road for a few score yards we shall notice 
that it is crossed by a green path running E. and W. Here we turn 
L. to Emmett's Post, which stands on a mound near by. This serves 
as a bond-mark between the lands of Lord Morley and Sir Henry 
Lopes. The boundary runs northward to the road, where is another 
bond-stone, having the initial L. on its northern face and M on the 
southern, and thence goes north-eastward to the Blackabrook. 

[EXTENSION To Cadaford Bridge, add i-J- m. From Emmett's 
Post the way lies N. to the bond-stone, whence the road is followed to 
the bridge. A short distance from the stone, and L. of the road in 
descending, is a small pound containing hut circles, but it presents 
nothing remarkable. Beyond this the Shaugh Lake Clay Works are 
passed L. Away to the R. is Legis Tor (Ex. 38), above the R, bank 



EXCURSION 36. SHADEN DOWN. 9 

of the Plym, with Trowlesworthy Warren House above the L. bank, 
and beyond it Hen Tor (Ex. 37). Very soon we draw near to the river, 
which becomes our companion till we reach the bridge. This is noticed 



Legis 
Tor. 



Trowlesworthy 

Warren Hen 
House. Tor. 




Plym. 
FROM NEAR CADAFORD BRIDGE. 

post. In returning to Shaugh the rambler takes the R. branch S. of 
the bridge, as in R. 8. On the I,, of the road the ruins of an old farm 
house will be noticed. This, so the story tells us, was once the abode 
of Merry Ann and Merry Andrew, a couple who always viewed the 
bright side of things. Just above this the rambler, looking up the 
valley of the Plym N.E., will see Ditsworthy Warren house with the 
path running down to the river, 2 m. away (Ex. 37). Passing the 
entrance to Dunstone Farm R. he will soon reach Shaden Plantation, 
probably a corruption of Shaugh Down, the name of the parish being 
sometimes pronounced Sha ; formerly this was generally so.* Here, 
close to some hedge steps, whence a path runs through Shaden Brake 
towards the village, is the upper portion of an old cross. A socket-stone 
to be seen near Beatland Corner perhaps belongs to it, and indicates its 
original situation, but of this we cannot be certain. Adjoining the 
brake is Shaden Moor, which extends to North Wood and West Down. 
A short distance beyond the cross is Brag Lane End.] 

Prom Emmett's Post we shall direct our steps westward over that 
part of Shaugh Moor known as Saddlesborough, probably the 
Chechilburgh of an earlier time (R. 48). Here the ground drops 
considerably from what is the highest part of the common, 996 feet, 

* Old forms of the name are Schagh (1291); Shawe (1505), at 
which time the venville rent was 7d. ; and Shagh and Shaye about the 
middle of the sixteenth century. In our younger days we invariably 
heard the natives speak of the village as Sha Town. A story used 
to be told of a tourist who met a countryman near the Dewer Stone 
and asked him the way to Shaugh. The man replied that he did not 
know of such a place, but on the stranger remarking that it was a 
village with an inn called the White Thorn, he exclaimed : " Aw, you 
main Sha Town ; way, that's where I live to." 



PLYMPTON AND SHAUGH DISTRICT. 



towards the N., and the brow of the hill is covered with scattered 
rocks. On the slope below is a small pound, with two or three hut 
circles near it. Still maintaining a westerly course, we shall pass down 
the hill to Brag Lane End, and follow the road to the village. 



Trowlesworthy 

Tors. Shell Top. 



Pen 

Beacon. 




Plym. 



S.E. 



FROM CADAFORD BRIDGE. 



Ex. 37. Trowlesworthy, Hen Tor, Shavercombe, Plym Steps, Calves 
Lake Tor [EXTENSION To Plym Head, add 2|- m.] Evil Combe, Thrushel 
Combe, Ditsworthy Warren, Cadaford Bridge, 13 m. from and to Shaugh. 
(With direct route to Thrushel Combe via Trowlesworthy Warren. 4 m. 
from Shaugh). 

Turning L. at the cross E. of the church we speedily reach the 
common at Brag I/ane End, whence we strike eastward over Shaugh 
Moor, our way being the reverse of that described at the end of Ex. 36. 
On reaching the highest point of Saddlesborough we shall bear L. and 
descend the side of Whit Hills to the road, reaching it about m. 
below Blackaton Cross. Still following the same course we strike 
across Grey Hills to the Blackabrook, meeting on the way with abun- 
dant evidence of the tin-seeker's former presence here. His deep open 
workings, in which dwarf trees are growing, cover the ground for 
some distance, extending down the banks of the little tributary to the 
Plym. On the slope on the further side of this stream, and between 
it and the Trowlesworthy Tors, is a fine group of antiquities, consisting 
of examples of dwellings and burial monuments, and these we shall 
now briefly examine on our way up the valley of the Plym. Prom 
Blackabrook Head we strike E.N.E., and in less than m. shall come 
upon a double stone row intersected by the Clay Works leat. It runs 
about N. and S., and is 142 yards in length. At its northern end is a 
stone circle, known locally as the Pulpit, and consisting of eight stones ; 
this is 23 feet in diameter. W. of this circle, but on the other side of 
the leat, that is to say, on the lower side of it, are the remains of another, 
and from this also a row extends. This, however, is a single one, and 
is not more than about 85 yards long. Its direction is E. and W. 
Crossing the leat by one of the numerous footbridges here we make 
our way along its bank north-westward, and soon reach a couple of 
pounds containing hut circles. The entrances to these enclosures 



EXCURSION 37. TROWLESWORTHY WARREN. 11 

have each been partitioned into two by walls built in the form of the 
letter X, the point where the arms cross being in the centre of the 
opening. It has been thought that this masking and narrowing of the 
entrances was designed for protection. But if these walls had been 
carried to a sufficient height to render such an arrangement effective, 
they would have fallen in a confused heap, and would not have pre- 
served the form of a cross, or letter X. It is probable that they are 
later additions to the pounds, and were never more than about half 
the height of a man. The hill on which these remains are found has 
been a warren for centuries, and it may well be that the pounds have 
been utilized at some period either as traps, or for other purpose not 
now understood. At all events, no such arrangement is seen in any 
other pound on Dartmoor. According to the Additions to Risdon 
(1811) Trowlesworthy Warren was granted by Baldwin de Redvers to 
Sampson de Traylesworthy before 1272. A Simon de Travailesworth 
was one of the witnesses in 1291 to the deed of Isabella de Fortibus, 
Countess of Devon, to which we have more than once referred (Ex. 6). 
In 1560 the warren came into the possession of the Woollcombes. For 
a long period only one name has been associated with it as tenant. The 
late occupant, Mr. Richard I/avers, who succeeded his father here, died 
in March, 1914, at the age of 94, and in turn was followed by 
his son as tenant. The ruined building near the pounds appears 
to be of comparatively modern date. On the common are a number 
of hut circles, and others are seen lower down near the warren house. 
A small tor close by is locally known as Shadyback Tor ; this there can 
be no doubt is the Shearaback Tor referred to in 1828 by H. E. Carring- 
ton, son of the poet, as being situated two miles E. of Shaugh village. 

[To reach Trowlesworthy Warren house direct from Brag Lane 
End, and also Ditsworthy Warren, near which are the Thrushel Combe 
antiquities, the visitor will follow the road N. to Shaden Plantation, 
where he will leave it and strike N.E. over the common. The way 
lies across Whit Hills and through the Shaugh Lake Clay Works to 
the road coming down R. from Lee Moor House (Ex. 36), the distance 
being about i m. Care must be taken not to keep too much to the L. ; 
but the visitor will hardly do this, as the house soon comes into view. 
Near the bottom of the hill a rough track branches from the road, and 
this, which is carried over the Blackabrook by a single stone clapper, 
leads direct to the house. Pounds and hut circles will be noticed L. 
when drawing near to it. Leaving it R., and ascending towards the 
tors, the antiquities just noticed will be met with on crossing the leat. 
If the rambler is bound for Ditsworthy he must not keep quite so 
much to the R. on passing the house. He should strike the leat a 
little further N. than in the former case, and follow it where it is carried 
along the side of Round Hill to Spanish Lake, which stream it crosses 
in a delightful little dell. The view of the valley from Round Hill is 
very fine ; Legis Tor is seen on the further side of the Plym (Ex. 38). 
On crossing Spanish Lake keep on the higher side of the leat and along 
the side of Willings Hill direct to Ditsworthy, which is in full view. 
The leat will be met again where it passes Hen Tor Brook, and just 
below this, L., and close to it, are some pounds with hut circles. The 
way now lies to the clam spanning the Plym below the house, just 
before reaching which the leat is crossed. From the clam a track 
leads up to the* house, from the grassy hill behind which one of the 



12 PLYMPTON AND SHAUGH DISTRICT. 

Thrushel Combe menhirs can be seen. The combe is about m. dis- 
tant, and the way to it lies over the side of Eastern Tor (see post and 
Ex. 38). 

We shall now make our way from the Trowlesworthy antiquities 
to the tors that rise above them. The lower one is Little Trowlesworthy 
Tor, and from this an old wall, broken down in many places, extends 
northward towards the Plym. Great Trowlesworthy Tor, which is 
rather higher, 1,141 feet, is close by (R. 71). Here a moorman of my 
acquaintance once found some coins which he described to me as 
" base guineas." Naturally deeming them to be of no value he took 
no care of them, and they were unfortunately lost. The disused 
quarry that will be seen here was once worked for red granite. The 
huge cylindrical block lying on the ground was intended for the base 
of a monument. 

From Great Trowlesworthy Tor we shall strike north-eastward to 
the head of Spanish Lake, and over Willings Hill to Hen Tor, i m. 
This tract forms Willings Walls Warren, and the stream that bounds 
it on the E. is sometimes called Wall Brook, or Walla Brook, though 
it is more generally known as Hen Tor Brook, from the proximity of 
its source to that pile. The latter thrusts itself from the side of 
Hen Tor Kill, and a clatter streams from its foot. Some rocks north- 
ward of the pile bear the name of Little Hen Tor. As the ground rises 
behind Hen Tor the ascent to its summit is easy, and from here a good 
view of the valley is commanded. The most conspicuous object is 
Ditsworthy Warren house, with the clam spanning the river, less than 
i m. distant. Below the tor are the ruined walls of the enclosures of 
Hen Tor Farm, mixed up with those of pounds of an early date. A 
number of hut circles will also be seen, some being fairly good examples 
In the second half of the eighteenth century this farm was in the 
occupation of a man named Nicholls. When he relinquished it Nature 
resumed her sway, and the fields in which it is said as many as ten 
oxen were employed in ploughing, soon became a part of the moor 
again. As the years went by the dwelling, still known as Hen Tor 
House, also fell into decay, but enough remains to show the passer-by 
who may not know its history that the man who erected it was certainly 
not a jerry-builder. 

Leaving Hen Tor we shall cross the side of the hill to the Shaver- 
combe Brook, our course being N.N.E., or from Hen Tor House, N.E. 
by N. J ust before the stream is reached we shall come upon a kistvaen 
within a small circle, not, however, in a very good state of preservation, 
though none of the stones have been removed. Shavercombe Head 
is | m. distant. Between this and Broadall Head a bronze dagger 
was found, about four feet below the surface, by a man employed at 
Ditsworthy Warren whilst cutting peat in the summer of 1892. It 
was shortly afterwards secured by Mr. H. P. Hearder, of Plymouth, 
who still has it in his possession. Broadall Head is i m. S.S.E. ; 
Yealm Head J m. E.S.E., and Langcombe Head i m. N.E. by E. 
(Ex. 34). Shavercombe is one of those delightful little valleys which 
the rambler on Dartmoor meets with occasionally, where a mountain 
ash or an oak find shelter, and where ferns grow abundantly. As we 
make our way downward its beauties speedily begin to reveal them- 
selves. Ere we have gone far the stream falls over a high'rock forming 



EXCURSION 37. PLYM HEAD. 13 

a charming cascade when rains have swollen its volume. Below this 
and quite close to the deep combe, is the tiny Shavercombe Tor, and 
near it a small pound with hut circles. Having gained the R. bank 
of the brawling little stream we strike northward over Giant's Hill, 
to Plym Steps, where the Abbots' Way crosses the river at a ford, as 
already stated (T. i). Although its name would lead the visitor to 
suppose that stepping-stones existed here none are to be seen. 

[At this point the Langcombe Brook falls into the Plym, and of 
this we have already spoken (Ex. 34). At its foot is an old leat and 
other mining remains. A little way up, and not far from the L. bank 
is a kistvaen. Still further up the feeder from Deadman's Bottom 
comes in on the other side, and above that is another kistvaen. This 
has been noticed in Ex. 34. From Plym Steps to Broad Rock the 
Abbots' Way is a well-defined track.] 

Passing upward we emerge from the gorge through which the 
Plym runs between the ford and Shavercombe Foot, and gradually 
leaving the stream L. shall make our way to Calves Lake Tor, a small 
pile I m. distant. Very near to this on the S.E. is a kistvaen, the 
covering slab of which has been raised, and now hangs partly over the 
open grave. If the visitor does not care to extend his ramble to Plym 
Head he will now make his way to the river and cross it near where the 
little Calves Lake falls into it. 

[EXTENSION TO Plym Head, add 2-\ m. The rambler will strike 
N.E. by E., and when about m. from the tor will cross the Tavistock 
branch of the Abbots' W T ay between Broad Rock R. and Plym Ford L., 
but it is not here very plainly denned. m. further on Great Gnats' 
Head is passed L. (Ex. 34), and soon after the broken ground in which, 
the river has its source will be reached. The stream issues from a 
fissure in the peat, and does not rise in a swamp as is often the case. 
Northward of Plym Head is Crane Hill, which we have already men- 
tioned in connection with Ducks' Pool, m. S.E. (Ex. 30) ; N.W. of 
Crane Hill is Hand Hill, on the N. slope of which is Wheal Anne Bot- 
tom (Ex. 3) ; N. of it is Stream Hill, which descends to the edge of 
Fox Tor Mire ; and E. of it is Black Lane (T. 75). Beyond that is 
Cater's Beam, which extends nearly to the Avon. Not far below its 
source the Plym receives the little Crane Lake. Calves Lake is ij m. 
below the source of the Plym if the stream be followed, and this the 
rambler will probably prefer to do in returning.] 

Having crossed the Plym at Calves Lake Foot we find ourselves 
close to another little tributary, which comes down from Evil Combe. 
In this combe is a hut of the sort usually called beehive huts (cf. Ex. 33), 
but it is partly in ruins. This stream is probably identical with the 
Plymcrundla mentioned in the charter of Isabella de Fortibus, referred 
to in Ex. 6. This, which is of the date 1291, sets forth the boundaries 
of the lands given by the Lady Amicia, mother of Isabella, to found 
the abbey of Buckland, and the boundary is conterminous with that 
of the forest from the Walkham below Mis Tor to the Plym. It is 
set forth as running from Siward's Cross (Ex. 2) to " Gyllesburgh 
[i.e., Eylesbarrow] et Plymcrundla ad Plymma." Crundle is a word 
signifying a spring, or well. That the forest boundary (which is usually 
drawn in the opposite direction) ran from Erme Head, that is, Gryms- 
grove, to the head or foot of Calves Lake, and thence up Evil Combe 



14 PLYMPTON AND SHAUGH DISTRICT. 

to the two cairns on the summit of Eylesbarrow, 1,491 feet, can hardly 
be doubted. Ivel is a name implying little water, i.e. a rivulet. Some 
bounds in this part of the moor were described by one Anthony Torr, of 
Bishop's Tawton, in 1702, but incorrectly. He mentions among others 
Woodlake (Wollake), Pox Tor Head (R. 7), Reddicliffe Head, Stevon 
Head (Strane), and Harborlake Head under South Hisworthy. 

As we make our way down by the Plym through the great stream- 
work we pass under Lower Harter Tor. This is not a very large pile, 
but is, nevertheless, striking on account of the massive blocks of which 
it is composed. The ground around it is strewn with granite. Higher 
Harter Tor is about m. N.W. of this, and like it is not large. Its 
elevation is only 1,349 feet, but a very fine view is gained from it. 
Among other eminences in the vicinity that are seen are Sheeps Tor, 
Down Tor, and Combe Tor, while peeping over a ridge of moorland is 
the distant summit of Brent Tor. The tumuli on Eylesbarrow are 
about \ m. N., midway between being the disused Eylesbarrow Tin 
Mine, with the ruins of a house built here many years ago by Mr. 
Deacon, well known in his day as an enthusiastic follower of hounds. 
On the hillside westward of the mine are several fine examples of hut 
circles. 

About 4- m. below Evil Combe we reach Plym Steps, very near to 
which, on the slope R., is a pound containing three hut circles, and 
outside it a small cairn. Here we meet a little stream which falls 
into the Plym just opposite to where the I/angcombe Brook joins 
that river, and is crossed by the Abbots' Way as that old path descends 
to the ford. I have found this rivulet to be usually dry during 
summer. 

(Eylesbarrow is passed in R. 59, where the line is drawn from 
Plym Steps to Siward's Cross. From its summit that ancient monu- 
ment is i m. N.N.E. ; Plym Ford J m. E. by S. ; Evil Combe m. 
S.E. ; Plym Steps i m. S. by E. ; Head of Thrushel Combe m. S.W. 
by S. ; Head of Dean Combe J m. W. by S. ; Down Tor i m. W.N.W. ; 
and the springs of the Newleycombe I/ake over i m. N.N.W.) 

Climbing the western bank we leave the old monks path, which 
was utilized in later times by the tinners, and continue on our way 
down stream, keeping above the gorge L., with Giant's Hill, and Shaver- 
combe Down on the further side. In about f- m. we reach the 
little lateral valley of Thrushel Combe. Here, near its head R. is a 
blowing-house, which although of modern date, is interesting as being 
the last place in which tin was smelted on Dartmoor. Mr. William 
Burt, in his preface to Carrington's poem, states that 100 blocks were 
coined here during the Michaelmas quarter, 1824. I^ower down, at 
Mill Corner, on the Plym, is a more ancient blowing-house. Thrushel 
Combe is locally called Drizzle Combe, and this name has been generally 
adopted, and figures on the Ordnance map. But on the copy of an 
old unpublished map in my possession, which I have sound reasons for 
believing to be authoritative, the valley is shown as Thrushel Combe, 
and doubtless this is the correct name. It is easy to understand how 
it would become Drizzle Combe in the Dartmoor vernacular. 

The group of antiquities in this combe was first described by Mr. R. 
Hansford Worth in a paper read before the members of the Plymouth 
Institution, in 1889. But it was mentioned some years before that date 
by the late Mr. C. Spence Bate in a discussion at a meeting of the 



EXCURSION 37. THRUSHEL COMBE. 15 

Devonshire Association. When Mr. Worth noticed these remains the 
menhirs lay upon the* ground, but his paper had the effect of calling 
attention to them, with the result that in the summer of 1893 they 
were set up. The group is situated to the E. of the stream that runs 
through the combe, and in approaching it from Plym Steps we first 
come upon a small pound, close to which is a cairn. Below this are 
other cairns, and three stone rows and menhirs, the whole extending 
for about m. As these cairns may more properly be regarded as the 
termination of the group, it will be fitting that we commence our 
examination of it at the lower end of the combe. Here is a menhir, 
from which a row of stones, not of great height, extends for a distance 
of over 1 60 yards, its direction being a little N. of E. By the side of 
this is another line of similar stones, but incomplete. At its eastern 
end is a kistvaen, the mound of which was once covered, being nearly 
20 yards in circumference. Between 50 and 60 yards eastward of this 
kistvaen is another menhir, certainly the finest on Dartmoor, and from 
this also a single row of stones extends. This line, which is not very 
complete, terminates in a barrow about 30 yards in circumference, 
and surrounded by a circle of twelve slabs. Running roughly parallel 
to this last row, and northward of it, is another, which, like its com- 
panions, also starts from a menhir and terminates in a barrow. It is 
about the same length as the one first noticed. The circumference of 
the barrow is about 30 yards, and it is surrounded by slabs, as also is 
another barrow near to it. This latter with the two other terminal 
tumuli forms a line running W. of N., and pointing to a tumulus at 
some distance off, on which is a kistvaen, and about 100 yards south- 
eastward of this is a stone circle. E. of the three barrows is the small 
pound already mentioned. Not very far from the barrow at which 
the first row ends is the fine cairn known as the Giant's Basin. Like 
many of these great stone heaps on the moor, there is a depression in 
its centre, and in this is probably seen the resemblance to the article 
the name of which it bears. Mr. Worth took the measurements of the 
three menhirs while they lay prostrate. The tallest of these was 
17 feet 10 inches ; the one at the lower end of the group 12 feet 6 inches ; 
and the third 9 feet 5 inches. 

(Carriages can approach very near to these remains by the road 
from Sheepstor ; if from Cadaford Bridge or Meavy it is not necessary 
to go into that village ; the green track running from Ringmoor Cot 
to Ditsworthy (T. 7 1 ) is suitable for driving, or the road branching 
from near the Cot may be chosen. This joins the road from Sheepstor 
about f m. eastward of that place. From Cadaford Bridge the route 
sketched ante is a good one for the pedestrian, or he may go by the R. 
bank of the Plym. While here he should not omit to visit Shaver- 
combe. From Princetown the route to Newleycombe Lake below 
Kingsett has been described (Ex. 2). From that point the rambler 
will climb the side of Down Tor, leaving it R., and strike S.E. to 
Combeshead Tor. This he will leave L. and descend to the lower end 
of the gorge just below, where the Narrator Brook makes a bend 
towards the W. From this point the blowing- house near the head of 
Thrushel Combe is m. distant S. by E. Or he may pass close to 
Down Tor and strike S. to the moor road between the enclosures. This 
will lead him to Deancombe Farm, below which he will cross the stream 



16 THE DEWER STONE AND CADAFORD BRIDGE. 

and follow the path up the valley to the foot of the gorge below Combes- 
head Tor). 

West of Thrushel Combe are two rock piles, the northern one being 
known as Whittenknowles Rocks, and the other as Eastern Tor. On 
the former among the masses of stone there are a number of hut circles, 
and also the remains of rectangular buildings, while on the latter is a 
small enclosure. Below this tor is Ditsworthy Warren house. This 
warren was always referred to in our childhood's days as Ware's 
Warren, being occupied, as it still is, by a family of that name. This 
extends a considerable distance up the valley, and includes Willings 
Walls and Hen Tor on the other side of the Plym within its boundaries. 
A road leads from the house down to the clam, which is raised high 
above the river on stone buttresses, and another runs up the side of 
the hill to Ringmoor Down (Ex. 38). We descend the slope between 
these, and reaching Heavy Pool, where a little feeder falls into the river, 
shall find a path on the R. bank of the latter, which we shall follow 
down the valley. This will lead us below L,egis Tor R., where are some 
hut circles (Ex. 38), past Trowlesworthy L., and across Brisworthy 
Burrows to the road close to Cadaford Bridge. It may interest the 
rambler by the Plym to know that an authority has stated that gold 
has been found on its banks. But and this is the unfortunate part 
of it " in too small quantities to justify mining researches." 

Crossing the bridge we strike into the R. branch where the road 
forks, and make our way to Shaugh as in Ex. 36. For Yelverton see 
the Dewer Stone Section which follows. 



The Dewer Stone and Cadaford Bridge. 

A road runs from the village of Shaugh down the hill to Shaugh 
Bridge, whence it goes on to Bickleigh. The present bridge replaces 
an old structure which was so much damaged by a flood in 1823 that 
it was found necessary to demolish it. Immediately above it is the 
confluence of the Mew (Ex. 2) and the Plym, the latter a Celtic name 
derived by Baxter from pilim, to roll. This stream comes down through 
the wooded valley on the E. side of the Dewer Stone Hill, which is 
peninsulated by the two, and this part of it is sometimes erroneously 
called the Cad. There is no authority for such a name whatever, and 
it would probably never be heard now had it not been adopted by the 
fishing association having control of this part of the river as a means of 
distinguishing it from the part below the bridge. It first appears in 
1804 in Howard's poem on Bickleigh Vale. Cadaford Bridge further 
up the stream is locally spoken of as Cadover ; this was thought to 
mean a bridge over the Cad, although existing records showed that the 
river had been known as the Plym for more than five centuries before 
that date. In the charter of Isabella de Portibus, 1291, the river is 
called Plymma from its source downward, and the confluence is thus 
referred to, " locum ubi Mewy cadit in Plymma." The bridge, pro- 
bably then a clapper, is called in the same charter " ponte de Cada 
worth." This name is doubtless taken from the Saxon worthig close by 



THE DEWER STONE AND CADAFORD BRIDGE. 17 

now called Cadworthy, and which was apparently formed on the site 
of a British battle cad being a Celtic word meaning a conflict, or 
strife. Just before reaching Shaugh Bridge the Plym flows past the 
Dewer Stone, a fine mass of rock rising almost perpendicularly, from 
its brink. In its name we probably see the Celtic dwr, water, and this 
its situation amply justifies [Gems, Chap. XIX.] A fine view of the 
rock is obtained from West Down, on the R. of the road in descending 
from the village. Below the bridge the Plym sweeps onward to the 
wooded Bickleigh Vale, where it encounters fresh beauties, and finally 
meets the tidal waters at the head of the I,aira estuary. 

Above the confluence the Plym is spanned by a clam, and from 
this a path leads upwards to the summit of the hill which forms the 
southern extremity of Wigford Down, an extensive common in the 
parish of Meavy. Here there is a good view of the valley ; the northern 
side is covered with oak coppice, and from this grey crags thrust them- 
selves. One part of this leafy covering forms the Dewer Stone 
Wood ; up stream is Common Wood ; and still further up Cadworthy 
Wood, between each being a depression on the hillside. Pacing the 
higher one on the S. side of the river is North Wood, which stretches 
from the bank upward to Shaden Moor ; opposite to the two others is the 
bare slope of West Down. About sixty-five years ago there was a strike 
of wool- combers in Plymouth, and many of the men found work in 
these woods at rinding, or " ripping," as it is often called, that is, felling 
the young trees and stripping them of their bark. Among them were 
two, a father and son, who, unable to procure lodgings, walked from 
and to their home in Plymouth every day for a week. On the northern 
side of the Dewer Stone Hill is Blacklands. Some years ago a quarry 
was opened here, but operations were not continued very long. A 
reave which seems to have encircled the summit of this peninsulated 
hill, and the remains of two others that run across it, point to its 
having once been fortified. 

The ramble from the summit of the Dewer Stone Hill to Cadaford 
Bridge and down the valley of the Plym is a good one, though the 
latter part of it may necessitate some scrambling over rocks and 
through undergrowth. The visitor will proceed N.E. along the brow 
of the hill till he arrives at the enclosures of Cadworthy Farm, and if 
he does not keep too near to these he will come upon a kistvaen stand- 
ing in a circle of stones. Further on there is another, and not far from 
it, on the highest part of the down, a small pound. Below these, to 
the N., are the hedges of some old enclosures that the down has claimed 
again for its own. 

Keeping the Cadworthy enclosures R. the rambler will descend 
to Cadaford Bridge, noticing the upper part of an old cross set upon a 
mound as he proceeds [Crosses, Chap. V.] When the moorman calls 
the bridge Cadover he is nearer to the old form of the name than are 
those who accept the modern one of Cadaford. 

[R. 8, Part I, shows the way from Cadaford Bridge to Corn 
wood, Ivybridge, Shaugh and Plympton. In Ex. 36 the road to 
Shaugh is more fully described. For Yelverton pass up the road 
northward and turn L. at the top ; thence the way lies above Durance 
R. along the side of Wigford Down ; on crossing Greenwell Gert, 
about i m. on, the down of that name is entered upon, with Catstor 

c5 



1 8 Route 67. Plympton and Shaugh to Princetown. 

Down on the other side of the wall R. ; leave the road and keep the 
hedge R. to the moor gate ; thence by the lane down the side of Callis- 
ham Down R. to Gratton Bridge ; up the hill to Yelverton.] 

From Cadaford Bridge the rambler will make his way down the 
It. bank of the river, and passing below Dunstone Farm will cross the 
tiny Dunstone Brook and enter North Wood. In this is a fine cascade, 
and below it a deep pool. On emerging from the wood the rambler 
will find himself at the foot of West Down. He will continue to follow 
the river until he is nearly abreast of the Dewer Stone, when he will 
leave it and make his way up the side of the down to Shaugh Hill and 
follow the road leading upward to the village. If bound for Shaugh 
Bridge he will keep nearer to the stream when approaching the Dewer 
Stone. 



Routes from Plympton and Shaugh. 

R. 67. To Princetown, N.N.E. Niel Gate, Cadaford Bridge, 
Ringmoor Cot, Sheepstor, Narrator Farm, Nosworthy Bridge, Roundy 
Farm, Crazy Well Pool, Cramber Tor, Hart Tor, P., 12 m. ; 5., 8 in. 
To Two Bridges, add i m. Reverse, R. 8. 

[Objects : Ex. 36 between Niel Gate and Cadaford Bridge ; thence 
Exs. 38, 39, 2.] 

Passing through Colebrook we turn L., and when the lane forks 
take the R. branch. This will lead us over the hill, on the further side 
of which we cross the Lee Moor tramroad, and shortly afterwards 
arrive at Browney Cross [Crosses, Chap. V.] Here is a guide-post, and 
a road branching L. to Bickleigh. (Shaugh, if m. ; Cadaford Bridge, 
2| ; Plympton, 3^ ; Ridgway, 3^ ; Bickleigh, 2 ; Roborough, 3). We 
keep straight on as in Ex. 36, to Niel Gate, where we enter upon the 
common, and turning neither R. nor L., shall reach Brag Lane End 
in m., where the visitor setting out from Shaugh will join this route. 
A short distance further on we pass Shaden Plantation L., and soon 
arrive at Cadaford Bridge. Crossing this we ascend the hill with the 
Wigford Down Clay Works L., and at the top bear round to the R. 
(The road L. leads to Hooe Heavy and Yelverton). Then we speedily 
turn L. to Lynch Down, and leaving the road strike into a footpath 
running northward over the common to Ringmoor Cot, m. Bris- 
worthy Plantation is first on our R. and then Ringmoor Down, Lynch 
Down being L. Immediately beyond the cot a road runs R. (T. 71) ; 
we follow the main one L., which will lead us down the hill between 
some enclosures to the Sheepstor Brook. Soon after crossing this we 
turn L., in the village, and about 200 yards on shall turn R., or north- 
ward, to Park Cottage, where a way leads R. up to the common. On 
reaching this we bear L., and skirt it to its northern verge, having the 
walls of the enclosures close to us L. There is a footpath over this part 
of the common, and in one place it will lead us between the enclosures 



Route 68. Plympton and Shaugh to Tavistock. 19 

and a detached newtake. About m. from the point at which we 
entered upon the down is Narrator Farm, and this we pass through 
and follow the road to the Dean Combe Brook (Ex. 39). This we cross 
at a ford, and reaching another road turn L. to the clapper over Newley- 
combe Lake. Crossing this we leave Nosworthy Bridge L., and turn 
R. to the ruined Nosworthy farmhouse, and make our way by a rough 
road running up between the enclosures for rather over \ m. to another 
coming up L. from Lether Tor Bridge (T. 2). This we follow eastward 
with Kingset Farm R., and speedily reach the common near the ruins 
of Roundy Farm (Ex. 2). About m. beyond this is a gully on the L. 
of the track, which we trace upward to Crazy Well Pool (Ex. 2). 
Northward of the pool, and at a much greater elevation, is the Devon- 
port leat, and just here there is a bridge over it (T. 3). From this our 
course is N. to Cramber Tor, beyond which we descend to the Hart 
Tor Brook, where is a ford. Hart Tor we leave a little to the L. Our 
course is about N. from the brook, and m. from it, we reach the road 
above Devil's Bridge Hill. Princetown is close by. 

Visitors from Ivybridge and Cornwood choosing this route to 
Princetown will join it at Cadaford Bridge. (See R. 57 for road from 
Ivybridge to Cornwood ; R. 56 Cornwood to White Hill Corner ; and 
R. 6 1 from the corner to Cadaford). 

R. 68. To Tavistock, N.N.W. Niel Gate, Cadaford Bridge, 
Marchants Bridge, Dousland, Walkhampton, Huckworthy Bridge, 
Warren's Cross, Whitchurch Down. P., 15 m. ; S., io| m. Reverse, 
R. 14. 

[Objects : Exs. 36 to 40, 7.] 

This is a road route throughout, and few directions are needed. 
R. 67 shows the way to Lynch Down via Cadaford Bridge. On reach- 
ing this down the rambler will continue to follow the road with the 
enclosures L. , and m. on will descend Lynch Hill, at the foot of which 
he will cross the Mew at Marchants Bridge. Leaving the village of 
Meavy L. he will pass up to Yennadon Down and follow the road to 
Dousland (Ex. 39). Here he will cross the Plymouth and Princetown 
road, and make his way down the lane to Walkhampton. Passing 
through the village he will take the road N. to Huckworthy Bridge, 
J m. (Ex. 40), where he will cross the Walkham. A little way up the 
steep lane he will branch R. to Huckworthy Common (T. 69), and 
keeping the hedge L. will be led to an old stone cross placed where the 
road forks [Crosses, Chap. VIII.] The R. branch runs to Sampford 
Spiney and Ward Bridge (Exs. i, 7). The rambler will take the L. one, 
and i m. on will pass over the N.E. corner of Plaster Down, and after 
again entering upon the enclosed land will emerge once more on the 
commons at Warren's Cross (Ex. 7). Here the way to Tavistock lies 
over Whitchurch Down L. Directions are given in R. i. 

R. 69. To Lydford, N. by W. Niel Gate, Cadaford Bridge, 
Marchants Bridge, Dousland, Huckworthy Bridge, Warren's Cross, 
Moor Shop, Harford Bridge, Black Down, Skit. P., i\\ m. ; S., 17 m. ; 
from Cornwood, 20^ m. Reverse, R. 21. 

[Objects : Exs. 36, 38, 39, 40, 7, 8, 9, 10.] 

The rambler from Cornwood will join this route at Cadaford Bridge. 
The first part of it, i.e., as far as the road to Lynch Down, is the same 



20 Routes 70, 71. Plympton and Shaugh to Okehampton. 

as R. 67 ; thence it is identical with R. 68 as far as Warren's Cross. 
From that point the road must be followed N. to Pennycomequick, 
where a little stream crosses the road, and thence to Moor Shop (Ex. 8). 
The rambler keeps straight on, and in i m. reaches Harford Bridge, 
on the Tavy (Exs. 8, 9), and crossing it soon finds himself on the Tavis- 
tock and Okehampton high road. Turn R. up Wringworthy Hill to 
Black Down, 2^ m. (Ex. 9). Soon after entering on the common four 
granite posts will be seen R. of the road. Here the track branches Iy. 
to Lydford Station, and the Manor Hotel (T. 23), whence a road runs 
to Lydford village. This may also be reached by following the highway 
past Beardon, 2|- m. further on. There, close to the seventh milestone 
from Tavistock, is a gate from which a path leads by Skit Steps to the 
village (Ex. 10). The Dartmoor Inn is m. beyond this gate on the 
main road. 

R. 70. To Okehampton, a little E. of N. Cadaford Bridge, 
Sheepstor, Nosworthy Bridge, Princetown, Rundle Stone, Walkham 
Head, Tavy Hole, Broad Amicombe Hole, Dinger Plain, Moor Gate. 
P., 27 m. ; S., 24 m. ; from Cornwood, a little W. of N., 27 m. Reverse, 
R. 28. 

This route is made up of R. 67 and R. 3, q.v. 

R. 71. To Chagford and Moreton, N.E. by N. With route from 
Cornwood, N.N.E. Niel Gate, Brag Lane End, Shaugh Moor, Blacka- 
brook Head, Great Trowlesworthy Tor, Hen Tor (FROM CORNWOOD : 
Rook Gate, Pen Beacon, Shell Top, Hen Tor), Plym Steps, Siward's 
Cross, Peat Cot, Prince Hall Bridge, Cherry Brook, Post Bridge, Warren 
House Inn, Jurston Gate, P., 26 m. ; S., 21 m. ; from Cornwood, 
2i m. To Moreton, i m. further. Reverse, R. 34. 

[Objects : Exs. 36, 37, 3, 4, 46, 44, 45, 22. If from Cornwood 
prefix Exs. 34, 35, and S. Ex. 121.] 

The visitor starting from Cornwood should follow the directions 
given in R. 59 for reaching Hen Tor, where he will join the present 
route. If from Plympton those for reaching Brag Lane End, as given 
in R. 67 should be followed, and here the rambler from Shaugh will 
join. The course is then E. by N. over Shaugh Moor, and across the 
Cornwood road, to Blackabrook Head, as in Ex. 37. (The visitor 
from Plympton may shorten the distance a little by striking up over 
the common N.E. by E. from Niel Gate to Hawks' Tor, which he will 
leave I,., and still following the same course make his way to Emmett's 
Post, i m. further on. Blackabrook Head is then m. N.E.) From 
the source of the tributary the rambler will ascend the hill to Great 
Trowlesworthy Tor, m. N.E., crossing the Clay Works leat by one of 
the footbridges here, "and will thence strike across Willings Hill to Hen 
Tor House, a little below the pile of that name, keeping very nearly 
on the line of route sketched in Ex. 37. [From this point the way 
onward to Siward's Cross is described in R. 59). About | m. N. of 
Siward'9Cross the rambler will bear R., his course being north-easterly, 
and in i m. he will reach Peat Cot (Ex. 3). He will here cross the 
Devonpo'rt leat, and leaving it L. will strike about N. towards the 
enclosures of the estate of Tor Royal. By so doing he will avoid some 
rather bad ground near the springs of the Strane, R. 34. [This stream 
joins the Swincombe below the White Works (Ex. 3). Above its L. 



Routes 72, 73. Plympton and Shaugh to Bovey Tracey. 21 

bank is a small pile known as Strane Tor.] When nearing the outer 
corner of the enclosures the course must be altered to N.E. by E. 
The summit of Royal Hill must be kept a little to the R. (end of Ex. 3), 
and Cholake Head, which is due N. of this, L. About m. further on 
the gate at Moorlands will be reached. Pass through this and turn L- 
down to Prince Hall Bridge, thence up by the house to the lodge, and 
across Muddy Lakes Newtake to the Moreton road as in R. 63. Turn 
R. and follow the directions given in R. 4. 

R. 72. To Bovey Tracey, N.E. by E. For points and objects 
from Plympton, 27 m., see R. 74, 66, 54. E.N.E. from Shaugh, 29 m., 
via Cornwood and Ivybridge, R. 75, 76, 66, 54. Reverse, R. 41. 

R. 73. To Ashburton, N.E. by E. For points from Plympton, 
19^ m., see R. 74, 66. E. by N. from Shaugh, 17^ m. ; points : Shaugh 
Moor, Emmett's Post, Pen Beacon, High-house Waste, Stall Moor, 
Three Barrows, Hickley Plain, Zeal Bridge, Shipley Bridge, Yolland, 
Gigley Bridge, Warn Bridge, Dean ; thence as in R. 66. Reverse, 
R. 48. 

[Objects : Exs. 36, 34 to 29.] 

The route from Plympton consists of R. 74, 66. 

From Shaugh : to Ivybridge by R. 76, or to Brent by R. 75, and 
thence as in R. 66, the latter being the better way ; or the moor route 
may be taken as here described, provided the state of the weather does 
not render the crossing of the rivers doubtful (see R. 48). 

From Shaugh village to the common by Brag Lane. Strike E. to 
Emmett's Post, i m., and cross the Cornwood road to the Clay Works 
reservoir. Cross the leat at the northern end of this and follow it 
eastward for about \ m. Pen Beacon (Ex. 34) now bears E. by S., 
and is i m. distant, and directly in our line of route. If the rambler 
cares to go over it he will descend its eastern side (the course there 
being due E.) to the north-western corner of High-house Waste, close 
to the source of Ford Brook. Should he not desire to make the ascent 
he will pass about J m. S. of the summit, and then strike north-eastward 
to the corner. Keep the wall R. Cross Broadall Lake where it comes 
from Broadall Gulf, and so down to Yealm Steps. Here leave the wall, 
and pass up to the source of Ranny Brook, nearly m. E. From this 
point steer E. by S. for about i m. over Stall Moor, crossing on the 
way the track to Erme Pound (T. 66). This will bring the rambler to 
Downing' s House Brook. 

(Another way from below Pen Beacon to Downing' s House, of 
which the reverse is given in R. 48, is by steering a little N. of E. and 
passing over High-house and Dendles Waste to the Yealm, which is 
crossed about -i- m. below Yealm Steps. Keep the same N. of E. course 
across Stall Moor to the brook. In either of these routes Stalldon 
Barrow must be kept well to the R.) 

Three Barrows, S. of E., is the next point, but a direct route should 
not be struck. Follow the brook to the Erme, which can Usually be 
crossed without much difficulty where the tributary falls into it. The 
summit of Three Barrows is not now in sight, and care must be taken 
not to keep too much to the R. in ascending. Steer E. by S. The 
climb is a stiff one, and the distance not much short of a mile. The 
Blackwood Path (T. 63) is crossed shortly before the three cainis are 



22 Routes 74, 75. Plympton to Ivybridge and Brent. 

reached (Ex. 31). From this lofty hill the course is nearly due E. for 
i m., the bend of Red Brook, on Hickley Plain, being passed close I,. 
The point to be reached is a small plantation at the foot of Hickley 
Ridge, and close to Bala Brook. Here is a hunting-gate whence a 
path leads across two fields to a lane (Ex. 30). The rambler turns L. 
over Zeal Bridge, and passing Zeal Farm again reaches the moor at 
Shipley. Here he will cross the Avon, and keeping the wall L,. enter 
a lane. About m. on is Yolland Cross, where it makes a sharp bend 
R., and here he will enter the gate L. to Yolland Farm, as in S. Ex. 105. 
Passing this he will follow the green track across the level with the 
hedge R. (this is part of T. 59). Reaching a stroll, with Dockwell 
Gate L. (Ex. 29), he will turn R. and make his way to the head of it, 
and passing through the gate there will turn down the lane L. to 
Gigley Bridge, just beyond which he will again turn L. Almost 
immediately a lane branching R. is reached, and into this he will strike, 
and passing down the hill E. by N., will, in \\ m., reach Warn Bridge, 
near the gate where a track runs up the Valley of Dean Burn (S. Ex. 
100). The hamlet of Dean Combe is passed just before reaching this ; 
it lies a little in on the R. A short distance beyond the bridge he will 
turn R., and speedily reach the village of Dean, from which place he 
will proceed as directed in R. 66. 

R. 74. Plympton to Ivybridge and Brent. The Lyneham Inn, 
Lee Mill Bridge, Ivybridge, Bittaford Bridge, Wrangaton Station, Brent 
Bridge. I., 6 m. ; B., n\ m. Reverse, R. 55. 

[Objects : Ex. 32, seen from near Wrangaton.] 

From the George Hotel the main road is followed eastward, the 
Lyneham Inn and Smithaleigh being passed between that starting- 
point and I,ee Mill Bridge, on the Yealm, 3^ m. Thence the road goes 
by Cadleigh Park to Ivybridge, 2 m., from which place the Brent road 
is described in R. 66. 

R. 75. Shaugh to Brent, E. by S. Walter, White Hill Corner, 
Piall Bridge, Cornwood, Harford, Spurrell's Cross, Owley Gate, 12 m. 
Reverse, R. 56. 

[Objects: Exs. 36, 35, 37, 33, 32, S. Ex. 112, in.] 
To the common by the road R. at the stone cross. Follow the road 
past Beatland Corner, where the Plympton and Cadaford road is crossed. 
Beyond Collard Tor is Wotter, and less than a mile from this the road 
turns down by Shade Cottages, and then passing Boringdon Cottages 
I/, goes on to White Hill Corner. Here the rambler will turn R. to 
Tolchmoor Bridge, and soon after descend the hill, with Ridding 
Down R. and Cholwich Town I,., to Quick Bridge (Ex. 35). From 
here the road runs to Piall Bridge, Heathfield Down, and Cornwood 
village, whence the way to Ivybridge is shown in R. 76. For Brent 
turn L. to the Vicarage Bridge and Tor, where turn R. to Harford 
Bridge, 2| m. Thence up to the church, and L. to Harford Gate, 
whence the green track running east over the common is followed 
(T. 62). In tracing this keep Butter Brook R. ; | m. a little N. of E. 
from the head of this is the shattered Spurrell's Cross [Crosses, Chap. 
III.] near which the Buckfast track branched off (T. 59) ; from this 
the source of the Scad, 200 feet below, bears S. of E., m. ; rather 
less than ^ m. due E. of this source is Owley Gate (S. Ex. no). From. 



ROUTE 76. SHAUGH TO IVYBRIDGE. 23 

this the way lies through the lane between the enclosure walls to 
Owley, and L. to the Glaze ; thence up the hill to Bulhornstone Cross, 
about m. beyond which Aish is reached. Turn down the hill R. and 
cross Lydia Bridge to the village. 

R. 76. Shaugh to Ivybridge, S.E. by E. The points are the same 
as in the preceding route as far as Cornwood ; thence the way lies by 
Moor Cross and up Houndle Hill. If the way over Crownhill Down 
be chosen the points are as follows : Niel Gate, Port-worthy, Hooksbury 
Wood, Crownhill Down, Heddon Down, Lutton, Moor Cross. Via 
Cornwood, 8| m. ; via Crownhill Down, 9 m. Reverse, R. 57. 

[Objects: Exs. 36, 35, 34.] 

To Cornwood as in R. 75. Keeping the inn R. follow the road to 
Moor Cross and Houndle Hill, and past Fardle to Dame Hannah 
Rogers' School, as in S. Ex. 119. Down by the church to the village. 
If by way of Crownhill Down and Lutton (see R. 57) take the road to 
Beatland Corner and Niel Gate.* At the forks m. down take the L- 
branch. Over ^ m. on cross the Lee Moor Railway, and m. beyond 
that turn L. to Portworthy. Cross the Torry, and keeping Hooksbury 
Wood R. go on to the guide-post on the verge of the common. From 
this point the way lies E. by S. over Crownhill Down and Heddon 
Down to Lutton, 2| m. (see R. 57). The Underwood Memorial 
Congregational Church in this picturesque little village was opened in 
1911. So generously was the scheme supported that subscriptions 
were received from all parts of the kingdom, and even from Canada. 
The builder was Mr. Ambrose Andrews, of Plymouth. From Lutton 
descend the hill southward towards Slade Hall, but before this is 
reached turn L. to the Piall Brook. Thence over the ridge, keeping 
straight on at the cross road, and down to the bridge over the Yealm. 
Just beyond this is Moor Cross, where the road runs R. to Ivybridge 
(see ante). 

CRANMERE. Visitors from the neighbourhood of Plympton and 
Shaugh may best reach Cranmere by way of Princetown, which, of 
course, they may readily do by rail. The way over the moor direct 
from either of these places is shown in R. 67, which will take the rambler 
to Princetown; and in R. 71, which gives directions for reaching 
Siward's Cross, whence Princetown is rather less than 2^ m. distant, 
and the way is shown in Ex. 2, Part I. From Princetown or Two 
Bridges onward see Cranmere Routes i, 2, in Part I. For Map of the 
Cranmere surroundings see end of Yelverton and Dousland District. 



* On the way to Plympton, where the Lee Moor tramroad is 
crossed, is Brixton Farm, R. Here are the remains of an ancient 
entrenchment known as Boringdon Camp. It is sometimes referred 
to as Castle Ring, though this name is more often applied to the ruined 
keep at Plympton. 



24 DISTANCES TO YELVERTON. 



YELVERTON AND DOUSLAND 
DISTRICT. 

DISTANCES (from Yelverton). By ROAD: ASHBURTON, 
via Two Bridges, 20^ m. ; via Cornwood, 24 m. BICKLEIGH, 4 m. 
BOVEY TRACEY, via Two Bridges, 25 m. BUCKLAND MONA- 
CHORUM, 2| m. CA DA FORD BRIDGE, via Greenwell Down, 
3 m. CHAGFORD, via Two Bridges, 18 m. CORNWOOD, via 
Greenwell Down, 8 m. DARTMEET, 12^ m. EXETER, 31* m. 
HEXWORTHY, I2| m. IVYBRIDGE, via Cornwood, q.v., ii m. 
WHITE HILL CORNER, via Greenwell Down, 5|- m. LYDFORD 
(Dartmoor Inn), 8 m. snort of Okehampton, q.v. MERIVALE 
BRIDGE, via Moor Shop, 7 m. ; via Princetown, 9 m. MORETON, 
19^ m. NIEL GATE, 5* m. NOSWORTHY BRIDGE, 3^ m. ; 
OKEHAMPTON, via Huckworthy Bridge and Moor Shop, 2o| m. ; 
via Tavistock, 21 m. PLYMOUTH, g m. PLYMPTON, via Niel 
Gate, 9! m. ; via Roborough and Plym Bridge, 9 m. POST BRIDGE. 
II m. PRINCETOWN, 6m. ROBOROUGH, 3$ m. SAMPFORD 
SPINEY, 3| m. SL4 C/G-ff, via Cadaford Bridge, 5 m. ; via Bick- 
leigh and Shaugh Bridge, 7 m. SHEEPSTOR VILLAGE, 4 m. 
SOUTH BRENT, via Cornwood, i6J m. T^4 VI STOCK, 5 m. TWO 
BRIDGES, 7| m. 

BY RAII,: (G.W.R.) BICKLEIGH, 3^ m. EXETER, via 
Plymouth, 63^ m. ; M' Tavistock (L.S.W. from T.), 47^ m. HORRA- 
BRIDGE, I m. MARSH MILLS. 7 m. PLYMOUTH, n m. 
PRINCETOWN, io m. TA VISTOCK, 5 m. 



Important Points and Landmarks. 

Cadaford Bridge Marchants Cross Nosworthy Bridge Plym 
Steps Sheeps Tor. Places of Interest. The Abbots' Way Burrator 
Lake Crazy Well Pool Dean Combe The Dewer Stone Down Tor 
Lether Tor Pixies' Cave Valley of the Walkham Ward Bridge. 
Prehistoric Antiquities. Brisworthy : stone circle Down Tor: row, 
menhir, and circle on Kingston Hill Kingsett : hut circles Plym 
Valley : hut circles and other remains Peak Hill : stone row Thrushel 
Combe (on the Plym) : rows, cairns, and menhirs Wigford Down : 
hut circles and kists. Mining Remains. Dean Combe Head : tinners' 
excavations Plym Valley : stream works Shady Combe : deep 
cuttings on Greenwell Down. 

Excellent examples of moorland churches will be found at Buckland, 
Sampford Spiney, Walkhampton, Sheepstor, Meavy, and Shaugh. 
The small border commons, Short's Down, Huckworthy Down, Knowle 
Down, and Calisham Down, are also of interest. The old Plymouth 



YELVERTON. THE ELFORDS. 25 

and Dartmoor Railway, parts of which may still be seen on Roborough 
Down, is worth examination as an example of the engineering skill of 
a century ago. 

From the latter part of the fifteenth century till the middle of the 
eighteenth the ancient family of Elford was seated at I/ongstone, near 
Sheepstor village. One of their possessions, on the verge of Roborough 
Down, was called Elford Town, and is mentioned in the thirteenth 
century as Elleford. In the speech of the country people this became 
Yelver Town, or Yelverton, and when some years ago houses sprang 
up on the verge of the common, and a name was required by which to 
distinguish the locality, it was decided that no better one could be 
given to it than Yelverton. When we first knew Roborough Down 
the only houses in this part of it were the Rock Hotel, the cottage 
which stands by the roadside some 200 or 300 yards in its rear, and the 
Buller's Arms, at I,eg o' Mutton Corner ; the latter stood opposite to 
the present Yelverton Hotel. One of my earliest recollections is a 
walk from the cottage referred to past Roborough Rock to that part 
of the down between the entrances to Bickham and Maristowe, to 
which I was taken by my father, to see some military manoeuvres. 
This was in 1854, and among the troops was a Highland regiment, 
which shortly after left England for the Crimea. For several years 
Roborough Down remained as I first knew it ; then a few houses were 
built on the Horrabridge road, and at length with the opening of the 
Princetown railway came the development of the present residential 
neighbourhood. Another possession of the Elfords was Crapstone, near 
the village of Buckland Monachorum. This they obtained by purchase 
from the Crymes, the family to which we have referred as probably 
having been the possessors of Roundy Farm, on Walkhampton Common 
(Ex. 2). The last of the Elfords of Longstone died in 1748. Bickham, 
which had been bought by a branch of the family, was later the 
residence of Sir William Elford, who represented Plymouth in Parlia- 
ment. He died in 1837. In the early part of the nineteenth century 
Elford Town was in the occupation of Mr. G. Leach, and subsequently 
in that of Mrs. Davy. 

Roborough Down, on the verge of which the residences forming 
Yelverton are situated, extends from the sixth milestone from Ply- 
mouth to about the tenth, the continuation of the common, which 
makes a north-westerly sweep to the Tavy forming Buckland Down. 
Its name is supposed to be derived from an earthwork, or " borough," 
and appears in the thirteenth century as Roburg and Rugheburgh, 
and in later times as Rowborrough. The hundred is also named from 
this earthwork. Among the possessions of Buckland Abbey at the 
time of the Dissolution were certain perquisites of the Hundred Court, 
and the rent of the down, which amounted to twenty shillings. On 
the slope between the eighth and ninth milestones is Roborough Rock. 
It is shown on an eighteenth century map of Devon as T'llestor Rock, 
but early in the nineteenth had ceased to be called by that name. It 
consists of two bosses, with a connecting portion of some length and 
of much less elevation, the whole forming one mass. On the northern 
side of the eastern boss a rude resemblance to the human face in profile 
may be traced when seen from the road. In my early days this was 
always called the Duke of Wellington's Nose. The view from near 
the eight milestone, a little southward of the rock is particularly fine. 



26 



ROBOROUGH DOWN. 



The grouping of the tors above the Walkham valley at once strikes the 
observer as its chief feature. On the extreme I,, is the bold Cocks' 
Tor Hill, and next to it the fantastically-shaped rocks of Staple Tor. 
To the R. of these the Walkham comes down from the recesses of the 



Cocks Tor. 



White Pu Staple Merivale 
Tor. Tor. Tors. Quarry. 



Mis 
Tor. 




N. Koborough Rock. 



Vixen Tor. 



FROM NEAR ROBOROUGH ROCK. 

moor, and above the cleft is seen the granite crown of Mis Tor. R. of 
it is North Hisworthy, from which the dusky Yennadon sweeps towards 
the giant form of Sheeps Tor, which rises grandly beyond the vale 
where the little village of Meavy, with its ancient church, nestles among 
the trees. 

Though no part of Roborough Down is without interevSt, for 
delightful views are commanded from every point, its northern end is 



Slope of 
Mis Tor. 



Hollow 
Tor. 

Inga N. Hisworthy 
Tor. Tor. Dousland. 



Peak 
Hill. 



Lether 
Tor. 




FROM NEAR ROBOROUGH ROCK. 



the most charming and romantic. Here, near where the Tavy and the 
Walkham mingle their waters, are precipitous slopes, clothed in places 
with coppice, and in others with tall bracken, through which wind 
green paths. The confluence of the two streams is known as Double 
Waters, and just above it is a clam over the Walkham, whence a path 



GREENWELL DOWN. 



27 



leads up to a rugged pile of rocks, and over West Down. From the 
down a road runs to Tavistock, 2 m., passing Walreddon, the ancient 
mansion of the Courtenays, which is quite close to the verge of the 
common. It is of mid-sixteenth century date, though some parts 



Eylesbarrow. 




Yennadon Down. 
FROM NEAR ROBOROUGH ROCK. 

are said to be earlier. The road goes on to Rix Hill and Brook Lane, 
and joins the Tavistock main road opposite to the entrance to the 
cemetery. Overlooking the Walkham above the confluence are Buck 
Tor, and the crag known as the Raven Rock. Below the confluence 
is the Virtuous I/ady Mine, which name is supposed to have reference 
to Queen Elizabeth. It is this part of the down to which we have 
referred in our introductory remarks (see Part I) as being not far from 
the Tamar. On the Walkham above West Down is Grenofen. Here a 
bridge spans the river, the steep track leading down to it on the south, 
and which forms the approach from the neighbourhood of Buckland 
Monachorum, being known as Sticklepath. 

On the E. side of the southern part of Roborough Down, and not 
far from Hooe Meavy Bridge, on the Mew, is the hamlet of Clearbrook. 
The road runs eastward up the hill to Greenwell Down, a branch near 
the bridge going N. to the village of Meavy. This road reaches the 
common at Shady Combe, the name given to the lower part of Green- 
well Gert where it has been planted with trees. This gert, which is so 
much overgrown with heather and ferns as almost to conceal its artificial 
character, extends over the hill to Catstor down. The road runs very 
near to it across Greenwell Down, and on leaving it is carried along the 
northern verge of Wigford Down to Cadaford Bridge (Dewer Stone 
Section). On Greenwell Down it is crossed by another coming from 
Urgles Farm, S., and running north to Gratton Bridge and Yelverton 
(post). Urgles is approached from Roborough Down by a road 
branching from the one that leads from the Plymouth and Tavistock 
highway to Clearbrook ; this crosses the Mew at Good-a-Meavy Bridge. 
Opposite to the gate at Urgles is the socket stone of a cross [Crosses, 
Chap. VI.] From this point the summit of the Dewer Stone is about 
I m. to the south. 

The visitor has the choice of two roads from Yelverton to Cadaford 



23 MEAVY. MARCHANTS CROSS. 

Bridge ; he may go either by way of Greenwell Down, or through the 
village of Heavy. Between the road leading to the station from the 
down and the Rock Hotel is Heavy Lane. This is followed to the forks, 
and if the first-named way is decided upon the rambler will take the 
R. branch, and pass down to Gratton Bridge, on the Hew. This was 
rebuilt in 1887. A short distance beyond it a road crosses it, coming 
L. from Heavy and running R. by Olderwood Plantation to Hooe 
Heavy, and here is a guide-post : Hooe Heavy, |- m. ; Roborough, 
4/| m. ; Horrabridge, 3^ m. Tavistock, 7^ m. Heavy, m. ; Walk- 
hampton, 2^ m. ; Lovaton, i m. ; Sheepstor, 2|- m. The way now 
lies up the hill, and is the reverse of that sketched at the end of the 
Dewer Stone Section. The Sheepstor road branches L., a little way 
.up, and crosses Callisham Down, where is a pile bearing the name of 
Callisham Tor. This down is kept L., and soon the gate opening on 
to Greenwell Down is reached. From this the way lies over the turf 
with the hedge close L. to Greenwell Gert, the narrow lane leading to 
Catstor Down being passed on the way. By the roadside near the 
gert is the base of a cross [Crosses, Chap. VI.] Prom this there is a 
good view of the Burrator Gorge, beyond which the tower of Prince- 
town Church is seen. [For the Dewer Stone Hill the rambler should 
strike S. from this point over Wigford Down, the view from the higher 
part of which is very fine. The whole of south-west Devon is seen, 
and much of East Cornwall.] Several old trees will be observed on 
the down, and a little further on the old farm enclosures noticed in 
the Dewer Stone Section. These are R. of the road ; Durance is L. 
Shortly the road coming from Lynch Down will be seen, and this must 
be followed R. down to the bridge. 

If the Heavy route to Cadaford be chosen the L. branch at the 
fork in Heavy Lane must be followed. This will bring the rambler 
direct to the village, Church Ford (which bore the same name in the 
time of Edward I.) being passed on the way. Heavy is a small, but 
pleasing, border village. On the green, near the church gate, is an 
ancient oak, which, though showing only too plainly the havoc of 
years, yet spreads its boughs and puts forth its green gleaves over the 
cross below. After being lost for over a century the shaft of this cross 
was discovered by a former rector, the Rev. W. A. G. Gray, and once 
more set up on its old pedestal. The head is new work. The 
way lies along the lower side of the green, and turns R. near the little 
disused pound to the river which it crosses at Harchants Bridge.* 
Just beyond this is Harchants Cross, which is one of the most important 
in the Dartmoor district [Crosses, Chap. V., VII.] In the charter of 
Isabella de Fortibus, 1291, it appears as Smalacumbacrosse, and then 
formed one of the bondmarks to the lands given by her mother to 
Buckland Abbey, in 1280. But that it was erected long before that 
time there can hardly be a doubt. It stands on the main track from 
Tavistock Abbey to the South Hams, from which branched the one 
going to Plympton Priory. In my early days several traditions used 
to be related concerning it. It was said that it marked the grave of a 
suicide, and also that wayfarers about to cross the moor would kneel 
before it and pray that they might not run into danger during the 
journey. The road branching L. is on the line of the Abbots' Way; 

* Below this Harchants Ford and stepping-stones will be seen. 



EXCURSION 38. BRISWORTHY 29 

the one R. runs to Cornwood and Plympton. From this point the way 
to Cadaford Bridge is shown in R. 13 (Part II). The rambler ascends 
Lynch Hill R. and follows the road with the enclosures on that hand 
till he meets the one coming from Greenwell Down, when he will turn L- 
to the bridge. 

Dousland, like Yelverton, was called into existence by the railway. 
It is not so many years since that it was represented by a single roadside 
hostelry, named the Manor Inn, but which was generally referred to as 
Dousland Barn. It forms a capital base for moorland explorations. 
Quite near to it is Yennadon Down, a fine, elevated common, from 
which delightful views are commanded. Dousland is rather over i m. 
from Yelverton. 



Excursions from Yelverton. 

The area over which these excursions extend embraces Ringmoor 
Down, Sheeps Tor, Dean Combe, and Peak Hill. Many of the objects 
in the neighbourhood are described in the excursions from Plympton, 
Princetown, and Tavistock. These may be joined as follows : Plmyp- 
ion, Ex. 36 at Brag Lane End, near Shaugh, and Ex. 37 at Cadaford 
Bridge ; Princetown (Part I), Ex. i at Peak Hill, and Ex. 2 at Lether Tor 
Bridge ; Tavistock (Part II), Ex. 7 at Sampford Spiney. The centre of 
the Princetown District is reached by the high road, and the Hexworthy 
District by T. 2. 

[Tracks i to 4, 13, 69, to 74.] 

Ex. 38. Brisworthy, Legis Tor, Ditsworthy, Whittenknowles Rocks, 
Thrushel Combe [EXTENSION TO Dean Combe, add 3f m.], Gutter Tor, 
Ringmoor Down, n m. From and to Dousland, 10 m. 

Our first point will be the southern corner of Lynch Down, which 
we may reach by either of the two routes just sketched. (Visitors 
from Dousland will take the route by Marchants Cross and Lynch Hill, 
reaching the first-named by the road along the side of Yennadon and 
following it down to the river). At the corner of Lynch Down, where 
the main road makes an abrupt angle, a narrow farm road will be 
noticed, and this must be followed to Brisworthy, and thence to Ring- 
moor Down, which is close by. Brisworthy was one of the ancient vills, 
and appears in 1505 as Brightesworth, when it paid a venville rent of 
tu-o shillings. On emerging on the down we shall notice on the R. a 
stone circle, which is a fairly good example of this class of monu- 
ment ; it has been restored. Keeping near to the enclosures R. 
we shortly reach a corner formed by the walls where the little Legis 
Lake comes down from Legis Mire. This seems to be identical with 
the Yaddabrook mentioned in the charter of Isabella de Fortibus. 
Here we enter the warren (there is a gate near the higher corner) called 
after Legis Tor, the pile in its centre, though not infrequentlj' the 
reverse is found to be the case, for the former being sometimes spoken 
of as New Warren the tor is occasionally referred to as New Warren 
Tor. From the tor, which is rather interesting, we look down upon 
the Plym. Between Legis Tor and the river are some large enclosures 
containing hut circles. Through these runs the path from Ditsworthy 



30 YELVERTON AND DOUSLAND DISTRICT. 

to Cadaford Bridge. Some ancient walls will be seen mixed up with 
the rocks on the tor, and here also is a ruined kistvaen. Not very far 
distant is a single stone row, the existence of which was first recorded 
by Mr. R. Hansford Worth. 

Proceeding north-westward to the gate in the higher corner of the 
warren we again enter on the down and turn N.E., and in little over 
m. shall reach a gate on the track leading from Ringmoor Cot to 
Ditsworthy (T. 71). Here we have a fine view in the direction of Ply- 
mouth. Looking over the distant town we see Penlee Point and 
Cawsand Bay, Mount Edgcumbe, and Maker Heights. From the higher 
ground a little to the W. Staddon Heights and the Breakwater come in 
sight, and moorward the tower of Princetown church. From here we 
descend to Ditsworthy Warren house, noticed in Ex. 37. (If the 
rambler prefers it he can make his way to the house direct from Legis 
Tor by striking north-eastward towards the river). From Ditsworthy 
we pass on northward over Eastern Tor, which is covered with short 
turf, and is of no great height, to Whittenknowles Rocks, both of which 
objects are noticed in Ex. 37, as also are the antiquities at Thrushel 
Combe, which are seen on the further side of the little stream to the E. 
(The direct way from Yelverton to Ditsworthy and Thrushel Combe 
is by Marchants Cross. Thence L,. to Ringmoor Cot ; pass in front of 
the Cot and either take the R. branch at the forks, or strike E. over the 
down. In the latter case the track (T. 71) can be followed to Dits- 
worthy, or an E. by N. course taken to Gutter Tor, from which Whitten- 
knowles Rocks are not far distant. 

[EXTENSION TO Dean Combe, add 3^ m. With route to Eyles- 
barrow. From the Thrushel Combe stone rows pass up to the blowing- 
house near the head of the little valley, and then strike N. by W. (For 
Eylesbarrow, m. distant, the course is N.E.) About \ m. from the 
blowing-house the head of Dean Combe is reached. The Dean Combe 
Brook, or Narrator Brook as it is also called, comes down through a 
gorge E. of Combeshead Tor (Exs. 2, 39). At the bend of the stream 
where it changes its course from S. to W T . is an excavated chamber. 
It is a little way from the I,, bank, and is approached through a dyke, 
or trench. The doorway is only about 3 feet in height, and from this 
a low tunnel leads to the chamber. The latter is about 9 feet by 8 feet, 
and nearly 10 feet high. It was first described by Mr. Robert Burnard, 
in the Transactions of the Plymouth Institution. On the other side of 
the stream, and nearer the farmhouse is another, called by the farmer 
the Potato Cave from the use to which it has been put. The other is 
generally regarded as having been a place of concealment for a still, 
as also is a third near by. That they were formed and used by the 
tinners there is little doubt. A ramble down Dean Combe (see also 
Ex. 39) will take the visitor through one of the most charming valleys 
on the moor. [Gems, Chap. XX.] On passing Combeshead Farm 
the Cuckoo Rock high above the N. side of the valley will be seen. 
Midway down is Dennicombe Ford, where is a small single stone clapper. 
The farm of Dean Combe is seen near by. From here the road runs 
on to Middleworth before reaching which a fine grove of trees is passed. 
Above this, R., is Snappers Tor. Below Middleworth, just before the 
Newleycombe L,ake is reached, turn L. to Narrator Farm, and on 
gaining the common turn L- and pass along the side of Yellowmead 



32 YELVERTON AND DOUSLAND DISTRICT. 

Down, with Sheeps Tor R. and the enclosures above Rough Tor Planta- 
tion L., the course being S.E. by E. (Not far from this are some rocks- 
known as Rough Tor, and nearer the Plym others called Click Tor. 
See end of Ex. 40). Half-a-mile on the enclosures of Yellowmead Farm 
will be reached. Keep them R. and change the course to S.E. Three 
quarters of a mile further on the road formed on the line of the Abbots' 
Way will be reached. Cross this, and make for Gutter Tor, which 
rises close by it.] 

Leaving Thrushel Combe we shall make our way back to Whitten- 
knowles Rocks, and thence to Gutter Tor, W., keeping Gutter Tor 
Mire, in which the Sheeps Tor Brook rises, L. This tor is placed at 
the north-eastern .corner of Ringmoor Down, and viewed from some 
parts presents a bold outline. Prom here our course will be W. by S. 
over Ringmoor Down to Ringmoor Cot, a little over i m. distant. 
An early form of the name of this down is Rydemoor. The old 
tradition of buried treasure which is related of so many places is attached 
to Ringmoor Down. It used to be said that if this could be discovered 
" all England might plough with a golden share." We have not the 
least doubt of it. 

From Ringmoor Cot we shall descend Lynch Down to Marchants 
Cross, and soon after turn L- to Meavy and Yelverton. Dousland 
visitors will keep straight up the hill. 

Ex. 39. Burrator Lake, Sheeps Tor, Nosworthy Bridge [EXTENSION 
To Dean Combe, add 3^- m.], Lether Tor, Peak Hill, Dousland, 10 m. ; 
m. further by Burrator. From and to Dousland, 8 m. ; about the 
same by Burrator. 

In making our way to Sheeps Tor we may either go by Marchants 
Cross and Ringmoor Cot, as in the preceding excursion, or by Dousland 
and the Burrator dam. At the cot there is a guide-post : Cadaford 
Bridge, 2 m. ; Shaugh, 3^ m. ; Meavy, i m. ; Roborough, 6 m. ; 
Sheepstor, m. ; Burrator, i m. The L. branch at the forks will take 
us by Portland Lane to the village. From Dousland the visitor will 
make his way to Yennadon and there branch L. into the road running 
along the side of the hill with Burrator Gorge R. On the hill above, L., 
^re the Yennadon Crags, formerly known locally as Cleg Tor. The road 
is carried over the dam to Sheepstor village. On approaching the dam 
the view of the lake, and the hills grouped round it, is particularly fine. 
This sheet of water, which the Mew, the Hart Tor Brook, the Newley- 
combe Lake, and the Narrator, or Dean Combe Brook, contribute to 
form, is 116 acres in extent, and was opened in September, 1898, by 
the Mayor of Plymouth, Mr. J. T. Bond, as a storage reservoir in 
connection with the town water supply. The head weir of the old 
leat, which was cut by Sir Francis Drake (not, it is at present said, for 
the purpose of conveying water to Plymouth, but to supply power to 
some mills that he owned), is now below the surface of the lake. The 
old building on the point of land that juts out from the southern shore 
is Longstone, the ancient seat of the Elfords. 

Sheepstor is a small moorland village, and takes its name from the 
granite mass that rises from the hill above it, but this, as an early form 
of the name proves, has nothing to do with sheep. The dedication of 
the church is unknown, but there is some reason for supposing it to 



EXCURSION 39. SHEEPS TOR. 33 

have been dedicated to St. Leonard [Crosses, Chap. VII.] Over the 
door of the south porch is a curious carving with the initials J.E., and 
the date 1640. This is all probability refers to John Elford, who was 
the lord of Longstone in the first half of the seventeenth century. He 
was the husband of four wives, to one of whom there is a monument 
in the church. Another, Mary Gale, who was his third wife, is com- 
memorated by a slab in the church of Widecombe-in-the-Moor. In 
the churchyard is the tomb of Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak, 
who formerly resided at Burrator. It is of red Aberdeen granite. 
Here also may be seen an ancient cross, which was removed from a field 
overlooking the Burrator Gorge [Crosses, Chap. VII.] Near the 
church is the old bull ring, a feature that few of our moor villages can 
now show. In August, 1908, the iron ring to which the bulls were 
tethered was found a foot below the surface in the Vicarage field. 
We have elsewhere referred to the ancient privileges pertaining to the 
manor of Sheepstor (see Beacon in Terms Section). Professor Newton, 
F.R.S., has stated that the sparrow is never seen in Sheepstor. I am 
prepared to state that neither is the pixy seen there, and further that 
even his former home is disappearing. 

This we shall see, or what is left of it, on reaching the common by 
the lane running eastward from the church. If we look straight up 
the stony hillside towards the tor we shall perceive a dark cleft 
close to the ground, and making our way up to it shall find our- 
selves at the threshold of the Pixies' Cave. A few years ago this little 
chamber was capable of holding several persons, but latterly the rocks 
have moved forward, and it is now much smaller than it was. 
It is not advisable to endeavour to enter it. Tradition says that one 
of the Elfords found refuge here during the Civil War, but there is 
nothing to support the story further than that about a century ago 
some paintings were to be seen on the rocky walls of the cave, which 
it is said were the work of the concealed man. Several pixy stories 
also attach to it, but the evidence in favour of these is even slighter 
than that respecting the fugitive. At the east end of the tor the rocks 
rise perpendicularly, and here, on the summit, is what is known as the 
Feather Bed. There is a fine view from all parts of this hill ; on the 
west the beholder looks down upon the Burrator Lake. Sheeps Tor 
is one of the largest of the Dartmoor tors. On leaving this lofty 
height we shall descend the northern side of the hill to Narrator Farm, 
and passing through the yard shall make our way with the lake L. to 
the Narrator Brook, which we cross and speedily reach the Newley- 
combe Lake close to Nosworthy Bridge. 

(To reach Thrushel Combe from Sheeps Tor strike eastward from 
the rocks to the Yellowmead enclosures. Keep these R. From the 
northern corner of them the combe is ij m. distant south-eastward). 

[EXTENSION TO Dean Combe, add 3^ m. From the clapper over 
the Newleycombe Lake the road runs up the valley to Middleworth. 
(It is into this that the rambler comes from Narrator, and, if he intends 
visiting the combe, he will then turn R. instead of L. to Newleycombe). 
Before reaching Middleworth Snappers Tor is seen on the side of the 
hill L. Beyond the farm and the grove of beach trees is a little com- 
mon. Here the view is good. Looking down the valley a bit of the 
Burrator Lake is seen, and a part of Yennadon and Peak Hill, while 

06 



34 



YELVERTON AND DOUSLAND DISTRICT. 



Lether Tor shows to great advantage [Gems, Chap. XX.] Near Dean. 
Combe Farm turn down R. and cross the stream. Just beyond this 
there is a fine view of the valley. The Cuckoo Rock is seen on the hill 
L. Combeshead Farm is \ m. further up. The return may be made 
by way of Combeshead Tor (Ex. 38) and Down Tor. Follow up the 
stream towards the former, which rises I,. Thence strike N. to the 
stone row (Ex. 2, Part I), and from that W. to Down Tor. A little W. 
of this is a stroll leading down to Middleworth, whence the road is 
followed to Nosworthy Bridge.] 

Nosworthy Bridge is a small structure of one arch spanning the 
Mew immediately above the confluence of that stream and the Newley- 
combe Lake (Ex. 2). We take the road running up over the common 
westward, and on reaching Lower Cross Gate near Vinneylake Farm, L-, 
shall notice the object which gives it its name. This is an old cross 
built into the wall. Passing up to Cross Gate we find ourselves on the 
road between Lowery Cross and the common above Kingsett, with the 
pile of Lether Tor above us. (Here turn L. for Yennadon Cross and 
Dousland). To climb to the summit of Lether Tor, 1,250 feet, will 
well reward the rambler. Not only is the tor itself worth visiting, 
but the view from it is particularly good. Should he do this he 
will then turn north-westward to Sharp Tor, where he looks down 
upon that part of Walkhampton Common between Peak Hill and 
Prince town. The enclosures of Stanlake are below. The western 
wall of the northernmost of these, near Black Tor, is built on. 
a stone row. The latter is, however, very distinct in places. (Ex. i, 
Part I.) From Sharp Tor we make our way N.W. to the road, which 
we strike near the stone rows by the pond, described in Ex. i. Here 
we turn L. and descend Peak Hill, and passing Yennadon Cross shall 
soon reach Dousland. 

S. Hisworthy 

Hart Tor. Cramber 

Tor. Tor. 




Sharp Tor. 



FROM SUMMIT OF PEAK HILL. LOOKING N.E. 

(Lether Tor and Sharp Tor are readily^reachedHrom Peak Hill. 
On entering upon the common above Peak Hill Plantation (Ex. 40) 



EXCURSION 40. VALLEY OF THE WALKHAM. 



35 



strike up over it R., or due E., to L,owery Tor. 
1,311 feet, is a little to the N. of this). 



The summit of the hill, 



Hen Gutter Shell Pen 
Tor. Tor. Top, Beacon. 



Trowlesworthy 
Tors. 




Sheeps Tor. Sheeps Tor 

Village. 
FROM THE SUMMIT OF PEAK 



Ex. 40. Peak Hill, Ward Bridge, Sampford Spiney, Plaster Down, 
Huckworthy Bridge, Walkhampton, 10^ m. From and to Dousland, 
8m. 

The beautiful valley of the Walkham is described in Exs. i, 7 
(Parts I, II). From Yelverton and Dousland it is reached by way of 
Walkhampton, whence the road leading to Huckworthy Bridge is 
followed for a short distance, the first turning R. being taken (see 
R. 68). This lane will bring us to the cross roads near Whithill Farm, 
and Ward Bridge, if m. To this point we shall now sketch the route 
by way of the moor, which, however, is longer. 

The road from Yelverton to Dousland runs past the Rock Hotel, 
about m. beyond which it branches R. (the !,. branch goes to 
Walkhampton). Dousland is f m. further on. From here the road 
to the moor runs up the hill N.E. (At Yennadon Cross above Dousland 



Brent Barn 
Tor. Hill. 



Cox 
Tor. 



Staple 
Tors. 




Vixen Tor Inga Tor King Tor. 

FROM POND ON PEAK HILL. LOOKING N. 



36 YELVERTON AND DOUSLAND DISTRICT. 

Plantation a road branches R., and a little way on it forks : I/, to 
Lowery, R. to Sheepstor). We keep straight up the hill, with Blind- 
well Plantation R., and pass under the railway. Just beyond is Peak 
Hill Plantation, and here we reach the common. (For Peak Hill R. 
see Ex. 39). Following the road for about m., with Horn Hill L,., 
we reach the pond named in the preceding excursion, and to which the 
rambler was brought from Princetown in our first. The route sketched 

N. Hisworthy Tor. 
Leedon Tor. 




N.E. 



FROM POND ON PEAK HILL. 



in the latter (Ex. i, Part I) we shall now follow, making our way down 
I,, to the railway and past Routrendle to the cross-roads near Withill. 

[The Walkham valley cannot better be seen than by following the 
road northward to Merivale Bridge, passing Okel, or Hucken Tor, on 
the way as described in Ex. i. From Merivale the rambler should 
strike over the common towards Vixen Tor, and keeping it L. cross the 
little valley through which the Beckamoor Combe Water runs, and 
follow the track to Sampford Spiney, T. 13. From Merivale Bridge 
the road runs up to the Rundle Stone as described in Exs. i , 6, where it 
is noticed. But reference to it here appears to be necessary in con- 
sequence of some statements made in a paper that appeared in the 
Transactions of the Devon Association, 1908. The writer of that paper 
found a disused gate-post, and supposed it to be the Rundle Stone. 
I well remember the stone.] 

From the cross roads we shall descend to Ward Bridge, and thence 
make our way to Sampford Spiney as described in R. 7. From this 
delightful little place the visitor may return to Huckworthy Bridge 
by the road direct (turning R. soon after he leaves it and keeping the 
valley I/.) ; or, he may extend his ramble by proceeding along the road 
running north-westward from the lower side of the green. This will 
bring him to the down under Pu Tor (Ex. 7), along the side of which 
he will keep with the hedge L., and so reach Plaster Down. Here he 
will turn L. and crossing the first road he comes to (R. 13) will make 
his way over the side of the common for nearly f m. Now he is 
near the road R. where it runs past Fullamoor Corner, and goes S. 
down the hill to Horrabridge, i m. distant. Close by is the Grim- 
stone leat, which is taken from the Walkham, under Mis Tor. Turn I,. 



EXCURSION 40. HUCKWORTHY BRIDGE. 37 

down into the valley, and passing Brook climb the hill to the cross-road. 
A short distance to the I,, is the old cross on the verge of Huckworthy 
Common, to which we have already referred, R. 13. [Crosses, Chap. 
VIII.] It stands on a small mound and marks the point where the 
road to Sampford Spiney, N.E., diverged from the old Tavistock 
track (T. 69). 

Passing down the side of the common with the hedge close R. we 
soon regain the road, and very speedily reach Huckworthy Bridge, 
where a charming scene is presented. Prom here the road to Walk- 
hampton is followed. At the time of the Domesday Survey the duty 
of providing accommodation for the king and his suite for one night 
whenever he came this way attached to this manor. The Dousland 
visitor will pass up by the smithy L., and the rambler from Yelverton 
make his way by the road running southward to Roborough Down. 



In Ex. 38 mention is made of Click Tor, which in the first edition 
of this Guide I inadvertantly referred to as a pile, and this has been the 
cause of some misconception. The so-called tor consists of a few 
scattered stones only ; it is situated not far from Yellowmead Farm. 
But notwithstanding the name the absence of a tor need occasion no 
surprise. Several similar examples occur on the moor, notably Clay 
Tor, on the Walkham (Ex. 8) ; Rook Tor, below Pen Beacon (S. Ex. 
121 ); Pick Tor, on the Tavy ; Zeal Tor, on Brent Moor; Knattleborough. 
and Huntingdon, and several others. 

Some stepping-stones that were formerly to be seen on the Mew 
are now beneath the surface of the Burrator Lake, which is noticed in 
Ex. 39. In a Saxon document naming some bounds in this locality 
these are referred to as the Cleaca. It is not unlikely that the term 
clapper, which we find applied to the rude granite bridges on Dartmoor, 
is derived from this word, although stepping-stones are now never 
called by any name of similar sound. They are invariably referred 
to as steps. 

The cross in the churchyard at Sheepstor (Ex. 39) was set up in 
1911. Whether it formerly belonged there we cannot, of course, be 
quite sure, though there is some evidence that such was the case. It 
is at all events .hardly probable that the field overlooking the Burrator 
Gorge was its original site. 

A moor-gate somewhere near where Peak Hill Plantation now is 
(Ex. 40), seems to have borne the name of WestPykeYeat yeat being 
equivalent to gate, a term constantly met with in documents relating 
to the forest courts. (See Deer Leap, Gates, and Leapyeat in the Terms 
Section). Another that formerly existed here bore the name of North 
Dickenton Yeat, and in the immediate locality we have Horseyeat 
Farm, a name which shows us that near its site a gate once stood, 
probably on the Packhorse Road running from Walkhampton to the 
common (T. 4). A moor-gate in Meavy parish receives early mention 
as Hart Yeat. We have elsewhere spoken of the importance of the 
names of the moor-gates being preserved, even though the gates them- 
selves in many instances have disappeared. In certain branches of 
inquiry they often throw a light on what would otherwise be obscure. 



38 ROUTES TO CHAGFORD, BOVEY, Etc. 



Routes from Yelverton and Dousland. 

To PRINCETOWN, N.E. by E. By road via Dousland and Peak 
Hill. See Princetown District, Part I. 

To TA VISTOCK, N.W. By road via Bedford Bridge and 
Grenofen Hill, or through Horr abridge and Whitchurch. Prom 
Dousland Horrabridge may be reached by way of Walkhampton and 
Knowle Down, or R. 68 may be followed. 

To LYDFORD, N. By road through Horrabridge and over 
Plaster Down to Warren's Cross. From Dousland Warren's Cross is 
reached by R. 68. Thence R. 69. 

To OKEHAMPTON, N. by E. To Warren's Cross as for Lydford. 
Thence R. 69 to the Dartmoor Inn ; thence R. 9. R. 9 describes the 
road from Wringworthy Hill onward more fully. 

To CHAGFORD, N.E. by E. To Princetown as above. Thence 
R. 4- 

To BOVEY TRACEY, E.N.E. Yennadon Cross ; R. to Lowery 
Cross ; take the L. branch and follow the road by Lowery Stent and 
Cross Gate to Lether Tor Bridge, and thence to the common. Follow 
the track to Siward's Cross, with Newleycombe Lake R. (T. 2). 
From Siward's Cross to White Works, and down the Swincombe to 
Swincombe Ford. Thence as in R. 5. Or, to Princetown and then 
as in R. 5, Part I. 

To ASHBURTON, E. by N. To White Works as above. From 
there as in R. 6c to Home Moor Gate, and thence as in R. 6s, Part I. 

To BRENT, E.S.E. Road to Cadaford Bridge, ante ; L. branch to 
White Hill Corner, 2 m. From there as in R. 7 5 . For I V YBR IDGE, 
S.E., branch off at Cornwood, as in R. 76. 

To PLYMPTON, S. by E., and SHAUGH, S.S.E. By road via 
Cadaford Bridge. On crossing take the R. branch. First turning R. 
for Shaugh ; straight on for Plympton. R. 8, Part I. 



CRANMERE. Routes to Cranmere Pool from Princetown and 
Two Bridges are given in Part I., and from Tavistock in Part II. A 
notice of the Pool will be found in Part III. 



40 MOORLAND TRACKS. 



PACKHORSE TRACKS AND OTHER 
OLD PATHS. 

MOST of the roads on the moor are formed on the line, or nearly 
so, of old packhorse tracks. Several of the latter yet remain 
in those parts where no roads have been made, though not 
quite in the state they once were, vegetation having so encroached 
upon them that in places they are entirely obliterated. [100 Years, 
Chap. II.] Others have been formed by the peat cutter, but are now 
little used by him, the quantity of peat brought in from the forest 
at the present time being comparatively small. But the moormen and 
the hunter find them of service, and so will the rambler, for in places 
where they are well defined they are not only excellent guides, but 
will often enable him to pass with ease over rough or miry ground. 
The principal ones are here enumerated, and are numbered for con- 
venience of reference. When the reader becomes acquainted with 
them he will see that Dartmoor is not quite the trackless waste that it 
has sometimes been represented. The paths are named in the order 
in which they would be met with in going round the moor, starting on 
its west side and proceeding northward. They commence with the 
Abbots' Way as being a track of considerable interest. This, and 
others of more than ordinary importance, are marked with an asterisk. 

In the north part of the moor there are only three tracks of histori- 
cal interest the Lich Path, Cut Lane, and the King Way or four, 
if we include the Bideford Path (T. 44). But in the south part 
the case is different. There, on the borders were four important 
religious houses, and we consequently find several tracks leading from 
one to the other of these, all of them being marked by stone crosses, 
which, it is pleasing to add, have, after lying on the ground neglected 
for a long period, been re-erected during recent years. 

Some of these tracks are referred to in the routes. It must not be 
imagined that they can always be easily followed. Those who for- 
merly used them did not concern themselves about keeping to any 
particular line on ground that was easily passed over, and consequently 
traces of a path are sometimes lost for a considerable distance. But 
if their general direction is known they can usually be picked up again 
at a ford, or on boggy ground. 

Much more could have been said about these old paths, but 
sufficient is here given to enable the visitor to utilise them as aids to 
his rambles over the moor. Only a very few had received mention 
before the appearance of this Guide, and with the exception of those 
noticed by me elsewhere (Crosses, TOO Years) none had been described. 
They were discovered and traced by me during a period extending 
over many years from 1 866 onward. There are others that could have 
been named, but it seemed hardly necessary for the present purpose 
to do so. There are paths, for instance, on the downs of Heytree, 
Cripdon, Hangher, Greenwell, Wigford, Roborough, and Pernworthy, 
and in other parts, but they are of little service to the rambler v 
and in only two or three instances have they any historic interest. 



MOORLAND TRACKS. 1. 41 

i. * The Abbots' Way. This path formed a means of communi- 
cation between Buckfast Abbey, on the south-eastern side of the moor, 
and Buckland Abbey, on its western side ; a branch of it also led to 
Tavistock Abbey. It enters the moor at a spot known as Cross Furzes, 
which is about three miles from Buckfast, and at the head of the 
valley of Dean Burn. Whether the track running up over Lambs 
Down is a part of it cannot be determined, but less than half-a-mile 
beyond the boundary wall of that down it is plainly discoverable. 
This is at a ford where it crosses the Brock Hill stream, a feeder of the 
Avon. On the further side of it the path passes through an ancient hut 
enclosure, the wall of which has been broken down in two places to 
admit of this. It then runs down the side of Hickaton Hill to the 
Avon, being here a good track, except for a few boggy places where the 
drainage of the hill has been caught. It reaches the Avon at its 
confluence with the Wellabrook, both of which streams it crosses. It 
is next seen a short distance up the valley, where is a ford over a little 
affluent of the Avon, and from this point becomes a plainly marked 
path for a considerable distance. In the name of this crossing-place- 
Buckland Ford there is no doubt we see an allusion to the monastic 
house to which the track leads. From the ford the path climbs the hill 
by the side of a gully known as Pipers' Beam, soon after being crossed 
by the old Zeal Tor tramroad at the Crossways. It then passes down 
between Brown Heath and Red Lake Mires to a ford over the Red. 
Lake, and here it is lost. But it is seen again at Hux Lake, close to the 
Erme, and a little further on it crosses the Black Lane Brook. It then- 
passes through a part of the mire at Erme Head, and ascends the hill 
to Broad Rock, where the branch to Tavistock diverges. From- 
Broad Rock the Buckland path descends to the Plym, between which, 
two points it is still well defined. Crossing the stream at Plym Steps 
it goes on towards the northern end of Ringmoor Down, but this por- 
tion of it now partakes of the character of a moor road, having been used 
in comparatively recent times in connection with Eylesbarrow Mine.. 
From the down it descends to Marchants' Cross, where it leaves the 
moor. The Tavistock branch of the Abbots' Way was probably 
little used by travellers proceeding direct from Buckfast to that town, 
as it would have been more to their advantage to follow the Buckland 
track from Broad Rock to Ringmoor Down, and cross the Mew. either 
at the ford near Marchants Cross, or at some other point higher up the 
stream. It is more likely that the branch was used as a link between , 
Broad Rock and the Ashburton track and another near the Rundle 
Stone (post). It cannot be traced with certainty, but apparently- 
crossed the Plym near its source and passed over the hill to Si ward's- 
Cross, whence it ran to Merivale, either by way of the Rundle Stone, 
or by Black Tor Ford and the present Foggintor Quarries. There 
is evidence tending to show that the former was the route. At Meri- 
vale it crossed the Walkham a short distance below the present bridge, . 
at a ford, the approaches to which can still be seen. Passing to the 
north of Vixen Tor it crossed the little stream flowing through Becca- 
moor Combe, and over the hill on which the Windy Post now stands, 
and so to Moortown and the present Quarry Lane. From the Western 
end of this the way lay over Whitchurch Down, which it left by the 
steep bridle path leading down towards the Tavy, where it now enters . 
Tavistock at Vigo Bridge. Between Merivale and Tavistock the- 



42 MOORLAND TRACKS. 2. 

'track is well defined, but this is owing in great measure to this part of 
it having been used long after the monks had ceased to pass over it. 
For several miles it served as the old road from Tavistock to Ashburton, 
and the guide-stones showing its direction, and bearing the letters 
T and A, are still to be seen on Long Ash Hill, which rises from the 
eastern bank of the Walkham at Merivale. Although the Abbots' 
Way passes through a lonely part of Dartmoor it does not enter far 
within the forest. It touches the boundary line at the Wellabrook, 
and runs very close to it as far as Broad Rock, while the Tavistock 
branch almost follows the line to the Rundle Stone. There are several 
ancient crosses on this interesting track, and these I have elsewhere 
described. [Crosses, Chap. IX. ; this chapter deals entirely with the 
Abbots' Way.] On the moor this old way is usually called Jobbers' 
Path, or, as the moormen have it, Joblers' Path. This name is in all 
probability derived from being used in former days by the yarn jobber. 
"Both Buckfast and Buckland were Cistercian houses, an order that 
traded extensively, and we may therefore well suppose that consider- 
able quantities of wool were once carried over this ancient pack-horse 
road of the monks. Buckland Abbey was founded in 1280 ; Buckfast 
and Tavistock, q. v., were in existence much earlier. 

On the Ordnance map a road leading from Plym Ford to Nuns' 
Cross is marked as the Abbots' Way, but I am not of opinion that the 
old track followed that course. The map also shows a track running 
from Ball Gate to Bala Brook (T. 61) as Jobbers' Path, which is wrong ; 
it merely leads towards that path. 

2. *Track from Buckland to the Eastern side of the Moor. This 
track enters the moor at Lowery, about a mile and a half from Dous- 
land, and, like the Abbots' Way, was a monks' path. This is shown 
both by its direction and by the number of old crosses that mark it. 
Indeed, it was the discovery of some of the latter that revealed its 
existence to me. [Crosses, Chap. X.] But besides being used by the 
monks, that part of it extending eastward from Lowery afterwards 
served the farm settlers in the valleys of the Upper Mew and its tribu- 
taries, who had found their way there at least as early as the sixteenth 
century. Reference is made by the jury who surveyed the bounds of 
the forest in 1609 to " certayne howses " that the " auncestors " of 
Gamaliel Slanning had caused to be erected on Walkhampton Common, 
and that they used the path as a means of communication between their 
holdings and the in-country is certain. In recent times the tinners 
at the White Works used not only that part of it, but went further, so 
that at the present day it is seen as an ordinary moor road running 
from Lowery to Older Bridge, where the miners left it and followed 
their own track. From Lowery the road skirts the present Burrator 
Lake, marked at one point in old-time by a cross (Ex. 39), 
afterwards crossing the Mew at Lether Tor Bridge. Thence it runs 
below Roundy Hill, and along the slope of Newleycombe Bottom 
to Older Bridge, where it crosses the Devonport leat. The old 
path went to Siward's Cross, where it entered the forest, and ran down 
the Swincombe valley, here marked by another cross (Ex. 3), to the 
foot of the hill on which Fox Tor is situated. Crossing the Fox Tor 
stream, near which is a track known as Sandy Way, noticed further 
on (T. 56) it passed up the slope, somewhere near the present boundary 
of Fox Tor Farm, to Ter Hill, where two crosses mark its course. From 



MOORLAND TRACKS. 3-6. 43 

the hill it went to the higher bend of the Wo Brook, and over Down 
Ridge, where it is also marked by two crosses, to Horse Ford. On 
the further side of this it branched, one path running to Holne, but 
the main one turning down the valley. The former is marked on the 
hill above the stream by the remains of a cross, known as Horn's Cross, 
from which point it went direct to Workman's Ford, on the Wennaford 
Brook, and thence to the Moor Gate. For some distance all traces of 
the path down the valley are lost, but it reappears immediately below 
Saddle Bridge, on the right bank of the Wo Brook, and crosses the West 
Dart at Week Ford. It can then be seen running between the enclosures 
towards the modern chapel of St. Raphael at Huccaby, whence it 
passed over the side of the hill to Dartmeet, where a clapper, the 
remains of which are still to be seen, spanned the river. From that 
point the present road has probably been formed upon it. [Crosses 
Chap. X.] 

3. Track from Kingsett to Princetown. Close to the path just 
noticed (T. 2), and half a mile eastward of L,ether Tor Bridge, is King- 
sett Farm, from which a cart track leads to Princetown. It is probably 
not older than that place. It passes over the Devonport leat at Crazy 
Well Bridge, not far from the pool of that name. It then runs near 
Cramber Tor to the Hart Tor Brook, where there is a ford, and leaving 
the tor on the left, passes up the slope to Princetown. The traffic over 
the path being practically nil, it is only defined in a few places. 

4. Farm Tracks on Walkhampton Common. There are several 
paths on that part of Walkhampton Common lying to the west of the 
Dousland and Princetown road, but none of any importance. One 
path comes up from Walkhampton to the present highway, its junction 
with it being marked by a stone known as Goad's Stone ; this is not 
far from the highest point on the road where it climbs the shoulder of 
Peak Hill. Near Walkhampton Vicarage this is a paved track, and is 
there known as the Packhorse Road. Other tracks lead from the 
moor gate near Eggworthy to Crip Tor and Routrendle Farms, and 
to the same places from the Princetown road. There is also a track 
from the Foggin Tor Quarries to Yes Tor Green. A road leads to 
these quarries, passing the Red Cottages and Yellowmead. It 
branches from the Princetown and Tavistock road half-a-mile W. of 
Rundle Stone. 

5. Frenchmen's Road. This path leads from the Plymouth 
highway, just where it enters Princetown, to the foot of the hill crowned 
-with North Hisworthy Tor. It is interesting as having been made by 
the prisoners of war confined there in the early part of the nineteenth 
century. A green path branching from it leads towards the quarries. 

6. * Ivybridge Lane, and Track to Siward's Cross. A track, very 
nearly straight, leads from Princetown to Siward's Cross. It is really 
a portion of the Tavistock branch of the Abbots' Way, supposing that 
old path went by way of the Rundle Stone, of which, as already has 
been mentioned, there is some evidence. \Crosses, Chap. II.] It 
leaves Princetown by the side of the Railway Inn, and runs for a short 
distance between enclosures. This part of it now bears the name of 
Ivybridge Lane, in consequence of its having been customary in the 
early days of the convict prison, when there was only one railway in 
this part of the country, to take discharged prisoners along this route, 
on foot, and entrain them at Ivybridge. On entering upon the com- 



44 MOORLAND TRACKS. 7-9. 

mon the track runs for a considerable distance by the wall of an en- 
closure on the left, past South Hisworthy, or, as it is called in the 
locality, Lookout Tor. The stones seen on the right mark the boundary 
line of the forest from South to North Hisworthy. On leaving the 
tor the ancient way runs on this line to Siward's Cross. Some way 
beyond the tor the wall is carried in another direction, and no longer 
acts as guide, but the path being well denned, and perfectly straight, 
cannot be missed. A little further on the forest boundary is marked 
by a reave, or bank of turf, and at Siward's Cross this will also be seen 
running up the hill to Eylesbarrow. It was probably thrown up as a 
tin bound. Half a mile before the cross is reached the path is crossed 
by the road running from Older Bridge (T. 2) to Peat Cot and the 
White Works. Two tracks pass over the hill southward of Siward's 
Cross. One, which runs parallel to the reave a little to the left of it 
goes to Eylesbarrow mine, whence it is continued to the Abbots' 
Way where it comes up from Plym Steps (T. i ) ; and the other, a 
peat track, runs left from the cross, but turns abruptly to the right 
on the top of the hill and descends to the Plym, whence it also goes 
to Eylesbarrow mine. 

7. Castle Road. This leads from Princetown to Peat Cot and the 
White Works, and is now a parish road. The approach to Tor Royal 
leaves the highway not far from the Duchy Hotel. Near Tor Gate it 
bends L., and descends the hill to the lodge. Here the Peat Cot road 
turns R., and passing the house, continues southward. 

8. Princetown to Hexworthy. The way runs by Castle Road to 
the entrance to Tor Royal (T. 7) ; thence to a small farm called Bull 
Park, where it enters Tor Royal Newtake, the highest part of which, 
now bears the name of Royal Hill. The path runs nearly due east 
from Bull Park, and at the distance of a little more than half a mile 
close to a kistvaen called The Crock of Gold. The track is here a 
well-defined green path, and may be followed without any difficulty. 
Rather over a quarter of a mile from the kist it passes the springs of 
the Cholake, a little feeder of the West Dart, and about half a mile 
further on reaches a gate in a newtake wall. The path does not enter 
this, but runs on with the enclosures L., and passes in front of Swin- 
combe Farmhouse to the stream of that name. (If the gate is entered 
a course roughly parallel to the wall on the R. must be followed to 
another gate near the house (T. 10), whence a narrow lane leads to 
the river). Here there is a ford and stepping-stones, and also a 
mordern footbridge erected some years ago for the convenience of men 
working at Hexworthy mine. From the stream the road, which is 
well defined, runs upwards to Gobbet Plain, below which the little 
settlement of Hexworthy is situated. 

Q. From Princetown to Moorlands. This path leaves the Two 
Bridges road just before it passes New London, and runs first to 
Bachelor's Hall, and by this way also the track to Hexworthy just 
described (T. 8), may be reached. Form Bachelor's Hall the path 
runs due east with the Blackabrook to the left. Crossing Lanson 
Brook, and passing the small pile of rocks which seems to have formerly 
borne the name of Colden Tor, it reaches the Cholake, from which 
Moorlands is less than half a mile distant. 



MOORLAND TRACKS. 10-13. 45 

10. From Prince Hall Lodge to Swincombe and Hexworthy. About 
a mile from Two Bridges, on the Ashburton road, is the approach to 
Prince Hall. This road is continued beyond the house to a bridge 
over the West Dart, placed amidst most charming surroundings. It 
then climbs the hill to Moorlands, which lies a little to the right, but 
the track to Swincombe goes straight on and speedily enters on the 
common. From this point to the gate at Swincombe, previously 
mentioned (T. 8), the distance is exactly a mile, and the direction of 
the track about S.E. It is very rough, but though not at all suitable 
for wheels, I have driven over it often. The route from Swincombe to 
Hexworthy has already been noticed (T. 8). There is a footpath to 
Prince Hall from Roundhill Farm, which is not far from the Ockery, 
"below Princetown. The West Dart is crossed by stepping-stones just 
above its confluence with the Blackabrook. 

Opposite to Prince Hall Lodge is Muddy Lakes Newtake. A 
short distance W. of the lodge a track runs across this enclosure to the 
Moreton road N. of Two Bridges. 

1 1 . From Two Bridges up the West Dart Valley. An old track 
runs northward from the road behind the hotel, but during recent 
years it has been contended that it is merely an approach to Crockern 
Tor Farm. Wistman's Wood is reached by way of it. [See Ex. 5.] 

12. Path by the Blackabrook to Cudlipp Town. This track seems 
to have been used principally for the conveyance of peat to Prince- 
town on the one hand, and to Cudlipp Town and Wapsworthy on the 
other. It leaves the Two Bridges road about 300 yards E. of Rundle 
Stone Corner, and runs northward through the prison ground for one 
mile. It then enters on the open moor, but crosses the Blackabrook 
just before doing so. [If the rambler desires to follow this path and 
cannot pass through the prison enclosures, he may reach it by making 
his way to Mount View, less than \ mile N.W. of Rundle Stone, and 
ascending the hill towards Mis Tor, with the wall on his R. (Exs. 5, 6). 
At the corner he will turn eastward and crossing the prison leat and 
the Blackabrook, will find the path on the left bank of the latter]. The 
track then runs northward for - mile to the source of the stream, which 
is L. in ascending. It then turns to the N.W., and passing the leat 
at a ford, runs down to the Walkham to Shallow Ford, just below. 
(Ex. 6). Thence it runs to Dead Lake Head, and across the northern 
part of Langstone Moor towards White Tor. (R. 2A). The branch to 
Cudlipp Town passes to the S. of the tor, crossing the track from Peter 
Tavy to Walkham Head, but is not here plainly defined. But due W. 
of the tor it is to be seen passing between the walls of two newtakes, 
just beyond which it turns into a stroll to a moor gate, from which a 
road runs direct to the hamlet. The W T apsworthy branch, which is 
also ill-defined, crosses the Peter Tavy track like the former, but runs 
X.W., leaving the tor L., and having the walls of some enclosures R. 
Keeping near to the latter it descends to a moor gate from which 
Wapsworthy is about % mile distant. 

13. From Sampford Spiney to Merivale. From the village this 
path runs to the bottom of the enclosure belonging to Pu Tor Cottage, 
and is carried along the hill above the beautiful valley of the Walk- 
ham, and close to the enclosures. After passing Heckwood Tor, a 
small pile which it touches, there is a steep descent, and the lower end 
of Beckamoor Coombe is crossed. It climbs the further side, and 



46 MOORLAND TRACKS. 14-16. 

passing the well-known Vixen Tor, joins the highway near the settle- 
ment to which it leads, dose to the fourth milestone from Tavistock. 

14. Merivale to Peter Tavy. That there has always been a path 
over the moor between these two points is certain, but its present 
well-defined state is owing to its having been used during recent years 
by the workmen at the granite quarries at Merivale and Walkhampton 
Common. The track leaves the highway just above Tor Quarry, and 
passes over the hill between Great and Mid Staple Tors, but nearer to 
the former than the latter. On the further side it descends into the 
hollow formed by the ridge on which the Staple Tors are situated and 
Cocks Tor Hill, and this part of it is roughly paved. This was done by 
workmen, who added a stone each time they passed that way, to ensure 
their being able to follow it through the darkness. In the hollow 
there is but little scattered granite, so the work could not there be 
continued. But another plan for marking the path was devised. The 
men made a practice of carrying with them pieces of broken crockery, 
and strewing them by the side of the way. These can be readily seen 
even in the darkest night, as I can testify from experience, and there is 
consequently no fear of the wayfarer straying from the path. The 
fragments of ware mark it from the hollow to the enclosures north of 
Cocks Tor Hill. There it crosses to Great Combe Tor and descends 
the southern side of Peter Tavy Combe, to the little stream flowing 
through it, over which there is a wooden footbridge, whence a good 
path leads to the village. On the common above Great Combe Tor 
this track crosses another leading to Godsworthy. (T. 15). For an. 
alternate route see T. 15. 

15. Moortown to the high road by Dennithorne ; thence to Higher 
Godsworthy and Wedlake. This track branches from the Abbots' Way 
between Moortown and the Windy Post, and runs northward, with the 
enclosures on the L. to the Princetown road. This it crosses, and 
still runs northward, with the farm lands L,. and Cocks' Tor Hill R. 
About J mile from the road a branch runs L,. to a moor gate, above 
Harragrove farmhouse, whence a lane leads to Peter Tavy village.. 
Half a mile further on there is another branch L. ; this leads to Higher 
Godsworthy, a farm on the Peter Tavy Brook. At this point the 
track bears E., afterwards turning N.E., and runs up close by the 
Wedlake enclosures, which are L., towards Langstone Moor. Between, 
the high road and Godsworthy this track is a well-kept road. 

The lane to Harragrove forms an alternative route to R. 14. On 
leaving Merivale the Tavistock road is followed for one mile, when a 
little rivulet a short distance W. of Beckamoor Combe will be reached. 
Here a track runs off R. to the Godsworthy road. 

16. *Peat Track from Peter Tavy to Walkham Head. Very near 
to the church at Peter Tavy is a short piece of road leading to a moor 
gate, which opens on to Smeardon Down. The road goes on past 
Godsworthy to the common, but about half a mile from the gate 
a rough track branches from it and ascends the hill on the left. This 
runs out to the source of the Walkham, a distance of about five miles, 
and although not used as a peat track nearly so much as formerly, 
is yet of considerable service. It communicates with the old Lich 
Path (T. 1 8), and by means of it those parts of the forest round the 
head waters of the Cowsic and West Dart are easily reached. Shortly 
after branching from the Godsworthy road the track passes near 



MOORLAND TRACKS. 17. 18. 

Boulters Tor, the easternmost of several {rites that crest the ridge. 
Not far from this the track leaves the down, and passes between the 
walls of some enclosures to the open common. This part of it is called 
Twyste Lane, after the farm of that name on the left, and which is one 
of the ancient Tills. About half a mile further on, and close to the 
track on the right, is a low mound, marking the burial place of a suicide, 
and known as Stephens' Grave. The path then runs about E.N.E. 
with White Tor, or Whittor. as it is always called, rising on the left, 
and at the distance of another mile is marked by a tall menhir. This, 
which was re-erected a few years ago, seems to have given name to 
the common to the eastward, and which is probably Langstone, and 
not Lanson, Moor, as it is always called in the neighbourhood. Soon 
after leaving the stone the track rims by the side of the enclosures 
extending np the hill from Wapsworthy, and near the corner of 
Longbetor Newtake bends a little to the right towards the forest 
boundary at White Barrow. Here it is no longer a grassy track, but a 
rather deep cutting, and this portion of it is certainly cue with the Li ch 
Path (T. 1 8). Passing into the forest it descends towards the Walkham 
between Stooky Moor on the north and Cocks Hill on the south. The 
Uch Path goes straight on. and crosses the river at a ford, but the 
peat track runs a short distance up the valley to the left, and crosses 
the stream at a bridge. This is one of a kind not often seen on Dart- 
moor, being of wood, and is always referred to in the locality as Timber 
Bridge. From this point the track runs along the slope to the east of 
the Walkham for about a mfle terminating very near to its head in 
the midst of the peat beds. 

Close to Timber Bridge the track forks, the R. branch passing up 
into Spriddle Combe. It crosses the Spriddle, and runs for a short 
distance np the side of Maiden Hill, E. This name is probably a 
corruption of the Gaelic mtaton. a path ; Latin mealus. 

17. Paths from, Cudlipp Town. From the foot of Broad Moor 
two paths lead upward, the one on the right going to Twyste and the 
end of Smeardon Down ; that on the left leading up through the 
enclosures to a moor gate opening on to Cudlipp Town Down, under 

e Tor (T. 12). One branch of the latter then turns right between 
the enclosures and an outlying newtake, and joins the Walkham Head 
track between Twyste Lane and Stephens' Grave ; the other branch 
runs over the down to the west of White Tor. then bends round to the 
north of it, and reaches the same track not far from the menhir. Near 
this menhir the track runs E. to the Walkham, Blackabrook Head, and 
Bundle Stone. (T. 12. R. 20). 

38. *The Lick Path. This ancient track, which we have several 
times mentioned, is of more than ordinary interest. It led from the 
early farm settlements on the east side of the forest to the village of 
Lydford, and although portions of it are now obliterated, it can still be 
traced for a considerable distance, and is of much service as affording a 
means of passing easily from the upper West Dart valley to the valleys 
of the Cowsic and Walkham, Over this path the dead were formerly 
carried from the settled parts of the .forest to Lydford for burial 
The name of the Lich Path, indeed, indicates its use ; it was really 
a church way. There is another path from the forest farms to Lydford, 
known in one part of its course as Cut Lane (T. 751), and which would 
have served more particularly the settlements in the neighbourhood 



48 MOORLAND TRACKS. 18. 

of the present Post Bridge, on the East Dart, while the holders of the 
ancient tenements lying in the valley of the West Dart would use the 
Lich Path. [100 Years, Chap. II.] These paths are referred to, though 
not by name, hi a document of thirteenth century date, included in 
the Exeter Episcopal Registers. By this instrument Bishop Walter 
Bronescombe, in 1260, granted permission to the inhabitants of the 
villages of Balbeny and Pushyll to attend Widecombe Church instead 
of their parish church of Lydford, for the reason that they were so far 
distant from the latter. The " villages " in question were the ancient 
tenements on the Walla Brook, now known as Babeny and Pizwell, 
and are situated just within the forest boundary. In the document 
Lydford Church is stated to be eight miles further from the places 
named than Widecombe Church ; that is, if the weather was fair ; 
when it was stormy the journey made a difference of fifteen miles. 
" Et quod loca predicta a matrice ecclesia de Lideford sereno tempore per 
octo, et tempestatibus exortis in circuitu per quindecim, distant miliaria." 
When the moor was in a suitable condition, and the streams not in 
flood, the forest settlers journeyed to Lydford over the green paths 
that led them there direct ; when the state of the weather rendered 
these routes difficult to follow a more circuitous one was chosen. The 
Lich Path cannot be identified with absolute certainty in the neigh- 
bourhood of the forest farms, though there is little doubt that the 
track that now leads from Higher Cherry Brook Bridge, near the 
powder mills, to the clapper at Bellaford, is a part of it. Even if the 
path went to the clapper at Post Bridge, it must have gone to the one 
at Bellaford also, for the latter was very much nearer than the former, 
not only to Babeny, but also to the forest farms of Riddon and Dury, 
and a little nearer to Pizwell as well. That a branch of the Lich Path 
did, however, go to Post Bridge we may be sure. We cannot, of course, 
suppose any other than that a track led there from the crossing-place 
over the Cherry Brook, but this was not the branch to which I allude. 
There is a track running from the East Dart to a part of the moor 
known as Rowtor, and which is very plainly defined near the source of 
the Cherry Brook. This, which was once extensively used by peat 
cutters, I have heard called the Lich Path, and though it is rather 
further north than we should suppose that old way to have gone, there 
is yet good reason for believing that it really is such. It will be noticed 
when I have sketched the probable route of the branch from Bellaford 
to the point on the Cowsic where it is yet a clearly defined track. From, 
the modern bridge over the East Dart, close to the Bellaford clapper, 
the road ascends between enclosures to the farm of the same name, 
and shortly afterwards enters on the common called Lakehead Hill. 
Here it becomes a narrow track, and runs down the hill by the side of 
the wall of Bellaford Newtake to the Princetown highway, where the 
latter crosses the Cherry Brook. From this point for a distance of 
about two miles and a half it cannot be traced, but a crossing-place 
on the West Dart in the line it would take in running to the ford on 
the Cowsic, and some evidence afforded by the names of the tors in 
the locality, enable us to be pretty sure of its course. These tors are 
the Littaford Tors, on the ridge eastward of the West Dart ; Longa- 
ford Tor, on the same ridge, but further to the north ; and Lydford 
Tor, on the ridge between the West Dart and the Cowsic. The final 
syllable of these names is probably the^Celtic ffordd, a way, a passage, 



MOORLAND TRACKS. 18. 49 

or highway ; it cannot be the English ford, a crossing-place over a 
stream, since the tors are all on elevated land, and at some distance 
from a river. The line we should suppose the Lich Path to have taken 
passes between the first two and close to the third, and we shall prob- 
ably not be far wrong in believing such to be the correct route, par- 
ticularly as the crossing-place on the West Dart adds a link to the chain. 
Less than half a mile from Lydford Tor* the Lich Path is seen running 
down to a ford on the Cowsic, sometimes called Travellers' Pord, and 
from this point westward for about two miles is a clearly defined track. 
West of the stream is Conies Down, over which the Lich Path takes a 
W.N.W. course, and it was somewhere about here that the track I 
have referred to as passing over Rowtor joined it. 

[This latter is a continuation of another, known as Drift Lane, 
noticed further on (T. 78). It leaves the Dart less than half a mile 
above Post Bridge, and runs up the hill to Rowtor Gate, its direction 
being about W.N.W. Passing over Rowtor, as the piece of moor south 
of Broad Down is usually called by the moormen, it runs near the head 
of Cherry Brook, as already named, and for a short distance is really 
a good hard road. It then descends to the West Dart, which it crosses 
at a point a mile or more above that at which we may suppose the 
track just traced to have passed over it. Running over the ridge to 
the Cowsic it reached Conies Down, and may possibly have passed to 
the north of the tor of that name. The supposition is not only 
warranted by its direction as it approaches the Dart, but the situation 
of Bear Down Man also appears to favour it. The name of this rude 
obelisk, which is undoubtedly a corruption of the Celitc maen, stone, 
points to its being a genuine menhir of antiquity, but while such may 
be the case there is no reason why it should not have been chosen for 
a guide to a path. The Longstone, near White Tor, and the menhir 
at Merivale, were so adapted, as we have seen, and there are other 
instances of a similar kind on the moor. The route appears to be 
rather far to the north having regard to the point at which the path 
crosses the Walkham, but it must not be forgotten that such a line 
would touch the rivers near their sources where they are so small as 
not to be rendered impassable by floods, and this was a matter that 
had to be studied. When the Dart could not be forded under Longa- 
ford Tor, it could be crossed a short distance below its springs, so that 
an alternative route became necessary.] 

From Conies Down the Lich Path runs to the Walkham ; a great 
sea of fen to the north of it, and a lesser tract to the south. It is carried 
over the prison leat immediately before reaching the river, which it 
crosses at Sandy Ford. (T. 16). Passing up the side of the ridge 
towards White Barrow it is joined, as already mentioned (T. 16) by the 
track from Walkham Head to Peter Tavy. The latter we have traced, 

* It may be that Lydford Tor is called after the parish in which 
the forest is situated, and if such is the case the evidence referred to 
could not perhaps be adduced from the second syllable of the name. 
But other evidence would be afforded that the old track passed very 
near to it, for if it were named after the parish, one of the best reasons 
we can imagine for this particular tor being selected is that it was on 
the road to Lydford church. But I am not of opinion that the name 
borne by the tor has any reference to the parish or the church. 

sfi 



50 MOORLAND TRACKS. 19. 

Taut the course of the Lich Path from near White Barrow is not clearly 
denned. That it went towards Bagga Tor is certain, but there is no 
track between those two points that we can safely identify with the old 
way, though it is possible that we may see it in the path running by 
the wall of Longbetor Newtake. The reason is not far to seek. The 
Peter Tavy track was until comparatively recent years, and, indeed, 
is to some extent to-day, used for the conveyance of peat (T. 16), 
while over this part of the Lich Path the traffic would be very trifling. 
But there can be no doubt, I think, that we see it again in the old 
piece of road, now nothing more than a gully, running from the moor 
gate at Bagga Tor to Brouzen Tor Farm, whence it may be followed 
to the Bagga Tor Brook, which is here crossed by a clapper, probably 
built as a means of communication between the farms in the locality. 
The track then went to the Tavy, where there is a ford, with approaches, 
below Willsworthy Parm. At such times as the river was flooded 
those who journeyed over this old churchway no doubt went direct 
from White Barrow to Hill Bridge, where was formerly a clapper. 
From Willsworthy the Lich Path cannot be traced, though it is met 
with again at Porstall Cross (T. 21, 25), a mile to the N.W. Midway 
between Willsworthy and the point just named is Yellowmead Farm, 
and tradition comes forward with some evidence to show that the 
ancient path passed by it. It is related in the locality that an avenue 
of trees once extended from Yellowmead to Watervale, on the Lydford 
side of Black Down, and as throughout half this distance the Lich 
Path is still traceable, there is little doubt that the avenue has reference 
to it. [100 Years, Chap. II.] It may, therefore, be safely assumed 
that the track went from the ford below Willsworthy to the present 
Yellowmead Farm, and thence to Forstall Cross. There is a footpath 
from Willsworthy Pound (Ex. 10) to this point, which very probably 
runs on the line of the old track. From the cross this interesting 
path may be followed towards the enclosures extending eastward from 
Watervale. It leaves the common at a gate opening on Down Lane, 
which is 'undoubtedly a part of it, and reaches the high road near 
BeardonlFarm, within a short distance of Lydford village. (See 
Lydford District, Ex. 10, Part II). 

19. *lBlaek Lane, N. The letter N is placed after the name of 
this track in order to distinguish it from another of the same name in 
the south quarter of the forest. Over this old road very large quan- 
tities of peat were formerly conveyed on the backs of packhorses, 
as I have learnt from old men who at one time worked at the 
turf-ties to which it leads. These are situated at a spot called Brook's 
Head, the stream to which the name has reference being the Outer, 
of Easter, Red Lake, a tributary of the Tavy. The ties cover a con- 
siderable area, and the, 'peat is of great depth, but very little has been 
cut there during recent years. The track enters the moor at Bagga 
Tor Gate, above Wapsworthy, and for a short distance ran on the line 
of the old Lich Path. Passing Tthrough the stroll outside the gate it 
is carried along by the wall of the enclosures of Bagga Tor Farm, at 
the end of which it bends to the left, or northward, having on one side, 
across the narrow valley, the great rounded hill of Standon, and on the 
other the ridge from which Lynch Tor rises. Soon after passing the 
latter a branch runs up over the ridge, R., and descends to the deserted 
Walkham Head peat works, and to some ties further to the N. 



MOORLAND TRACKS. 20, 21. 51 

It also sweeps round to the S. of Lynch Tor. But this branch was 
made long before those works were started. It was used in the days 
of the Wheal Betsy mine, situated on Black Down, at which much 
peat was consumed, and this was cut at Walkham Head. Up to about 
this point Black Lane is still a good track, but where it runs up the hill 
beyond it is now impassable. The rains have worn it into a deep gully 
and during a wet season it more resembles a water-course than a track. 
On its edge, however, there is a narrow path, formed by the moormen, 
so that it is still of much use. When it reaches the level ground 
at the top of the hill and turns to the right, it becomes a good 
liard road, and may be ridden over nearly to its termination, 
which is about three quarters of a mile further on. This part of it 
was known to the peat- cutters by the name of Belston, in reference to 
the village of Belstone on the other side of the moor, which they 
playfully said they must reach if they carried their track much 
further. 

The rambler who wishes to reach Fur Tor or Cranmere from the 
Mary Tavy side of the moor, will find Black Lane of great service. 
It will bring him within one mile of the tor, and the intervening ground 
is such as can always be traversed with ease. This route is noticed in 
the Tavistock District in the section on Cranmere, Part II. 

20. Track from Lane End. About three miles and a half from 
Tavistock, on the Okehampton highway, is the hamlet of Lane Head, 
consisting of a roadside hotel and a few cottages. Here a road leads 
down to the village of Mary Tavy, and passing through a part of it, 
turns off near the schoolhouse and runs by way of Horndon, Zoar 
Down, and Willsworthy, to the moor gate at Lane End. The distance 
from Lane Head to this point is rather over three miles and a half. 
As the parish road terminates at the moor gate, the name borne by the 
spot, and by the farm close by, is not inappropriate, but there is 
nevertheless a continuation of the way, though it now becomes merely 
a grassy track. A short track leads east to Nat Tor Farm, but that 
we are about to notice runs up the hill towards Ger Tor, crossing the 
Wheal Friendship leat about midway up the ascent. The track leaves 
Ger Tor to the right, and runs over a plain piece of common towards 
Hare Tor, having the enclosures of Redford Farm on the west and 
Tavy Cleave on the east. Near Hare Tor the track is particularly 
well defined. Passing below that pile it descends the hill and crosses 
Dead Lake at Dead Lake Ford, shortly afterwards reaching the 
Rattle Brook where it enters the forest. A large mound marks the 
spot where it climbs the bank on the E. side of that stream. This 
track soon grows very faint, but it is possible to trace it half way across 
Watern Oke. 

21. * The Dartmoor Path. Although there are several tracks on 
Black Down, and all of them still of service, only two or three are of 
real importance. Chief among these is the Dartmoor Path, so called 
because it runs out to the forest. It leads from Brent Tor to the 
Rattle Brook, its length being about six miles, and for the greater part 
of that distance is well defined. It enters the commons at the moor 
gate close to Brent Tor railway station, and runs up by the side of the 
school house. At the corner of the enclosure just beyond, another 
track runs by the side of the edge in the direction of Lydford, but the 
Dartmoor Path crosses this, and also another a short distance further 



52 MOORLAND TRACKS. 22. 

up, and climbs the hill towards Gibbet. About a quarter of a mile 
from the summit of this eminence the path turns abruptly to the left 
and thence runs over fairly level ground to the Tavistock and Oke- 
hampton high road. Just before it reaches this it is joined by the 
Burn Lane Path, which comes up from Ironcage Gate, and also by the 
Henscott Path from the moor gate near Lydford railway station. 
A track also branches from it in the opposite direction and runs to 
Horndon Down Bridge, where it joins another which we shall shortly 
notice. Crossing the high road between the fifth and sixth milestone 
from Tavistock (nearer the latter than the former) the Dartmoor 
Path, still pointing about N.E. by E. goes on to Black Hill, over which 
it passes quite near to the despoiled cairn crowning its highest point. 
This is known as the Ring o' Bells, but nothing now remains of it 
beyond a low bank enclosing a circular space about 19 yards in 
diameter. The path now descends the north-eastern slope of Black 
Down to Forstall Cross (T. 18, 25) from which point it runs for some 
distance by the enclosures of Redford Farm, with White Hill rising on 
on the left. On this part of the down a military camp is formed 
during the early summer. Leaving the wall where it sweeps round 
towards the east, the path runs up the hill towards Hare Tor, but is 
not here very clearly defined, and passing over the ridge to the north 
of that pile, descends to the Rattle Brook, which stream throughout 
its course acts as part of the forest boundary. On its bank is the de- 
serted Rattle Brook Mine, and it was by the workmen who were there 
employed that this track was chiefly used. Now it is of service in other 
ways, particularly that part of it extending from Brent Tor to Redford. 
The Rattle Brook is only about two miles from Great Kneeset, and 
the ground between the two is good. Kneeset is less than a mile from 
Cranmere, so that this path forms an excellent route to the pool from the 
neighbourhood of Lydford railway station and Brent Tor. From the 
N. side of Hare Tor to the Rattle Brook, which it reaches near where 
the Green Tor Water falls into that stream, and just beyond which it 
terminates, it is a plainly marked track. [See Tavistock and Lydford 
Districts, and the Cranmere section.] 

From the Redford enclosures there was a branch of this path that 
ran to the S. of Hare Tor, where parts of it are now to be seen, and 
joined T. 20, which crosses the Rattle Brook half a mile below T. 2 1 . 

22. Paths on Black Down. Among other paths on Black Down 
may be named the Brent Tor Track, which runs from Iron Gate to the 
moor gate near Brent Tor station ; another from Iron Gate to Iron- 
cage Gate, leading to Burn Lane ; the Higher Spring Path, leading 
into the two former from near the Ashburys (the name of some fields 
by the road just above the village of Black Down), and passing Higher 
Spring ; another from Moorside to Burn Lane passing over the southern 
shoulder of Gibbet ; a track running from the Ashburys to the summit 
of Gibbet, and communicating with the Dartmoor Path (T. 21); the 
Lydford Path, which next to the Dartmoor Path is the most important 
on this part of Black Down, and is therefore noticed separately ; the 
Burn Lane Path and the Henscott Path, already mentioned as joining 
the Dartmoor Path (T. 21) ; Warren's Path, and a track running along 
the edge of the down from Brent Tor station to Lydford station. 

On that part of Black Down eastward of the high road there are 
other tracks. One has already been referred to as branching from the 



MOORLAND TRACKS. 23-25. 53 

Dartmoor Path, where it approaches the road, to another at Horndon 
Down Bridge (T. 21). This crosses the road to the northward of 
Barrett's Bridge, and pursuing a course a little south of east, passes at 
the head of a gully known as Goosey Creep, and joins the other track 
alluded to a short distance before the latter reaches Horndon Down 
Bridge. This other track runs from Zoar to Watervale, and is noticed 
further on. A path runs from near the Ashburys by way of Wheal 
Betsy Bridge to Kingsett Down, and by Allaclauns Corner to Zoar 
Down, and another from Kingsett Gate communicates with it. Be- 
sides these there is a track from Will to Down Lane, the greater part 
of which is on the line of the old Lich Path (T. 18) ; and is described 
hereafter (T. 25) ; and one from the gate at Down Lane, eastward by 
~the long plantation above Bear Walls, to the northern end of the 
Redford enclosures, and from which other short tracks branch. 

23. The Lydford Path. This path leads from the settlement of 
Black Down to Lydford railway station. It leaves the highway soon 
after the latter enters on the common, the point being marked by four 
granite posts. These are placed on the right of the way as a pro- 
tection to a culvert, and about a hundred yards further on, but on the 
opposite side, the track commences. It runs up the slope, leaving 
Gibbet on the left, and when the highest part of the down over which 
it passes is reached, the Lydford stations and the Manor Hotel are in 
full view in the valley below. From this point the track, hitherto 
rather rough, assumes the character of a green path. A little further 
on it is crossed by the Dartmoor Path (18), and lower down by its 
branch that comes up from Ironcage Gate. At the bottom of the 
ascent it is joined by the Henscott branch of the Dartmoor Path, and 
is identical with it to its termination at the moor gate. This opens on 
the road close to the dwellings of the South Western Railway Company's 
employees. 

24. Zoar to Watervale. From the hamlet of Zoar a rough track 
runs over the rock-strewn Zoar Down, and passing between enclosures 
emerges on Horndon Down. It pursues a northerly course for about 
half a mile to Horndon Down Bridge, which is a clapper thrown over 
the Wheal Friendship Mine leat. A little beyond this it is joined by 
lhe track already referred to as branching from the Dartmoor Path 
(T. 21), and crossing the highway at Barrett's Bridge. Further on it 
passes near the Ring o' Bells, and descending the north western slope 
of Black Hill reaches the high road a short distance from the point 
where the latter enters the enclosed country at Watervale. 

25. Will to Down Lane. We have already referred to the road 
crossing the Tavy at Hill Bridge as being probably used by those 
journeying over the Lich Path (T. 18) when the river could not be 
forded, and it now becomes necessary to notice the track from the 
bridge to Forstall Cross, as it is still in use. As the country near the 
bridge is now enclosed we cannot be certain what line it followed, but 
it could not have been very far from that taken by the existing lane, 
even if that be not formed upon it. This passes Hill Town Farm, and 
shortly after turning to the left, runs up by Will Farm to Yard Gate, 
being crossed between these two latter points by the road from Lane 
Head to Lane End (T. 20). At Yard Gate the path is seen as a genuine 
moor track. It first runs through an enclosure, and is then carried 
along the side of Snap and Yellowmead Hill, south-eastward of Black 



54 MOORLAND TRACKS. 26. 

Hill. Below is Yellowmead Farm, and soon after passing this it crosses. 
the Wheal Friendship Mine leat, and reaches Forstall Cross. From 
this point onward to Down Lane it has already been noticed (T. 18). 

26. *The King Way. The old road from Tavistock to Okehamp- 
ton, which was in use previous to 1817, did not run from the former 
place through the vale of Parkwood as at present, but was carried over 
the high ground to the west of it, and left the town by the steep hill 
now bearing the name of Exeter Street. It crossed the Walla Brook a 
short distance below Indiscombe, thence running on by Wilminstone, to 
which place it may still be followed. Beyond this it crossed the Burn 
near Wringworthy Farmhouse, and ascending the hill, from this 
point onward to the I/yd followed practically the same line as that 
taken by the existing highway. But a track belonging to a time 
much earlier than that of this old road also ran this way, and that the 
latter was formed upon it, at least as far as the Lyd, or a little beyond^ 
is more than probable. Further, however, the old road did not follow 
it, but was carried along the verge of the moor instead of across a part 
of it as the track was. This is known in the locality, that is to .say,, 
from Mary Tavy to Sourton, as the King Way, and though much of it 
is now obliterated, I have been able by careful examination to trace 
it from the village of Black Down to Higher Bowden, near Meldon, a 
distance of between eight and nine miles. There are now no remains 
of it in the village named, nor, with the exception of a few faint traces 
at its northern end, can it be seen on Black Down itself, but the line it 
took can nevertheless be determined. Former inhabitants used to 
speak of it as running quite near to the site of the present Black Down 
Wesleyan Chapel, while on the down it has often been come upon by 
those engaged in repairing the road when they have had occasion to 
remove surface turf near by. It ran parallel to it, and not many yards 
from its western side. But the King Way is to be plainly seen in a 
field near Watervale, running down towards the Sounscombe Brook. 
It is much overgrown, and several feet below the level of the field 
(100 Years, Chap. II.) At the seventh milestone from Tavistock, near 
Beardon, it is again to be seen, as also is the old bridge where it crossed 
the L,yd, and which is a little further down stream than the present Skit 
Bridge. Thence it seems to have passed up the hill and taken the same 
line as the present highway as far as Downtown, or it may have followed 
the short lane leading to the moor gate opening on High Down. But 
however this may have been, it is seen again at Nodden Gate in the 
north east corner of Vale Down, and from this point forward, although 
it is obliterated in places, there is no difficulty in tracing it to the 
enclosed country at Higher Bowden. Just inside Noddon Gate it 
crosses the Rattle Brook Head peat railway by a bridge, and running 
parallel to another rough track for about a mile, converges with it 
soon after passing the smooth, round hill of Noddon. It then runs 
close to the peat railway, which at one place cuts into and follows 
its line for a short distance. On leaving the railway it passes through 
the dip formed by the Sourton Tors on one side and Corn Ridge on. 
the other, and reaching Iron Gates, which is a bond mark between 
the Sourton and Okehanipton Commons, runs down the hill to the 
lane leading to Higher Bowden and Meldon. This track is crossed by 
others from Southerly and Sourton, hereafter noticed. (The King 
Way extended to the Tamar). 



MOORLAND TRACKS. 27-31. 55 

27. Tracks over High Down. Two short tracks run over High 
Down, as well as another that extends to the forest (T. 28), and they 
are of use to the rambler as they will lead him to places where he can 
cross the Lyd. One enters the down at the gate at the end of the lane 
which crosses the high road N. of Skit Bridge, and runs E. to Doe Tor 
Gate Ford, close to the confluence of the Lyd and the Walla Brook. 
From the stream it passes up over a part of Doe Tor Common to Doe 
Tor Farm. The other track crosses the down from the gate near the 
Dartmoor Inn, running nearly E. to Mary Emma Ford and some step- 
ping-stones. This ford is about J mile above the one just mentioned, 
and between them there is a clam so that the river can be crossed here 
when it is flooded. 

28. From High Down to Amicombe. This is a peat track, and 
also runs from the gate near the Dartmoor Inn. Immediately on 
entering upon the down it bears L., or N.E., to High Down Ford on 
the Lyd, at which point a branch goes southward to Doe Tor Farm. 
From the ford it runs up the hill between Arms Tor, L., and Bra Tor, 
R., to Dick's Well at the head of the Doe Tor Brook, where is a boundary 
stone marking the limits between the common lands of Bridestowe and 
Sourton on the N., and those of Lydford on the S. Just beyond Dick's 
Well there is a branch, R., to the disused Rattle Brook mine. The 
track then runs along the slope under the Dunnagoat Tors to the 
Rattle Brook, its course here being N., and crossing that stream at a 
ford, reaches Amicombe Hill within the forest. 

29. From Vale Down to Arms Tor Down. This short track leaves 
Vale Down at Noddon Gate, and running R. down the hill, reaches 
Noddon Ford on the Lyd, where also are some stepping-stones. It is 
then carried up the hillside N. of Arms Tor. 

30. * Track from Southerly to Kitty Tor. From the hamlet of 
Southerly, on the Okehampton road, a track runs in an easterly 
direction, and crossing the railway emerges on the common, where it 
is joined by a short path coming up from Combe Farm. It passes up 
over Southerly Down, and crosses the King Way near the point where 
that old road is cut into by the peat railway. The latter is carried over 
it, and the track then runs to the head of the Lyd valley, again cross- 
ing the peat railway, and also the stream, by a rude bridge a short 
distance from its source. It then runs by Gren Tor and ascending 
Woodcock Hill passes also by Hunt Tor, and reaches Rattle Brook 
Head. It then bends a little to the N., afterwards turning southward 
to Kitty Tor, just beyond which it terminates, having attained an 
elevation of about 1,920 feet. A track from the hamlet of Lake runs 
into this one on Southerly Down, and tracks also join it before it 
reaches Lyd Head from Sourton and Prewley Moor. (T 31,32). This 
track, which is really a peat track, will be found of considerable use to 
the rambler who wishes to reach the Cranmere district from the neigh- 
bourhood of Sourton. From its termination to Great Kneeset the 
distance is about 2 m. S.E. Thence C.R. 5, Part II. 

31. Track from Lake. On the Okehampton road, i miles from 
the Fox and Hounds, is the hamlet of Lake. Here a green path leads 
from under the viaduct up the hill with Withycombe Bottom, L. 
The traces of it are faint near the top, but it leads to the King Way 
(T. 26), which is one mile from the viaduct. 



56 MOORLAND TRACKS. 32-34. 

32. * Tracks from Sourton and Prewley Moor to Kitty Tor. 
Between Lake and Sourton a road branches R. from the road at 
Higher Collaven, and passing over the railway (L.S.W.) runs between 
enclosures to the common. Here it bends N., but a little in advance, 
due E., another will be found which runs on to the King Way (T. 26} half 
a mile distant, which it reaches in the dip between the Sourton Tors and 
Corn Ridge. Another track leaves the road a little nearer to Sourton, 
and passing under the railway, joins the former on the verge of the 
down. A third track leaves Sourton near the church, and taking a 
course to the northward of the Sourton Tors, also reaches the King 
Way. A fourth leaves the high road on Prewley Moor, and passing 
under the railway, runs up the hill to Iron Gates, where it, too, meets 
the King Way. From about the centre of the dip referred to a track 
leaves this ancient path, and passing up over the southern shoulder of 
Corn Ridge reaches the head of the Lyd (T. 30) and goes on to the 
peat beds. 

From the track running up from the road at Collaven another is 
carried along the side of the hill under the Sourton Tors, and between 
them and the village. This, which runs to a quarry, close to the 
enclosures at Vellake, crosses the tracks from Sourton Church and from. 
Prewley Moor. 

33. Tracks by the West Ockment in Meldon Gorge. These paths 
may be useful to the rambler. Just above the hamlet of Meldon, a 
lane runs from that leading up to Higher Bowden in a south-easterly 
direction to the down, where a path descends its steep side to the 
Ockment. Along the left bank of the stream a track leads down to 
the old quarry near the Meldon viaduct, and from here returns to the 
hamlet. At the spot where the river is first reached there are stepping- 
stones, known as Higher Bowden Steps, so that it may here be crossed. 
If it is desired to pass up the valley the descent to the stream should 
not be made. Along the side of the down is an old disused watercourse, 
and this forms a capital path to Vellake Corner, where the Ockment 
makes a bend. When the little Vellake is nearly reached a narrow 
zigzag path will be seen leading down to it. 

On the right bank of the Ockment is also a track. This may be 
followed from Okehampton along the hill forming the northern side of 
the park, to the Meldon viaduct. Passing under this it crosses the 
Redaven, and about half-a-mile further up makes an abrupt turn to 
the left and climbs Longstone Hill. (Higher Bowden Steps are R.) 
When on high ground it turns to the right, and runs to the head of the 
combe in which the Fishcombe Water rises. Another track, part of 
which is now a camp road, leads upwards from near the Meldon viaduct, 
but in a different direction. It passes through the enclosures east- 
ward, and then turning S. crosses Black Down to a ford on the Redaven, 
a little over half-a-mile below Yes Tor. A branch from a track now 
to be described also reaches this ford. 

34. * From Okehampton to Dinger Plain. (Ex. 15). This is a 
very important track, and in the early days of the forest farm settlers 
was probably used, in conjunction with two others, Cut Lane (T. 79) 
and Drift Lane (T. 78), as the chief means of communication between 
that part of the moor in which their homesteads were situated and 
the town of Okehampton. It is very plainly marked, having been in 
constant use as a peat track. The three tracks still form the only 



MOORLAND TRACKS. 35, 36. 57 

direct route for horses between the locality named and the town, and 
are used by the moorman and the hunter. The Dinger Path is again 
noticed in our account of Cut Lane (T. 79). From the corner of the 
enclosures near Fitz's Well on the brow of the hill above Okehampton 
Station, the track runs southward across the park to Moor Gate, where 
it enters on the common.* Here the little Moor Brook comes down 
from the dip between Row Tor and West Mil Tor, and the track is 
carried very near to its L. bank to its source. About half a mile from 
the gate another path branches from it R. ; this is the one already 
alluded to (T. 33) as running to the ford on the Redaven below Yes 
Tor. A camp road also crosses this part of it. Passing up between 
Row Tor and West Mil Tor, where on the level is a branch over the 
moor brook, L., it continues due S. to near Dinger Tor. This part of 
the track can be plainly seen in certain states of the weather from 
Cranmere, which is only two miles distant. Beyond Dinger Tor it 
cannot be traced with certainty, but it probably went to Sandy Ford, 
on the West Ockment, |- mile off, in a direction W. by S. A more 
direct way from this point for the pedestrian would be to go by Lints 
Tor, leaving it a little to the R., to Kneeset Foot, about one mile S.S.W. 
{See remarks on continuation of Cut Lane, T. 79.] 

35. * Okehampton to Ockment Hill. This track branches from 
the former (T. 34) at Moor Gate. It runs S. by the enclosures of 
Pudhanger, and for the first half mile is now a well kept road, being 
used by the artillery. Near Row Tor, which is R., the track proper 
leaves the road, which bends L. The old path runs S., with Row Tor 
Combe, through which the Blackaven flows, I/., and reaches that 
stream below East Mil Tor. It here crosses it by the clapper known as 
New Bridge, on the other side of which a short track turns L. The 
path still runs southward, with the Blackaven R., and climbs the 
southern shoulder of East Mil Tor. One mile from the bridge it reaches 
& ruined wall, running E. and W. (Ex. 16), beyond which it continues 
for f- mile further to the highest point of Ockment Hill. On the Mil 
Tor side of the wall the track is well worn, but outside this it becomes 
a green path. It terminates about ij miles northward of Cranmere, 
and is noticed in the routes to the pool. 

Branches from this track formerly led over the side of Halstock 
Down to Crovenor Steps, on the East Ockment, and to Stone Ford, 
-on the Blackaven. These are now camp roads. 

36. Path from Okehampton Park to Halstock and Belstone. On 
the verge of the park above the station, just before Fitz's Well is 
reached, a path turns to the left through a gate. This leads down to 
the Moor Brook, which it crosses a little above where that stream enters 
Halstock Cleave, and runs on to Halstock Farm. Beyond this it is 
continued to the common, but a path branches from it to the left and 
passes over a field known as Chapel Lands, in which are one or two 
mounds marking the site of the ancient St. Michael's Chapel. On the 
further side of the field the path enters Halstock Wood, and descends 
through it to the East Ockment, which it crosses at a ford where also 
are stepping-stones. Here it ascends the hill to the left, and at some 

* Many of the tracks in this locality have been put in order by 
the War Office, and are used as roads in connection with the artillery 
practice on Okehampton Common. 



58 MOORLAND TRACKS. 37-40. 

distance up strikes another path running from the moor gate near 
Cleave Tor to the track leading from Belstone to Crovenor Steps 
(T. 37). From the moor gate referred to a lane leads by the entrance 
to the old vicarage to the village of Belstone. 

There seems to have been a path running from Okehampton Park 
to Halstock Down ; between Halstock Farm and Pudhanger is a gully, 
known as Symons' Ditch, which certainly has the appearance of an 
old road. 

37. From Belstone to Crovenor Steps. This track passes over the 
side of Watchet Hill, which is quite near to the village, and then runs 
down in a south-westerly direction to the East Ockment, leaving Skir 
Tor on the right as it approaches the stream. Soon after passing 
Watchet Hill it is joined by the path coming along the side of the hill 
from the moor gate near Cleave Tor (T. 36). From Crovenor Steps 
another road runs up the hill towards the south-east, and joins the 
Knock Mine track described below. (T. 38). 

38. From Belstone to Knock Mine. There is no historical interest 
attaching to this track, nor does it serve the purpose like some others 
of conducting the rambler over a part of the moor otherwise not easily 
traversed, since the ridge along which it runs is of solid ground covered 
for the most part with short turf, but it is nevertheless of considerable 
use to the stranger as a guide to the Upper Taw. For about half a mile 
it is one with the last-named track, but leaves it just before reaching 
a small circle called the Nine Stones, and keeping higher up, on the 
side of the ridge crowned with the Belstone Tors, runs to the top of it 
at Winter Tor. Passing close to Ock Tor a mile further south, it is 
carried above the narrow defile through which the Taw comes down, 
at the foot of the western flank of Steeperton. At the head of this, 
where the valley opens, is descends to the stream, L., here crossed by 
a clapper, now partly ruined. The remains of mining operations are 
abundant. The head waters of the East Ockment are only half a 
mile to the west, and one would be inclined to imagine, from the 
proximity of that stream, and of Ock Tor, that Ock rather than Knock 
was the true name of this mine on the Taw. But Knock it is with the 
natives, or sometimes Knack, and Ock appears to have nothing to do 
with it. Whether this was derived from Cnoc, a Celtic term for a hill 
(for around the more recent workings there are those of an earlier time), 
or whether the name has reference to a former disused mine on the spot, 
I am not able to say. When a mine is abandoned the miners describe 
it as being " knacked," and we can very well suppose that at some 
period prior to the last time it was worked, it would be referred to as 
the knacked mine. 

39. Birchy Lake to Taw Plain. A rough track runs from Birchy 
Lake, which is close to Belstone, by the side of the Taw, and at the 
eastern foot of the Belstone Tor range. It goes out to a ford on the 
river, and though on the further side of this it is not so plainly defined, 
it may be followed across the plain to Small Brook, where it meets 
another (T. 40) coming out from Ford on the high road south-east of 
Sticklepath. 

40. Ford to Small Brook. About midway between the village 
of Sticklepath and Ramsleigh Mine, and a little removed from the 
road, is Ford Farm, R., situated on a tributary of the Taw, known as 
the Ford Brook, and sometimes as the Cosdon Brook. The lane by 



MOORLAND TRACKS. 41, 42. 59 

which the farm is approached, after passing the house, runs up by the 
bank of the stream, which here comes down through a steep and narrow 
gully. A short distance up the path turns L-, and a little way on, in 
the midst of some small enclosures, is joined by another coming up the 
hill L. from Prospect Place. This one goes southward, and is the track 
to Steeperton, next described (T. 41). The Small Brook path turns 
R., and runs up the hill W. to meet the Ford Brook again. Here a 
path branches S., towards the summit of Cosdon. The track is carried 
by the side of the brook to the W. shoulder of the hill, and nearly mile 
from the branch crosses it, and also the Ivy Tor Water. Thence it 
runs S. along the W. side of White Hill to Small Brook, where there is- 
a ford, but beyond this it cannot be traced far. 

A narrow footpath from the ridge S. of Winter Tor crosses Taw 
Plain and runs up to this track. The two form a direct route from 
East Ockment Farm to Prospect Place and South Zeal. 

41. * South Zeal to Hangingstone Hill. This track is useful to 
the visitor as affording an easy means of reaching the upper Taw and 
Cranmere from South Zeal and Prospect Place, and also from Throw- 
leigh. (From the latter place the track next mentioned (T. 42) would 
be followed as far as the southern end of Raybarrow Pool, where it 
would be left for the one now under notice, as hereafter described).. 
From South Zeal a lane leads to the Okehampton highway at Prospect 
Place, and immediately opposite to the point where it reaches 
it is a gate. It is at this gate that the track commences, and it runs 
up the side of the hill for a considerable distance between the numerous 
enclosures that have here been formed. Before it enters on the common 
it is joined by another track on the right, which comes in from Ford, 
the starting-place of the Godson Hill path to Small Brook (T. 40). 
Here it turns I/., and one mile further on passes the triple stone row 
known as The Cemetery, and then, still pursuing a course a little 
westward of south, runs along the slope of Godson, with Cheriton 
Combe on the left. Here for a short distance it passes between banks, 
being about four or five feet below the surface of the common, and it 
also assumes the character of a road, which it maintains until reaching 
the forest, when it becomes more rugged. Not far beyond Cheriton 
Combe is the mire known as Raybarrow Pool, and this it skirts through- 
out its whole length. A little further on it passes the restored circle 
near White Moor Stone, and then runs across the ridge that forms the 
watershed between the Teign and the Taw. Its course is then below 
Little Hound Tor, about mile beyond which it approaches the 
Steeperton Brook, and here a branch crosses that stream to Chimney 
Bow, where it forks, but is not continued very far. The main track 
runs up through Bow Combe, with the Wild Tor ridge L., or E., and the 
brook close by on the R. This it crosses about mile above the other 
fording-place and reaches Ockside Hill, thence running southward to 
the foot of Hangingstone Hill. 

42. Clannaborough Down to Gallaven. A part of Throwleigh 
Common near Payne's Bridge is known as Clannaborough Down, and 
from here a path runs out to another part of the same common bearing 
the name of Gallaven. This is quite close to the forest boundary, and 
in its midst rises a little stream, which joins the Rue Lake, a feeder 
of the Walla Brook, itself a tributary of the North Teign. Just below 
where the brook first referred to (and which is sometimes called the 



6o MOORLAND TRACKS. 43, 44. 

Gallaven Water) has its source is a crossing-place named Gallaven 
Ford. One branch of the track leading out to that spot leaves the 
road close to the house by Payne's Bridge, and another a little further 
up the hill. They unite about three parts of a mile to the west, and 
the path then follows the Blackaton Brook, which it crosses in two 
places, to its source at Raybarrow Pool. It skirts the eastern side of 
the mire, running between it and Kennon Hill, and then descends the 
slope to Gallaven. To reach the South Zeal track (T. 41), the Gallaven 
path must be left when the mire is passed, and a direction due west 
pursued. This will lead to White Moor Stone, which is in view from 
the path, and the Zeal and Steeperton track (T. 41) is only a short 
distance beyond it. 

43. Tracks from Ensworthy. A track leaves the road that runs 
along the edge of the moor at Ensworthy, and at a short distance from 
the latter branches into two. The lower one passes between the 
enclosures of Higher Ensworthy, and runs for about half mile S. to the 
slope below the rocks that crown Buttern Hill, and which are some- 
times referred to as Buttern Tor. The other branch runs up the hill 
for a short distance, and then also turns S., its course being almost 
parallel to the former, but on the other side of Buttern Hill. It runs 
up the bottom for about f mile with White Moor Marsh R., and passing 
Buttern Circle (Ex. 19) runs S.W. to Rue Lake, a little below the weir 
W. of Rival Tor. 

44. South Zeal to Widecombe : Part of an Ancient Way from 
Bideford to Dartmouth, with Notice of the Plymouth and Tavistock Track. 
ly i n places can this old path now be traced. Though I have heard 
spoken of as being merely away from Zeal to Widecombe Church, 
there is good reason for believing that it extended right across the 
county. It is said that it was once used by sailors passing from one of 
the above-named ports to the other, and that at intervals of about 
8 or jo miles there were rest-houses for their accommodation. It seems 
to have approached the moor from the north by way of Week and 
Throwleigh or Clannaborough, thence running through Deave Lane to 
Forder, where it is seen crossing a field. From there it probably went 
on by Chappie to Gidleigh village and Gidleigh North Park, below 
which it crossed the Teign at Glassy Steps. It then climbed the hill 
to Teigncombe, and crossed Yeo Farm, within half a mile of Kes Tor, 
and here it still exists as a footpath. Thence it crossed the farms of 
Frenchbere, Yard worthy, Shapley, Hurston, Venn, Jurston, Littaford, 
Liapa, or Leeper as it is usually called, and went on to Combe, where it 
Tuns through the passage of a dwelling-house. From this curious 
circumstance it has been supposed that one of the rest-houses formerly 
stood on the site of the present building. From Combe it went to 
Hookney, and thence to Widecombe. 

The high roads that now cross Dartmoor, the Act for making the 
first of which was obtained in 1772. are all formed on the line of old 
tracks (100 Years, Chap. II.) The most important of these ancient 
ways was one running from Chagford to the West Dart Valley below 
Bear Down, where Two Bridges now stands, and here it forked, one 
branch going to Tavistock and the other to Plymouth. We have 
stated that the path just described ran between Yardworthy and 
Shapley, and it therefore crossed the Two Bridges track near the first- 
named farm, for in Owen's Britannia Depicta, edition of 1720, the 



MOORLAND TRACKS. 45. 61 

road from Exeter to Tavistock is shown as passing over the moor from, 
that farm, or rather from Yadrey, the plan following the local pro- 
nunciation. It ran by the enclosures of Willandhead, as a wall is. 
mentioned as existing on the I/, of the way, and a stone that stands not 
far from Metheral Farm gate probably marked its course towards 
Hurston Ridge, over which it passed to a point not far from the present 
Stats Brook Bridge. It is shown on Ebden's Map of Devonshire, 
published in 1 8 1 1 , and may still be traced in many places. This part 
of it is often regarded on the moor as a branch of the old Bideford 
track, but of course incorrectly so, and it is related that old-fashioned 
tobacco pipes with small bowls have been found upon it. Midway 
between Metheral and Stats Brook, a distance of rather over two 
miles, an object marking this path is figured and named on Owen's 
plan. This is Heath Stone, and it is mentioned in 1702 by William 
French, of Widecombe, a deponent in a law case, and is also probably 
identical with the Heathstone named in the Survey of the forest made 
in 1609. It stood at a point where another track crossed the main one, 
and exactly 19 miles from Exeter, and it is curious to note that on 
Moll's Map of Devon, published in 1713, it is the only object shown on 
the whole of Dartmoor.* That this stone was originally a menhir, 
afterwards becoming a forest bondmark, as in the case of the Lpngstone 
near Kes Tor, and subsequently an adapted guide-stone, I think there 
can be little doubt. Its name, and that of the ridge on which it stood, 
are plainly indicative of its origin, while its situation on the forest 
boundary line renders clear the purpose it served later. The Saxon 
hare-stane, or hoar stone, is a cognate term with the Celtic men-hir, 
high, or long, stone, and that these ancient monoliths were often fixed 
upon as boundaries there is ample proof ; indeed, there is evidence 
that the Saxon name in question also denoted that purpose. That 
Hurston Ridge derived its name in Saxon times from the hare-stane 
that stood upon it we may regard as certain (the farm of Hurston, 
which is named after the ridge, actually appears as Hareston in a 
forester's account of the time of Henry VII.), and it is not difficult to 
see how the stone itself would in time come to be called Hethstone, and 
later, Heath Stone. This track across the forest, although marked 
with guide-stones and carried over the wider streams by clappers, was 
probably not much used in Owen's time except by the dwellers on the 
moor. When the present road across Dartmoor was made, although 
it mainly followed the line of the ancient track, it was not carried from 
Stats Brook over Hurston Ridge to Chagford, but was formed on 
another old path that ran across Bush Down to Beetor Cross, and 
thence to Moretonhampstead. 

Another path crosses the Teign above Glassy Steps. It leaves 
the stroll running from the common to Berry Down, and forms an 
entrance to Scorhill House. From this it descends to the islands in 
the Teign, where are two foot bridges, and climbs the hill to Batworthy. 
It is a church path from the latter place to Gidleigh. 

45. Metheral to Teign Head Farm. The road from Chagford to 
the moor past Waye is probably on the line of the old track leading to 

* The map is on a very small scale. On the latest edition of the 
Ordnance Map the stone not far from Metheral is marked Heath Stone, 
which is incorrect. 



62 MOORLAND TRACKS. 46-48. 

Tavistock and Plymouth already referred to (T. 44). It enters the 
moor at the gate near Yardworthy, whence a road now runs by Metheral 
Farm to Fernworthy, another farm lying just within the border of the 
forest. From this a lane goes through the enclosures to the common, 
and at the top of it the track to Teign Head Farm commences. It is 
by no means plainly marked, but may be seen here and there pursuing 
a course across Froggymead Hill in a direction little north of west. 
About a mile from the head of the lane, close to which is the Froggy- 
mead circle, a gate in a newtake wall is reached, and here the track is 
well denned as it runs down to the Teign, which is crossed by means of 
a clapper of three openings. It then passes up to the lonely farm which 
is in full view on the hillside. This road is very useful to the rambler 
who desires to reach Cranmere from Moorgate on the Moretonhamp- 
stead highway, or any place in its immediate neighbourhood. Teign 
Head Farmhouse is not very much more than two miles from the pool, 
while the outer wall of its enclosures west by north is only about 
i miles from it. (See C.R. 13, Part III.) 

46. Paths on Bush Down. A footpath runs over Bush Down 
which the rambler may find of service to him. It leaves the Moreton 
road about half mile N.E. of the Warren House Inn, very near to 
Bennet's Cross, and strikes down L. to the enclosures of Lakeland 
li Farm. It passes through these, and is continued down Broad Moor II 
// Bottom to the moor gate near Jurston, where two rocks take the place /[ 
of gateposts. Another footpath leaves the Chagford road, which 
branches from the Moreton one about one mile N.E. of Bennet's Cross. 
This path leads to the same moor gate. 

A path runs eastward from Bennet's Cross over Headland Warren, 
and below Shapley Tor, to Westcombe. (See T. 47). 

47. Tracks near Challacombe. A road, cut in 1874, branches 
from the Moretonhampstead highway on North Bovey Common, and 
runs down to Grendon Cot, where it joins another. It was formed to 
connect the main road with Grendon, Blackaton, and Cator. About 
a mile from the point where it commences a path branches from this 
road to the right, and runs down to Headland Warren house in the 
valley below, and thence to the West Webburn. This it crosses and 
goes on to Challacombe. Just before this path diverges from the road 
the latter is crossed by a track leading from Westcombe, on the eastern 
verge of North Bovey Common to Bennet's Cross on the Moreton road. 
In this locality are several other paths, mostly formed by miners, 
but none likely to prove of much service to the rambler. A path also 
led from the enclosed lands in Manaton parish to Headland and Vitifer, 
It ran through Grim's Pound, the wall of which was broken down in 
two places. Another path runs off S.E. from the Blackaton road S. of 
Challacombe, along the verge of Blackaton Down (See Ex. 85), and 
joins the Church Way (T. 76) at the top of Gore Hill. 

48. Paths at Lustleigh Cleave. Several foot-paths cross the side 
of the valley. There is one from near Hammerslake to Foxworthy 
Bridge, whei e it is continued up through the wood to Manaton ; others 
branch from this to the Bovey below Water Cleave and Wanford 
Wood ; and there is also another branch leading to Higher and Lower 
Hisley. These are noticed in the description of the cleave. [Bovey 
Tracey District, Part HI.] 



MOORLAND TRACKS. 49-53. 63 

49. Paths on Ilsington Common. There are a couple of tracks 
on Ilsington Common, which, though short and unimportant, deserve 
notice as having probably formed an early means of access to the moor 
from the neighbourhood of Sigford. They both came up from near 
Bag Tor, one of them reaching the road to Hensworthy Gate just under 
Hey Tor, and the other, which branches from the former a short dis- 
tance below Bag Tor, following the little Sig to its source and joining 
the road much nearer to the gate. On the same common is a green 
path running over the shoulder of the hill by Saddle Tor, by means of 
which the pedestrian, or horseman, may shorten the distance between 
that part of the road under Hey Tor and the gate named. There is 
also a track running from the road that comes up from Bovey Tracey 
just where it enters on the common, to the Higher Terrace Drive above 
Yarner Wood. This track passes very near to a boundary mark known 
as Owlacombe Barrow, or locally, Burrow. 

50. Path on Hound Tor Down. Where the narrow lane from 
Great Hound Tor Farm enters upon the down below Swine Down Gate, * 
a path runs southward to Holwell Farm. It is carried along the side 
of the hill between Hound Tor and Grea Tor, the former being above it, 
and the latter between it and the valley. 

51. The Tunhill Road. About midway between Newhouse, 
under Rippon Tor, and Cold East Cross a track leaves the road and 
runs down in a northwesterly direction to the Ruddycleave Water, 
which it crosses not far below its source. Here is a gateway, formed 
by the old walls of the Newhouse enclosures on the right and those of 
the Blackslade enclosures on the left. Passing through this the track 
ascends the hill, and runs down on the further side to Tunhill Farm, 
leaving the gate leading to Blackslade on the left. Just where it 
commences to descend the hill is a fine kistvaen. (S. Ex. 87, Part III.) 

52. Track over Dunstone Down, and from Rowden Down to Shal- 
lowford. About a quarter of a mile from Widecombe, on the Pons- 
worthy road, a lane turns up on the right to Westcombe Farm, just 
beyond which it enters on Dunstone Down. Over this a track runs to 
the road coming down the valley from Blackaton. A short distance ,? 
to the right of the point at which it touches it, another track runs down * 
a narrow piece of common between two enclosures to Rowden Down. 
Passing over this the path enters the enclosures and descends to the' t "V' 2 
West Webburn, where is a clapper of three openings. West Shallow- '***"*" 
ford Farm is just beyond, and here the track, which now assumes the 
character of a moor road, enters on Corndon Down, and joins the road 
coming down from Cator, and the ancient tenements in the Walla 
Brook valley. By passing over Corn Down from Shallowford, in a 
S.W. direction, Shenvell would be reached in about one mile. The 
line of route here sketched forms the direct way between Widecombe 
and that place. 

53. Path from Dartmeet. On the L. bank of the Dart above the 
bridge at Dartmeet, a road runs N. to Dartmeet Cottage. From this 
point a footpath, also running N., climbs the hill between Yar Tor 
and the river. It goes on to the enclosures N. of the tor, and passes 
across them to Shenvell, which is about i|- miles from the bridge. 

* Usually known as Swallatpn Gate, which name, however, 
appears to be a corruption of Swine Down. 



64 MOORLAND TRACKS. 54-56. 

From this place another path runs northward, along the N.W. edge 
of Corn Down, to Riddon, about one mile from Sherwell. 

54. Hexworthy to Aune Head. The Avon, which stream is always 
called the Aune on the moor, has its source a short distance westward 
of Ryder's Hill, the summit of which lofty height forms a boundary 
mark of the forest. A track runs from the hamlet of Hexworthy ta 
the edge of the mire in which this river rises, where it meets another 
shortly to be noticed (T. 56). This track leaves the Gobbet and 
Sherburton road above, and at the back of, the Forest Inn. It passes 
up through a newtake, crossing the Wheal Emma leat, and climbs the 
side of Down Ridge, and goes on to Skir Ford on the Wo Brook. Near 
this point it is crossed by the track already described as running from 
Buckland across the forest (T. 2), which, however, is here undefined. 
A little further up is Sandy Ford, and thence the track runs parallel 
to the Wo Brook to its source. Not far beyond this it reaches Sandy 
Way (T. 56), which is here very plainly marked. There are traces of a 
continuation of this Hexworthy path, or, at all events, of one running 
from Aune Head across the side of Ryder's Hill to Wella Brook Gert, 
but the ground is usually there very boggy, and such a course could 
not always be followed. (T. 58). 

*55. Combestone Tor to Dockwell Gate. This path forms the 
most direct route between Hexworthy and Brent. It leaves the Holne 
road exactly opposite to Combestone Tor, and runs up over Home 
Moor in a direction due south to the head of Ringleshutts Gert, crossing 
the track from Horse Ford to Holne (T. 2) not very far from the tor. 
Beyond the gert it also crosses Sandy Way (T. 56) and descends to the 
Mardle, which here runs through a hollow having very steep sides. 
From Hapstead Ford on this stream it pursues a southerly course 
along the side of Snowdon to Snowdon Hole, a rocky hollow forming 
the eastern end of a gert known as Gibby's Beam. Here the path is 
very narrow, there being only sufficient room for a horse to pass, as the 
rocks encumber the ground above it, and there is a mire below. Be- 
yond this the path is lost for some distance (indeed it is indistinct 
from Hapstead Ford to the hollow) but the next point is soon reached. 
This is the group of tors, called Pupers, a corruption of Pipers. Some 
who use this track pass below and to the east of the principal pile, 
while others prefer to ascend the hill immediately on leaving Snowdon 
Hole, and do not turn towards the tor until they are some distance up. 
By following this course a piece of common encumbered with rocks is 
avoided. From the eastern tor a reave running S.S.E. for more than 
a mile is followed, and when a little water-course is reached the track 
becomes once more a clearly defined grassy path, and was here crossed 
by the Abbots' Way (T. i ). A branch runs by the wall enclosing Lambs 
Down from the open common to the gate giving access to Skerraton 
Down, which it crosses and reaches a point whence a lane leads to- 
Brent. The main track runs between Small Brook Plains and Parnell's 
Hill, and passing the head of Dockwell Hole, goes onward to Dockwell 
Gate. Here the path runs up to the left to another gate opening on 
the same lane that is reached by the track crossing Skerraton Down. 
From this point Brent is rather more than two miles distant. 

*56. Sandy Way. This path runs from Holne and Scorriton to 
the lower end of Fox Tor Mire and the White Works. A steep lane 
leads to the moor from Michelcombe, a hamlet in the valley of the 



MOORLAND TRACKS. 57-59. 65 

Holy Brook, and usually called by the natives Mutchecum, and the 
track is a continuation of this. It enters on the moor at Lane Head, 
near Whit Hedges, and takes a direction west by north to Holne Ridge, 
running roughly parallel to the Mardle, which stream is about half a 
mile south of it. When the source of this, which is just under Ryder's 
Hill, is passed, the track enters the forest, and goes due west to Aune 
Head. Here, where it skirts the mure, it is very clearly defined, appear- 
ing for a short distance like an ordinary road. Passing between Cater's 
Beam and Ter Hill it runs down the side of the hollow through which 
courses the Fox Tor stream, one of the branches of the Swincombe 
river, though it is not here plainly marked, to a ford not far below the 
White Works. Sandy Way may be reached from Holne Moor Gate by 
the Ringleshutts Mine road, which branches from the highway near 
the gate. 

From Scorriton another track runs out to Holne Ridge and joins 
Sandy Way. It passes up over Scorriton Down, and crosses the Mardle 
at Chalk Ford, and is continued up by it to Hapstead Ford, a quarter 
of a mile beyond which it reaches the main track. 

In the days of the war prison at Princetown, when there was 
frequent communication between that place and the villages surround- 
ing the moor, there is little doubt that Sandy Way was much traversed. 
It would form with a connecting path between Princetown and the upper 
Swincombe (and more than one now exist) a direct way to Holne, if 
instead of being followed down the Mardle valley it was left on Holne 
Ridge, and a straight course pursued towards the village. Thus it 
would be an alternative route to the Ter Hill and Down Ridge path 
(T. 2), and in early times may have been used by travellers from 
Tavistock to Ashburton. (T. i). 

57. Chalk Ford and Lid Gate to Huntingdon. Close to Chalk 
Ford a track leaves the branch just noticed (T. 56), and passing up the 
slope bends round the shoulder of Pupers, and runs to Huntingdon 
Warren, crossing the Wella Brook near the house. It is by no means 
a clearly defined track, as it is simply an approach to the warren and 
to Huntingdon Mine, now disused. Here and there it is marked 
by an upright granite stone. About midway in its course it is joined 
by a track coming from Lid Gate, which is situated at the end of a 
lane leading from Cross Furzes to the moor, and which passes near 
Hayford. 

58. Track to Wella Brook Gert. Faint vestiges of a track are 
seen in places on the side of the hill under Pupers, in a line between 
Water Oke Corner and Wella Brook Gert. The corner is close to the 
fording-place on the water-course named in the notice of the Combe- 
stone and Dockwell track (T. 55), and the gert is a short distance above 
Huntingdon Warren house. Here two tracks are to be seen amid the 
workings with the fords where they crossed the Wella Brook. The 
higher one points in the direction of Ryder's Hill, across the side of 
which are the traces of a path as already named (T. 54). The lower 
one is a branch of this and runs to a side working known as T Gert. 

*59. Buckfast to Plympton. As I have pointed out in another 
place [Crosses, Chap. XVI.] it is evident that a path once ran from 
Buckfast and Ashburton by way of Dockwell, Harford, and Cornwood, 
to Plympton and Plymouth. Though now unknown as a continuous 
track, portions of it are still used, and as these are of service to 



66 MOORLAND TRACKS. 60, 61. 

the rambler on the moor it was thought desirable to notice it here. 
We first meet with it near the southern gate of Skerraton Down (T. 55), 
where two roads cross. Here is an old guide stone on each of the four 
faces of which is an incised letter. These indicate the places to which 
the roads lead, namely, Ashburton, Plympton, Totnes and Tavistock. 
Crossing Gigley Bridge, which is just below, the Plympton track 
probably ran through the Dockwell enclosures. Its course cannot 
here be traced with any certainty, but the path running from near 
Dockwell Gate to Yolland Farm seems to be a part of it. Prom the 
farm it went to the Avon, and in the present Diamond Lane, a rugged 
bridle path branching from the road between Shipley Bridge and 
Didworthy Bridge, it is undoubtedly seen. On the common at the 
head of the lane are some newtakes, but a space has been left between 
two of them for the old road. Near Coryndon Ball it is again seen, 
and there is a ford on the East Glaze, and another on the West Glaze, 
directly in the line of it. From the latter it ascended the side of 
Ugborough Moor to SpurrelTs Cross, whence it went to Harford, where 
it was marked by another of those objects (Ex. 33, Part IV.) At the 
cross it is joined by a path, coming from Owley (T. 62), and is also 
intersected by the Blackwood Path (T. 63), both of which are noticed 
further on. 

*6o. Shipley to Red Lake Mire. This track is really an old tram 
road, over which peat was once conveyed to some naphtha works at 
Shipley, on the verge of Brent Moor. It has been disused for a very 
long time, but I can remember when the rails, which were of wood, 
bolted to blocks of granite, were to be seen in places. [100 Years, 
Chap. III.] The buildings at Shipley still remain, having been put 
in a good state of repair by a china clay company, about the year 1872, 
but operations in connection with this venture did not long continue. 
To the rambler this track is valuable, as enabling him to readily reach 
the forest and the Abbots' Way (T. i ) from the neighbourhood of Brent. 
By passing up by the wall on the left, immediately on entering the 
moor at Shipley Gate, the track will soon be reached where it comes up 
from the rear of the factory buildings. It sweeps round Zeal Hill, 
and leaving Bala Brook Heath to the left, runs towards Broad Rushes. 
Here it turns again and shortly after passes the old workings at the 
head of Bala Brook, and, a little further on, the old clay pits. This 
part of it has long been filled with bog, and rendered impassable, but 
the ground on the north side of it is good, so that it can readily be 
followed. Further on it becomes a hard track again, running between 
high banks, but it is here so rough that the ground by the side of it 
is preferable, both for the pedestrian and the rider. When it reaches 
the cairn known as Western Whitaburrow, close to which it passes, 
and where was a siding, it begins to descend, and runs down a steep 
incline to its termination among the old turf pits at Red Lake Mire. 
Rather over a quarter of a mile from the cairn it crosses the Abbots' 
Way, which is here a well-defined path. The distance from Shipley 
to the Crossways, where the monks' path is reached, is about three 
miles and a half. The railway was formerly known as the Zeal Tor 
tram-road. 

61. Ball Gate to Bala Brook Head. A road runs up the hill from 
the hamlet of Aish, near Brent, to Aish Ridge and Coryndon Ball, 
terminating at Ball Gate, which opens on Brent Moor. From this 



MOORLAND TRACKS. 62-66. 67 

point there is a track to the head of the Bala Brook, over which clay 
was at one time brought from the pits there. It is, however, not 
very well defined in places. It passes up the hill to the E. of Three 
Barrows, and, crossing the head of Red Brook at Higher Pord, runs 
on by Knattle Barrow to the pits. There are other fords on Red Brook 
lower down, but these are merely crossing-places made by the moor- 
men. As this track leads to the Zeal Tor tram-road, which crosses 
the Abbots' Way, it is sometimes incorrectly regarded as part of 
Jobbers' Path, referred to in our notice of the old monks' path (T. i, 60). 

62. Owley to Harford. Prom the moor gate at Owley, which is 
about a mile and a half from Wrangaton, a green path runs over the 
moor to the gate at Harford. It climbs the hill to the north of 
Ugborough Beacon, and on reaching the piece of level ground at the top 
is crossed by the Blackwood Path, presently noticed (T. 63). This 
point was formerly marked by Spurrell's Cross, of which nothing now 
remains but the fractured head. It was here that the Buckfast and 
Plympton track (T. 59) crossed Ugborough Moor as it ran towards 
Harford. From Spurrell's Cross onward the green path is marked 
by little heaps of stones, its direction being south of west. It passes 
very near to the head of Butter Brook, which is at no great distance 
to the north of Hangershell Rock, and then descends the slope to 
Harford Gate. 

*63. Blackwood Path. As its name indicates, this has been used 
as a peat track, but it was also an approach to Erme Pound, and may 
have joined the Abbots' Way, the latter not being far from the pound. 
It enters the moor near Wrangaton, and, passing up the hill, leaves the 
Eastern Beacon on the right. A little further on it is joined by another 
track that comes up from the verge of the common under the Western 
Beacon. Passing Spurrell's Cross (T. 62), it goes on over the level, 
and then ascends the hill towards Sharp Tor. It runs through the dip 
between that pile and Three Barrows, and parallel to some upright 
stones that mark the boundary between Ugborough and Harford Moors. 
A little further on it crosses this line close to one of the stones, and runs 
over Erme Plains to Stony Bottom. This part of it, however, is now 
very ill-defined. In places it is altogether lost, and where discoverable 
is little more than a narrow footpath. In Stony Bottom it is seen 
crossing Hook Lake at a ford. Beyond this is Brown Heath, at the 
foot of which, and close to the river, is Erme Pound. 

On Piles Hill, just before this track reaches Sharp Tor, it is joined 
by another that comes up from Harford Gate. 

64. Paths near Addicombe. Prom the moor gate above Stowford, 
near Ivybridge, a track runs by the enclosures of Lukesland to 
Addicombe. Green paths branch from it to Weatherdon Hill and 
Butterdon Hill, but do not extend far. 

65. Track by the Erme under Stalldon Barrow. A track enters 
the commons at the gate close to Harford Bridge, and runs up the right 
bank of the Erme. About a mile and a half from the gate it is carried 
along the foot of the steep hill crowned with the cairn known as Stalldon 
Barrow, and which name is often given to the hill itself. On the further 
side of the Erme at this point is the interesting old oak wood of Piles. 
Some distance further up the track is lost. 

*66. Track over Stall Moor. Prom Watercombe Waste Gate, 
in the parish of Cornwood, and about a mile and a half from the village. 



68 MOORLAND TRACKS. 67, 68. 

a track runs in a northerly direction over Stall Moor. Like the Black- 
wood Path (T. 63), this track was formerly much used as a peat road, 
and was also an approach to Hook Lake and Erme Pound. In the 
days when this served as a drift pound, there must at times have 
been a good deal of traffic over these tracks. In an Agistment Roll 
attached to an account of John D'Abernon, Constable of Lydford, in 
the reign of Edward III., mention is made of the " Preda de Irm," so 
that we know that one of the recognized pasturage grounds at that 
time was in the Erme Valley. This was not improbably Green Hill, 
a little northward of the pound, and within the forest. It still affords 
the best pasturage in the south quarter. On leaving Watercombe 
Waste Gate the track ascends the side of the hill crowned with Stalldon 
Barrow, which is about mile E. About one mile N. of the gate a 
path comes up from the corner between Dendles Wood and Harrow- 
thorn Plantation, and crosses it. It is this path that leads to the pound ; 
the other, from Watercombe Gate, goes on towards Yealm Rocks. 
At the crossing-place, therefore, the way lies R. The track runs 
northward to Bledge Brook, a little tributary of the Erme, which it 
crosses, the direction here being east of north. A short distance 
further on the stone circle known as The Dancers is passed, and 
half a mile beyond this the track reaches Green Lake Bottom. It 
crosses this hollow (there are two fords here), and then bends R. to a 
ford on the Erme, just below the pound. The track ends here, but 
from this point onward a moorman's path, only distinguishable in 
places, connects it with the track running out from Hexworthy to 
Aune Head (T. 54). Usually the Erme is not crossed at the ford, but 
half a mile higher up, below Stinger's Hill. From that point the way 
lies up the side of Green Hill, with Red Lake R., to a spot where the 
fen stretching northward from Red Lake Mire can be crossed. The 
path through this boggy ground is narrow and winding, but it is the 
only means by which horsemen can pass from Green Hill to the Avon 
without making a considerable detour. It runs into Heng Lake Gully, 
which extends to the river (R. 64, Part IV.) Above this a narrow strip 
of solid ground between the fen and the right bank of the stream forms 
a natural path to Fish Lake, beyond which the way lies over the shoulder 
of Cater's Beam. It then crosses Nakers Hill, leaving the mire known as 
Little Aune to the right, a short distance from which it reaches the Hex- 
worthy track at Aune Head. These paths, therefore, form a continuous 
way from the in-country at Cornwood to Hexworthy, and the settled 
parts of the forest beyond, and are of great service to those engaged 
in looking after cattle pastured in the south quarter. I know one 
moorman who was in the habit of passing over it constantly during 
nearly fifty years. 

67. Path to Broadall. A lane leads from Heathfield Down, close 
to Cornwood village, to the common under Rook Tor, where it finds 
a continuation in a track running up the hill to the head of the little 
stream bounding High-house Waste on the west. It then bends to 
the right, and crossing the waste reaches Broadall Lake, where it 
terminates. This stream is a tributary of the Yealm, and falls into 
it in Dendles Wood. 

68. Tracks on Heddon Down and Crownhill Down. On Heddon 
Down, in the parish of Cornwood, and on the adjoining Crownhill 
Down, in Plympton St. Mary parish, are a few paths, but they do not 



MOORLAND TRACKS. 69-71. 69 

call for any particular notice. From the hamlet of Lutton, on the 
road between Cornwood and Sparkwell, a track runs northward over 
Heddon Down, and crossing the little stream that flows under Quick 
Bridge to join the Piall Brook, reaches the Lee Moor road near the 
gate opening on the lane leading to Cholwich Town. On Crownhill 
Down there are paths forming a continuation of the lanes above 
Goodamoor and Bottle Hill Mine, and one also branches from the road 
leading down to Coleland Bridge just inside the moor gate. These 
run by the clay pits to Broomage, from which place another goes down 
the side of Ridding Down to Cholwich Town Gate. For the most part 
the paths on these downs have been made, and are used, by the 
labourers at the clayworks in the vicinity. 

69. From Plympton to Samp ford Spiney and Tavistock. A good 
road now connects these places, but as it is certain that it is formed on 
the line of an ancient one, it seems fitting to mention it here. Like 
the Abbots' Way (T. i), and other old tracks that have been noticed 
(T. 2, 59), this was formerly a monks' path, or at all events, was much 
used by them. Sampford Spiney belonged to Plympton Priory, and 
it was along this road that the monks journeyed when they desired 
to visit their church at the former place. The line is a direct one, 
and it was marked at certain points by stone crosses. The road passes 
through Colebrook and runs up past Boringdon to Browney Cross, a 
short distance beyond which it enters the commons at Niel Gate. 
Skirting Shaugh Moor it descends to Cadaford Bridge, where it crosses 
the Plym. It then climbs the hill to Lynch Down, along the edge of 
which it runs to its north-western corner, leaving it by the steep 
Lynch Hill, at the foot of which stands Marchants Cross (T. i), and 
reaches the Mew. Then leaving the village of Meavy a short distance 
to the left it runs up to Yennadon Down, and along the verge of it to 
Dousland. Thence its descends to Walkhampton, and a little further 
on reaches the Walkham river at Huckworthy Bridge. On Huck- 
worthy Common just above is an old cross, placed where the Sampford 
Spiney road diverges from the one leading to Tavistock. The former 
skirts the common to the right, afterward branching left to the 
village, which is rather more than a mile distant. The latter goes 
on to the corner of Plaster Down, and thence to Warren's Cross, 
where it enters upon Whitchurch Down. Near this point it joined 
the Abbots' Way, as already described (T. i ). Tavistock is about two 
and a half miles from this, the eastern, end of Whitchurch Down. This 
path is fully described in my book on the Crosses of Dartmoor, Chap.V. 

70. Paths on Shaugh Moor. There are a number of paths on 
Shaugh Moor, many of them having been made by the workmen 
engaged at the clayworks in the neighbourhood in passing to and 
from their labour. There are none of any particular importance, 
the chief perhaps being one that runs from the road near Beatland 
Corner to Emmet's Post. Another leads from Brag Lane End to the 
road under Stewart's Hill ; and a third from near Shaden Plantation 
to the clay pits at Wotter. 

71. Paths to Ditsworthy Warren House. In the valley of the 
Plym, above Cadaford Bridge, is Trowlesworthy Warren, which is 
approached by a narrow road branching from the Lee Moor road 
about half a mile from the bridge. Still further up the valley is Dits- 
worthy Warren, and to the house connected with this, which is situated 



70 MOORLAND TRACKS. 72-75. 

very near to Eastern Tor, several paths lead. A track runs to it from 
Brisworthy, a group of farmhouses seen on the right in ascending from 
Cadaford Bridge towards Lynch Down (T. 69), and there is also an 
approach to it by a footpath which starts near the bridge and follows 
the course of the Plym upward. The track enters on Ringmoor Down 
just above the farms, and crossing Legis Lake at the lower end of Legis 
Mire runs north of Legis Tor to an enclosure, by the wall of which it 
descends towards the river, and then goes direct to the house. The 
footpath leaves the road a short distance from the northern end of the 
bridge, and runs eastward by the wall of the Brisworthy enclosures 
to the Plym, on the bank of which it is carried to its termination, just 
below the house. Another track, and the one by which the house is 
usually approached, runs straight across Ringmoor Down from Ring- 
moor Cot, on the road leading from Meavy to Sheeps Tor, and at the 
upper, and north-eastern corner, of Lynch Down. Close to the Cot 
a moor road branches to the right from the one running to Sheeps Tor. 
This road is the old Abbots' Way, the course of which has already 
been sketched (T. i). A very short distance from the point where it 
leaves the Sheeps Tor road the Ditsworthy track springs from it, R. 
At first this is clearly defined, but further out on the down it would 
only be possible to trace it by the marks of wheels here and there 
were it not that its course is indicated by stones placed some distance 
apart. These are not posts, and being low and few and far between, 
are not quite such excellent guides as might be wished. They were 
once coated with whitewash, and then answered their purpose admir- 
ably. The distance from Ringmoor Cot to the warren house is under 
two miles. A branch of this track runs into the Sheeps Tor road south- 
ward of the Cot, and from this point paths lead towards Brisworthy 
Plantation and the farms. About half a mile on the Eylesbarrow 
road or Abbots' Way (T. i) a footpath runs from it, R., up over the 
common to Gutter Tor, and descends to Ditsworthy ; and at the 
distance of another half mile, a track, known as Edward's Path, also 
leaves the road, R., and runs to the warren house. These last two 
form means of communication between the warren and Sheeps Tor. 
Around Ditsworthy there are also other footpaths used by the 
warreners. 

72. Paths on Lynch Down, Meavy. The road to Sheeps Tor from 
Meavy branches L. at the top of Lynch Hill, and runs across Lynch 
Down to Ringmoor Cot. Above this road a couple of paths lead from 
the gate near the cot to the Cadaford Bridge road ; and a track also 
runs from the gate down the hill, with the enclosures on the R., to the 
road at Marchants Cross. This latter track is on the line of the old 
Abbots' Way (T. i). 

73. Path at Sheeps Tor. A footpath runs over the common at 
the foot of Sheeps Tor, on the E. side of the Burrator Lake, to 
Narrator, whence a short track leads to Nosworthy Bridge. 

74. Paths on Yennadon. Several green paths run over Yenna- 
don, the principal one being a track that leaves the Meavy road near 
where the lane comes up from Lake ; this path goes northward to 
Lowery Cross. 

75. *Black Lane, S. One of the most important paths in the 
southern part of Dartmoor, from the moorman's point of view, is Black 
Lane, a natural pass extending from a large stream work on a tributary 



MOORLAND TRACKS. 76, 77. 71 

of the Erme to Fox Tor, and forming with the hollow down which that 
tributary flowes below the stream work, a track from Erme Head to the 
tor named. It runs through the tract of fen bounded on one side by 
the springs of the Plym, and on the other by the upper waters of the 
Avon. By means of it the moormen are able to drive cattle direct 
from the pasturage grounds at Green Hill to the slopes in the neighbour- 
hood of the Fox Tor stream. The tributary referred to is usually called 
Dark Lake, and sometimes the Black Lane Brook, but the true name 
of it is the Wollake. It falls into the Erme immediately below the 
source of that river, thus giving the latter a considerable volume ere 
it has run far on its course. Close to the confluence there is a ford on 
the Wollake, where it is crossed by the Abbots' Way (T. i). At the 
northern end of Black Lane near Fox Tor is the old path from Buckland 
across the forest (T. 2), so that this pass connects these two tracks of 
the monks. From the ford the ground on the eastern side of the 
Wollake is good up to Stony Hole, the tin working already referred to. 
But above this is the fen, and it is here that Black Lane commences. 
On the left in ascending, and at the top of this working, is Ducks' Pool, 
from which one branch of the Wollake issues. The pool is now a boggy 
hollow, but must once have been a tarn of some considerable size. 
Black Lane passes the narrow entrance to this hollow, and runs north- 
ward. Half a mile further up another gully runs off to the right, and 
by means of this it is possible for a rider to cross the fen and reach the 
head of Fish Lake, under Cater's Beam. The Wollake, which is here 
merely a tiny rivulet, rises not far above where this gully branches 
off, and beyond its source the pass becomes a shallow trench. At its 
head the path turns right for a very short distance, then left, and runs 
into Fox Tor Gert, beyond which the tor may be seen. 

76. The Church Way. From Meripit Hill, and three-quarters 
of a mile from the Dart at Post Bridge, a road turns from the Moreton 
highway, and, quitting the forest at Runnage Bridge, goes on to 
Widecombe. This, there is no doubt, is formed on the ancient track 
by which the occupants of the forest tenements made their way to the 
church at that place (T. 77). In a forester's account of the year 1491 
there is a reference to this track. It is there called the Church Way, 
and is described as leading from a certain tenement on the Walla Brook 
to the church at Widecombe. Part of this old track still remains. The 
road runs from Runnage Bridge to Grendon Bridge on the West Web- 
burn, and then ascending to Hill Head, passes Blackaton, turning at 
the foot of the steep and going down to Bittleford Down, around which 
it sweeps, and reaches the Ponsworthy and Widecombe lane. But 
the old track took a more direct course from Blackaton Bridge to the 
village of Widecombe, and this part is still in use, though not fitted 
for wheels. It runs between the walls of the enclosures straight up the 
ascent known in the vicinity as Gore Hill. At the top it enters on 
the common forming the southern part of the great ridge of Hameldon, 
where it is joined by a path coming L. from Challacombe (T. 47). 
Here it strikes off obliquely to the R., and, crossing the down to Church 
Lane Head, descends into the Widecombe valley, this part of it being 
very steep. It emerges on the road a short distance from the green 
north of the church. 

77. Paths in the neighbourhood of Meripit Hill. To the Grey 
Wethers and Teign Head. To Fernworthy. Between Post Bridge and 



72 MOORLAND TRACKS. 78, 79. 

the Warren House Inn several paths branch from the Moreton highway. 
A moor road leads from the Stannon Lodges at Post Bridge to Stannon 
House, and a green track, marked hi places by stones, runs by Stannon 
Tor and over the western shoulder of White Ridge to the Grey Wethers, 
and it is possible to drive this way (C.R. 17, Part I). Near these 
circles there is a gate in the wall of the newtake belonging to Teign 
Head Farm, and from this a track leads down to the clapper under 
that solitary dwelling. Inside the gate a branch of the track runs I* ; 
this must be followed by visitors driving towards Cranmere. The 
newtake is left further on at another gate. Prom Stannon a footpath 
runs across Meripit Hill eastward to Stats Bridge. A path leads from 
Meripit Hill to Fernworthy. It runs N. from the road, close to the 
enclosures of Higher Meripit, and Stannon Little Newtake, which are 
I/., to Assacombe. Thence down by Assacombe House with the 
enclosures L., and then on about midway between the Assacombe 
Brook L., and the Lowton Brook R., to a track which runs down E. of 
Silkhouse, to a ford on the Teign, near Fernworthy farmhouse. When 
the river cannot be crossed at the ford the way will be by the bridge 
just below (Ex. 20). A road, which there is no doubt is part of the 
ancient Church Way (T. 71) runs from the Wesleyan Chapel at Post 
Bridge to the way leading to Runnage Bridge. It passes through Lower 
Meripit, close to which there is a footbridge over the Dury Brook. From 
the road near Runnage an old path runs through the enclosures to the 
Warren House Inn. From the inn a path leads to the deserted Wheal 
Caroline, and another to the Golden Dagger Mine. (See Ex. 44, 45, 
Part I, and T. 44, 46). 

*78. Drift Lane. This path runs up by the right bank of the 
Dart at Post Bridge, and is important as an approach to others, viz., 
the northern branch of the Lich Path (T. 18) and Cut Lane (T. 79), 
which latter forms a part of the path, as already mentioned, from Post 
Bridge to Okehampton (T. 34). Drift Lane leads from the enclosed 
parts of the moor lying around Post Bridge to the open forest, and 
forms, as its name denotes, a way by which cattle are driven to 
and from it. It runs perfectly straight for nearly half a mile, 
having the river on one side and the Archerton enclosures on the other 
side. At the north-eastern corner of these it turns a little to the left, 
and passes up the hill to Broad Down. 

*79. Cut Lane. No path in the northern part of Dartmoor is of 
greater service to the moorman and the hunter than this. Like 
Black Lane, near Green Hill, in the south quarter (T. 75), it forms 
a pass through the fen, and though this is not entirely a natural 
one, it is so in great measure. The main tract of fen in northern Dart- 
moor extends from Ockment Hill to the head waters of the West Dart 
and Cowsic, a distance of five miles, and this can only be crossed on 
horseback in one place. Two miles below East Dart Head a strip of 
hard, grassy ground stretches from the river to the summit of the 
ridge running parallel to it on the west ; and on the further side of 
this ridge is a larger tract of similar ground extending to the foot of 
the hill. To the north and to the south of this hard ground is deep fen, 
and it is evident also that the whole of the flat summit of the ridge 
was once covered with it. Between these two solid tracts the fen was 
removed at some early time from one part of the ridge, a wide path, 
long since covered with grass like the hard ground it unites, being thus 



MOORLAND TRACKS. 79. 73 

formed. This pass is not on the lowest, or flat, part of the ridge, but 
runs over it where it begins to rise towards the south to form the bold 
eminence of Cut Hill, the name of which there can be no doubt is derived 
from this ancient way cut through the fen. Elsewhere [Gems, Chap. II.] 
I have brought forward some evidence to show that Pur Tor, below 
which the track passes on the western side of the ridge, may also owe 
its name to it. The part of this path thus artificially formed is marked 
by two square slabs of granite, one on each side of the way. These are 
set on little mounds, and are placed a short distance from the edges 
of the track, which here pursues a north-westerly direction. Pur Tor 
is seen beyond the combe nearly due west. From the point where 
the cut terminates in that direction to the foot of the hill near Cut 
Combe Water, stone posts are placed on tiny cairns at intervals, so that 
a traveller approaching the pass from the west is able to find his way 
from the stream named direct to it. This stream runs into the Ami- 
combe, a branch of the Tavy, so that Cut Lane forms a means of 
communication between the East Dart valley and the valley of the 
Tavy. It has already been mentioned (T. 34, 78) that this path forms 
part of a track from Post Bridge to Okehampton ; it also formed part of 
another from the same place to Lydford, thus affording an alternative 
way to the Lich Path (T. 18). On reaching Broad Down by Drift 
Lane, a direction N.W. by N. is followed to the East Dart, which is 
struck just below a place called Sandy Hole. (There is some reason 
for supposing that Broad Down was also reached by way of the L. 
bank of the Dart, that stream being crossed under Hartland Tor) 
Above Sandy Hole there is a path of sufficient width only for the 
stream, which here runs between walls formed of boulders, and a path 
on its right bank. [Dev. Alps., Chap. VII., Ex. 45.] At the head of 
this pass is Broad Marsh, where is a large stream work, extending up 
to a point where the Dart turns abruptly to the right, and is joined by 
a tributary. The approach to Cut Lane is indicated by the latter ; 
to the left of it in ascending is the strip of hard ground leading to the 
artificial cut on the ridge. Westward of this ridge is Cut Combe, 
down the side of which the path runs, as already stated. The entrance 
to this combe is between the hill from which Fur Tor rises and Little 
Kneeset, and just without this the Cut Combe Water falls into the 
Amicombe. Here, on the western, or right bank, of the last-named 
stream the path to Lydford diverged. It ran across Watern Oke to 
the Rattle Brook, the direction being almost due west. The stream 
is crossed at Dead Lake Foot, and that little tributary is followed to 
its source. The path then runs by a cairn between Hare Tor and 
Sharp Tor, and descends to the Lyd, either by way of the Doe Tor 
Brook to the right or by the Walla Brook to the left. In the first case 
when the Lyd is crossed the path on High Down leading directly to the 
Dartmoor Inn is reached, and in the second the path running to the 
moor gate at the end of the short lane near Skit Bridge (T. 27). From 
the confluence of the Cut Combe Water and the Amicombe the track 
to Okehampton takes a line due north, following one of the branches 
of the last-named stream to its source. This is in a hollow between 
Great Kneeset and that part of Amicombe Hill usually known as 
Broad Amicombe, and rather more than a mile from the confluence. 
This hollow, which goes by the name of Broad Amicombe Hole, forms 
a pass into the valley of the West Ockment. At its northern end, 



74 MOORLAND TRACKS. 80, 81. 

and only about a quarter of a mile from the head of the branch of 
the Amicombe, another little stream rises, but flows in an opposite 
direction. It is a tributary of the Ockment, and the way lies by its 
bank to the point where it joins that river at Kneeset Foot. The old 
track in all probability then ran down the valley for nearly a mile to 
Sandy Ford, where it crossed the Ockment, and passing up the hollow 
down which runs the Lints Tor stream, reached Dinger Plain. By 
crossing the Ockment at Kneeset Foot, and passing to the S. of Lints 
Tor, a more direct route might have been followed, but a precipitous 
hill would have to be climbed, and besides this the passage of the river 
had to be considered (cf. T. 34). In the survey of the forest bounds 
of 1609 this is referred to as " Langaford, al's Sandyford." On Dinger 
Plain is the track running out from Okehampton between Row Tor 
and West Mil Tor, over which peat is conveyed from the ties, and which 
in all probability is the ancient way we have been tracing (cf. T. 34). 

80. Post Bridge to Dunnabridge Pound. A path runs across the 
newtakes from Post Bridge to the road at Dunnabridge Pound, and 
is of much service as forming a direct means of communication between 
the farms around the former place and those in the valley of the West 
Dart. It enters the newtakes through a gateway opposite to the end 
of Drift Lane (T. 78), and passes over Lakehead Hill. At the next 
gate, which is in the wall between Lakehead Hill and Bellaford Tor 
Newtake, it crosses the path forming part of the old Lich Path (T. 18), 
between the Cherry Brook on the Moreton road and Bellaford Bridge. 
From here the way lies by the side of Bellaford Tor to another gate in. 
the corner of the newtake at the foot of the slope beyond it. It then 
runs by the walls of other enclosures R. to the pound, where is a gate 
opening on the highway. The direction of this path is N. and S., and 
its length about two and a half miles. 

81. Post Bridge to Dartmeet, Huccaby, and Hexworthy. This old 
track runs down the R. bank of the Dart from the clapper, passing 
close to the ruined tinners' building known as The Barracks. It then 
runs by Lakehead and below Bellaford Farm, and still keeping near 
the river goes on to Lough Tor Hole Farm, where it passes through the 
yard in front of the house. Then it turns upward towards Huccaby 
Tor, and leaving that small pile R., descends to the Dartmeet road, 
which it enters upon close to Huccaby Cottage, which stands near 
the edge of Snider Park Plantation, L. Formerly it appears to have 
gone straight down the hill to Huccaby, but that place, as well as 
Hexworthy and Dartmeet, is now approached by the modern road. 

Reference has been made to certain crossing- pi aces on the fen in 
the north quarter of the forest (C. R. 17, Part I.) These were made 
by the late Mr. Frank Phillpotts, who was devoted to moor hunting, 
to facilitate getting to hounds, and for the most part are formed by 
removing the peat down to the solid ground. These may be seen, 
among other places, near the head of the West Dart, the Broad Marsh 
tributary, Cut Hill, Stats House, Hangingstone Hill, North of Cran- 
mere, and Walkham Head. They are marked by stones bearing the 
following inscription on a metal plate : 

" This stone marks a crossing through the peat, which may be 

of use to hunting and cattle men ; the crossing was made by Frank 

Phillpotts, who died October, 1909. It is kept up in his memory 

by his brother and son." 



DICTIONARY OF TERMS. A. 75 

TERMS USED IN CONNECTION WITH 
THE FOREST AND COMMONS. 

IN order to avoid stopping to explain the meaning of certain Dart- 
moor terms in those places where they are met with, I have 
here brought them together, and arranged them alphabetically, 
for facility of reference. Whilst it was primarily terms connected with 
the forest, and forest law, that seemed to call for some explanation, it 
also appeared not undesirable to include others relating to archaeology 
and mining, as well as some of a general character. Although the 
meanings of many will be well known, it was nevertheless thought 
that they should be given a place in the list, since they often have 
besides their general signification a peculiar application to the moor. 
It must not be supposed that the following list is an exhaustive one. 
Such, indeed, is very far from being the case ; but it is believed that 
every term necessary to a proper understanding of the usages of Dart- 
moor will here be found. It was imperative that the remarks on each 
subject should be as brief as possible. 

[Under Stone Row we have noticed various suggestions that have 
been made as to the uses or meaning of those monuments, and 
among these it will be seen that an astronomical signification has been 
claimed for them by some. This seems to be the favourite theory 
at present according to a report issued by the Board of Education in 
January, 1909, giving the result of the enquiry of the Solar Physics 
Committee as to the origin of British stone circles. The report states : 
" An investigation as to the astronomical origin of the ancient stone 
monuments which are scattered up and down the country, more 
especially of those situated in Cornwall, Devon, South Wales, and 
Aberdeen, has led to the general conclusion that these circles, crom- 
lechs, avenues, etc., were erected as observatories for the determina- 
tion of time and season by the observation of the sun and stars. The 
results of the investigation indicate that the dates of erection lie 
between 2000 B.C. and 800 B.C." From this it would appear that star- 
gazing was indulged in nearly forty centuries ago and is still practised. 
Meanwhile we may content ourselves, if we can, with the solution now 
offered until such time as another is brought forward.] 

[a, Antiquarian ; f, Forest ; g, General ; m, Mining.] 

Afforestation, f. The turning of a large tract of land into a forest, 
which can only be done by the Sovereign. It was marked with certain 
boundaries. Under the Norman kings immense tracts were afforested 
in every English county. [See Forest.] 

Agistment, f. The pasturage of cattle in the forest. The con- 
ditions under which this is now exercised on Dartmoor are in some 
respects similar to those formerly existing, but not entirely so. The 
commoners had the right of agistment, but this was limited. The 
feeding of the game was first considered ; the surplusage of the pasture 
alone belonged to the commoner. On a tract so extensive as 



76 DICTIONARY OF TERMS. A, B. 

Dartmoor there must always have been a very large surplusage, and 
consequently the commoner has enjoyed his grazing rights without 
hindrance. Wrongful Agistment was putting beasts out to pasture 
without licence. [See Commoners, Forest, Moorman.'] 

Ammil, The. g. A phenomenon said to be sometimes witnessed 
in the north of England, but otherwise peculiar to Dartmoor. It 
consists of a thin coating of ice, which envelopes every projecting 
object down to the smallest, the effect produced being most remarkable, 
and when the sun shines upon the ice-cased blades of grass and sprigs 
of heatheri one singularly beautiful. Mr. John Shelly, of Plymouth, 
points out that the name by which this unusual natural appearance 
is known is the old English word ammel, equivalent to enamel. 

Ancient Tenements, f. Certain farms of great antiquity, lying 
within the bounds of the forest. They were probably in existence 
before the latter were set out, and not encroachments upon the royal 
demesne. With the exception of some that have been purchased 
during recent years they are not the property of the Duchy. They 
are held by copy of Court Roll, and certain privileges are attached to 
their possession. The holders, or tenants, as they are called, have 
a right of turbary and pasturage, and until 1796 had also a right of 
enclosing eight acres of land if the father and grandfather of the tenant 
had held the farm successively. This enclosure was termed a 
newtake, q.v. These forest tenants are bound to do suit and service 
at the Duchy Courts, and to assist at the drifts. The ancient tenements 
are 35 in number : Babeny, immediately above the confluence of the 
East Dart and Walla Brook, 3 ; Bellaford, higher up the East Dart, 
and not far below Post Bridge, 2 ; Brimpts, on the East Dart above 
Dartmeet, 3 ; Broom Park, on the West Dart, just above the bend 
under Dunnabridge Pound, but on the right bank of the river, I ; 
Brown Berry, on the road between Two Bridges and Dartmeet, and 
immediately opposite to Dunnabridge Pound, i ; Dunnabridge, 
adjoining Brown Berry, 4 ; Dury, near Bellaford, i ; Hartland, on the 
left bank of the East Dart, a short distance above Post Bridge, i ; 
Hexworthy, on the West Dart, below Sherburton, 3 ; Huccaby, 
separated from Hexworthy by the Dart, 5 ; Lower Meripit, near Post 
Bridge, i ; Pizwell, on the Walla Brook, in the vicinity of Post Bridge 3 ; 
Prince Hall, on the West Dart, below Two Bridges, i ; Riddon, on the 
Walla Brook, not far above Babeny, i ; Runnage, on the Walla Brook, 
above Pizwell, 2 ; and Sherburton, on the West Dart near its con- 
fluence with the Swincombe River, 3. Of these old tenements the 
Duchy have purchased Babeny, Brimpts, Dunnabridge, Huccaby, 
Prince Hall, Riddon, and Sherburton. It will be seen that two or 
more tenements are now grouped together under one name ; it would 
appear, however, that formerly each had its distinctive appellation. 

Avenue, a. [See Stone Row.} 

Ball, g. Hills of a rounded form are often distinguished as 
such, as Coryndon Ball, Cuckoo Ball, Pinchaford Ball, Red Brook 
Ball, etc. 

Barrow, a. Granite being so abundant on Dartmoor, cairns, or 
heaps of stone, much more frequently mark the resting-places of the 
dead than barrows, or mounds of earth. Many examples of the latter 
nevertheless occur. It was in a barrow on Hameldon that Mr. Spence 
Bate found the pommel of the dagger now in the museum of the 



DICTIONARY OF TERMS. B. 77 

Plymouth Institution. It is rather strange that the fine hill in the 
south part of the moor should be known as Three Barrows, when it is 
really crowned with three immense cairns. But the Celtic term Cam, 
a heap though still seen in some place-names on the moor, is much 
less often met with than barrow, or borough (burghe). In a document 
of sixteenth century date the hill referred to appears as " Tryberie 
Boroughs, alias Tre Boroughs," and the great cairn marking the ancient 
boundary line between the forest and Brent Moor is called by the 
Perambulators of Henry Ill's time Whyteburghe. 

Beacon, g. There are several hills on the moor to the names of 
which this word is attached, but whether they were all eminences on 
which beacon fires were lighted is doubtful. On the southern verge 
of the moor we have Ugborough Beacon, but I have heard aged people 
speak of it as Picken Hill, and it appears to me that there is good 
reason for supposing its name to have once been Peak Down Hill. At 
its foot is a moor gate, which was known in the sixteenth century as 
Picke Gate, and still bears that name in the modernized form of Peek, as 
also does a farm close by. On a map of Dartmoor of the same century 
the hill is shown as Pigedon. We have also Cosdon Beacon, Hameldon 
Beacon, Pen Beacon, and others. Two fires would have been sufficient 
to signal across the longest part of the moor, for from Western Whita- 
burrow, where the in-country south of Dartmoor is in full view, the 
hill of Cosdon can be seen, and the latter overlooks the whole of the 
north of Devon. The watching of beacons was a duty at one time 
imposed upon the inhabitants of certain places. Reference is made 
to this in a document relating to Sheepstor, of the date 1626, from 
which it appears that the " antient privileges and ffreedom of the 
manner of Sheepstor were ever heretofore used and accustomed, and 
then were, that all such persons as did or should thereafter inhabit 
and dwell within the said hamlett, were ffree from payment of all 
ffifeteens, which are commonly called ffifth dole, and from payment of 
Sheriff silver, and from any appearance at the Court called the Sheriffs' 
Turn, and from the office of tything man, and all manner of limbs 
belonging to the same, and from watching and warding of all beacons, 
or any other where, save only within the same hamlett." On Brent 
Hill there are the remains of a small building, sometimes called the 
Chapel, which may have been used as a place of shelter for the watchers 
of the beacon, for we may well suppose that a signal fire was lighted 
on this prominent height. In 1887 I discovered the foundations of 
another building close to the former. 

Beam, m. This word has a mining signification, and where it is 
found on the moor a deep, open working will usually be seen. Gibby's 
Beam is a trench running from the Wella Brook across the shoulder of 
the hill of Snowdon ; Piper's Beam is a gully near the Avon at Hunt- 
ingdon ; in the vicinity of Princetown is Omen Beam, or as it appears 
to have been formerly called, Helming Beam ; and near Aune Head is 
Cater's Beam. In the last two cases the name has attached itself to 
the hill near the workings. Cater's Beam is wrongly marked on the 
Ordnance map, being there placed more than a mile too far to the west. 

Beck, g. This, the northern term for a small stream, is not found 
as a common name on Dartmoor. But we probably see it in Becky 
Fall, near Manaton, and in Beckamoor Combe, under Cock's Tor Hill. 

Beehive Hut, a and m. [See Cache, Hut Circle.] 



78 DICTIONARY OF TERMS. B. 

Blackwood, g. Peat ; used occasionally by the moor people 
instead of the more usual word turf. The former is with them black' ood, 
and the latter turve. 

Blowing House, m. Small buildings in which tin was smelted on 
the moor, and worthy of examination as throwing much light on the 
manner of working adopted by the mediaeval tinners. They are 
oblong in form, and the door is invariably near one corner and in one 
of the longest sides. The remains of a furnace can occasionally be 
seen, and perhaps a recess in the wall. Some examples have mould- 
stones and pounding troughs (q. v.) in or near them. Sometimes a 
wheel-pit adjoins, and leading towards this a partly choked water 
course may often be traced. These houses are always in a very ruinous 
condition, and it is possible that they may sometimes have been in- 
tentionally destroyed. At all events, Carew, the historian of Cornwall, 
says that in that county it was customary to burn them down, as by so 
doing the tinners found sufficient tin in the ashes of the thatched roof 
to pay for the erection of new buildings and to give them " a gainful 
overplus." The size of these blowing houses varies ; some are small, 
and others as much as 26 or 27 feet long, and about half that in width. 
The more important examples are noticed in the Excursions. 

Bog, g. This does not mean quite the same as a mire on Dartmoor, 
although the term is often used to signify any miry ground. [See 
Fen, Mire.'] 

Bond-mark, g. The forest perambulation bond-marks are noticed 
post. [See Bond Stones, Perambulation.] According to forest law objects 
forming its boundary are regarded as being wholly within it. At 
Mis Tor, the line is drawn through the tor, and this appears at first 
sight to conflict with this view. But it is not the tor itself that forms 
the bond-mark, but the rock called Mis Tor Pan, and it is therefore 
only this that we may expect to find within the forest. 

Bond Stones, g. Very few of these mark the limits of the forest, 
natural objects such as a hill, tor, or stream, having mostly been fixed 
upon for that purpose. But the boundary line between one common 
and another is usually defined by means of upright granite posts, and 
these often bear names. Thus we have Old Jack, and Old William, 
Aaron's Knock, Petre on the Mount, and the U Stone, and many 
more. In addition to the boundary stones of commons there are others 
marking the limits of manors and of ground over which mineral rights 
extend. 

Bottom, g. Most of the valleys on the moor are referred to by 
this name by the inhabitants, and to some it is attached as a proper 
name. 

Boundary, g. [See Bond-mark, Bond-Stones, Bound Beating, 
Perambulation.'] 

Bound Beating, g. At certain times the bounds of a common are 
viewed by the inhabitants of the parish in which it lies, mostly at the 
instance of the I/jrd of the Manor, but sometimes at that of the com- 
moners. For the most part the custom is a septennial one. The day 
is generally observed as a holiday, though it must be confessed it does 
not always pass off without an element of discord. Commoners of 
the adjoining pieces of waste make a point of being present, and it 
would be wonderful indeed if the bondmarks were in every instance 
in the places where each party considered they should be. There are 



DICTIONARY OF TERMS. B, C. 79 

consequently frequent discussions, and these have been known to grow 
so heated that blows have resulted. It is all forgotten by the next 
day, however ; but the bond- viewers would not be Dartmoor men if 
they did not stand up for their rights. Lads are encouraged to accom- 
pany the party making the circuit of the common. This is done in 
order that there may always be some parishioners having a personal 
knowledge of the bond-marks. 

British Village, a. [See Hut Settlement.'] 

Brook, g. Many tributary streams on the moor are distinguished 
as brooks. Among others may be named Walla Brook the brook 
of the Wealas, i.e., " foreigners," or " strangers " to the Saxons ; Red 
Brook, Black Brook (always called Blackabrook) ; Bala Brook, and 
Rattle Brook. 

Burn, g. Like Beck, this northern term for a stream is not found 
as a common name on the moor, though it occurs as a proper one. 
The stream under Brent Tor is called the Burn, and we have also the 
Harbourn, the Dean Burn stream, and others. 

Burrow, g. A term applied by the moormen to any heap, whether 
cairns, barrows, or rubble heaps. At the same time they always refer 
to the mounds in warrens that have been thrown up for the rabbits 
to burrow in as burys. In old documents relating to the forest the 
word sometimes appears as a form of barrow. 

Cache, m. The name recently given to the tiny erections found 
near stream works, it being supposed that they were intended as places 
of concealment by the tinners. They are arched with stone in the 
manner in which it is thought some of the dwellings were roofed, and 
which from their domed form have been called bee-hive huts. Caches 
were covered with soil, and when the grass and heather grew on this, 
and the low entrance was closed (probably with stones and turf) pre- 
sented, as they do now, the appearance of a natural mound. In this 
tools, or perhaps ingots of tin, could be left with safety. There is a 
good example close to a tributary of the Erme on Stall Moor, in the 
south of Dartmoor, but they are met with in a more or less ruined 
condition in many parts of the moor (Ex. 33, Part IV.) The country 
people regard them as being places in which contraband spirits were 
concealed, and that some were used for such a purpose there are many 
stories to show. The cache here referred to is sometimes spoken of as 
the Smugglers' Hole. 

Cairn, a. These ancient places of burial are noticed in our re- 
marks on the barrow. In the south part of the moor there are some 
remarkably fine examples crowning the hills. It is to their situation 
that many of the Dartmoor cairns owe their present existence ; those 
that happened to be near the enclosed lands were despoiled long ago, 
but the more remote have escaped the hands of the vandal. Vestiges 
of these ancient stone heaps are to be seen in many places on the verge 
of the moor. But I have known stone to be taken even from cairns 
situated at some distance from the in-country. I was once acquainted 
with a man who in the year 1851 obtained a quantity of stone for build- 
ing from Three Barrows. It is, however, near the farms, or roads, where 
the spoliation has for the most part taken place. During a part of 
1878 I was in the habit of riding over Home Moor almost daily, and 
I remember seeing a fine cairn by the roadside near Combstone Tor 
gradually disappear under the hammer of the stone-breaker. Stone 



8o DICTIONARY OF TERMS. C. 

of another kind was abundant near by, but it would probably have 
cost the contractor for the repair of the roads much more to break 
up, so the cairn had to go. On Black Down, in the parish of Mary 
Tavy, the vestiges of a number of cairns may be seen. The stones of 
which they were composed were in all likelihood carted away by the 
miners for building co